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jJiiAfciliiiat.' iiii»V ■r^'iitfaJacjairiiiiiii 'r-firftf m rr<i?B«fiiairlni^ 






Distinguished Judge of the United States District Court 
for the District of Maine. 

The following is from " Who'* Who ir America ": 

HALE, Clarence, Judge; b. Turner, Me., Apr. 15, 1848; s. James Sullivan and Betsey ("Staples) 
H.', brother of Eugene H. q. v. i; A. B. Bowdoin Coll., 1869, later A. M. and LL. D.; m. Mar- 
garet Rollins, of Portland, Me., Mar. 11, 1880. Admitted to bar 1871, and practiced at Portland. 
City solicitor, 1879-82; mem. Me. Ho. of Rep., 1883-86; U. S. dist. judge, Dist. of Me., 1902—; 
Republican, CongregatiunalLst, Pres. bd. overseers Bowdoin College; afterwards Tru.stee of 
Bqwdoin College. Clubs: Cumberland (.Portland;; Union, University Boston). Address, 
Portland. Me. 







Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

\'oL. IX January, February, jMarch, 192 i No. i 


An address delivered by Honorable Clarence Hale of Portland, 
Maine, before the Maine Society of New York, March, ip20. 

The State of ]\Iaine is a hundred years old. It is a memorable 
thing to be a hundred years old. But Maine history is almost three 
hundred years old. A hundred years ago Maine was a new State 
with an old history. "Wliile New England is spoken of as a new 
cr)untry," says John Fiske, "its record is, in fact, that of an old 
countr}'. Its towns have a history which dates back to the times 
of James the First." The year James First came to the throne, 
pV)3, Martin Pring sailed Penobscot Bay. The year before that, 
while Elizabeth was still Queen, Gosnold saw the shores of Maine. 
In 1605, Captain George A\'eymouth set up a cross on ^Monhegan 
in token of the sovereignty of James the First; and the dimness 
of time does not prevent the island of ^lonhegan and Pentecost 
h.irl>or, and the hard adventure of the Popham colony, from taking 
ihcir place in Maine history; and all these ventures in discovery 
Were long before the Mayflower, long before ^Massachusetts history 
^'^"s'an. A generation later, in the last years of Charles the First, 
^^i\c the permanent settlement under the Gorges patent, the pro- 
prietorship of which extended from the Piscataqua to the Penob- 
^"<Jt, to which was given the name "The Province of Maine." 
J Hiese men came to Richmond's island and made homes, set up 
^■'^K'lish civilization and the English church and English politics. 
*niey were the king's men ; they were aristocrats ; they hated Puri- 
'^n> and Puritanism; they hated Massachusetts and all her works. 
"^^H-ir chief, Ferdinando Gorges, at 70, fought for Charles the 
' 'r>t at the Siege of Bristol, and died two years before the death 
'^ his king. . 

Il was not until 1652, under Cromwell, that Massachusetts began 
'•> <^xtend her sway over the IMaine province. Then followed poli- 

* I 


i • _^ 

t — ; —— — __ — ^ 

tics behveen die rule of ^lassachusetts and the rule of the RoyaUsts. 
Charles the Second took ^Maine away from Massachusetts, as Fiske 
I and Parknian have so well told. Again, in 1665, ^lassachusetts 

■" took possession. After tlie death of Gorges, the ^lassachusetts 

Bay colony bought out his interests, paying 1250 pounds ; and it 
: was not until 1692 that the province charter finally fixed the status 

; of Massachusetts in control of Maine, and called it the District of 

\ With all the politics Elaine has had, I suppose there has been 

[ ' nothing so full of stress as those English politics of the seventeenth 

I century, translated to ]\Iaine shores. It is interesting to note that 

f the first politicians of !Maine were English Royalists. The first 

\ minister who made a career in Alaine was Robert Jordan, the 

I English churchman, land-owner and politician, the precursor of a 

' large body of sturdy men and women all over the country; for all 

the Jordans are his descendants ; and they combine the blood of 
'■ English churchmen and Royalists with the blood of those who came 

I to Massachusetts Bay and laid the foundation of English repre- 

sentative government in America. And so, I repeat; that one hun- 
I dred years ago Maine was a new State with an old history. 

! The two early histories of Maine are histories of the Maine 

I Province and tlie District of !Maine. Williamson's two volumes, — 

of great value and of great detail, — printed in 1839, bring Maine 
down only to the year 1920, the time of tlie separation. Twenty- 
five years before ^^laine became a State, its story induced Governor 
Sullivan to write its history, one of the best early State histories. 
Governor Sullivan appreciated the Elaine mind and character; he 
says that while "the soil of the seacoast was hard and reluctant to 
: the plow, its leading type of men were like Julius Caesar ; they 

j knew how to distinguish difficulties from impossibilities." James 

I'. Sullivan was a philosopher as well as a historian. He shows how 

j the Maine character partook of its history. He says: ''The mind 

[ of a nation seems to be well represented by the ocean, which is 

[■ forever in motion and turbulent, with but short intervals of calm- 

ness ; and yet, by the nature of its specific weight, tending to a 
I state of quiet." When he wrote that sentence he must have had 

; his eye upon his map. There was the District of Maine spread 

out before him ; York, Cumberland and Lincoln counties. There 
was the long stretch of shore. It is three hundred miles from 


Kitter}' to Calais, but in tliat contour of coast are many and deep 
indentations ; so that tlie sailor man can sail his boat in the net- 
work of bays and make a voyage along three thousand miles of 
Maine seacoast. The people who lived tliere at that time got their 
living and their character from hard contests witli tlie forest and 
ihe sea; those two inherent sources of life; those two grim de- 
stroyers of all tliat is false. 

With the character which Elaine men inherited, both on the 
conservative and on the progressive side, it was as inevitable as 
the tidal march of the ocean on her shore that her citizens should 
have the sturdy qualities which have made Maine histor\\ The 
expected happened ; the old District has an heroic story. Liberty 
uas something more than a gesture. It had to be fought for. At 
ihe outbreak of King Philip's War, in 1675, Williamson records 
iliat there were about six thousand souls constituting the popu- 
lation of Maine Province, and about three times that number of 
huiians in the ]^Iaine forests. From tliat time to 1754 there were 
'iix distinct Indian wars. In other words, this devoted band of 
j>ioneers were almost constantly fighting savages for eighty years. 
In 1745, Sir William Pepperill, of Kittery, led Maine men on the 
modern crusade which captured Louisburg, tlie stronghold of x\mer- 
«ca; so bold a project that Parkman gives to it, in his history, the 
simple heading: "A ^lad Scheme." A generation later, in 1775, 
one of the most heroic incidents of the American Revolution hap- 
|<ncd on Maine soil. A thousand sturdy men under Arnold en- 
<!ured the terrible privations of the Maine forest and the rigors of 
advancing winter, in an attack upon Quebec, which barely failed 
*'>t success, and of thus changing American history. 

1 have pointed out these incidents to illustrate the spirit of early 
•'laine. I have not tried to tell its story. Mr. Baxter and Dr. 
I'Urrage have done that in enduring form. They are historians of 
^nom Maine is proud — of whom any State would be proud. 

The District of Maine, then, before she became a State, had a 

•■'^tinct history apart from Massachusetts. She had a character, 

^•< had a college — for Bowdoin is twenty years older than the 

• Utc. There was reason, then, a hundred years ago, for Maine 

r^'ple to have the courage to start out to become a State. 

Jn the quaint old volume of the Record of the Constitutional 
Convention, in 1819, I find a fund of history. In it is recorded a 
Wttcr of e.K-President John Adams to Daniel Cony of Augusta, in 


; * reply to a letter of Judge Cony asking the ex-President's advice 

in tlie matter of ]\Iaine becoming a State. Adams' reply was clear 
; and sharp and typical of an Adams. He referred to the debt of 

gratitude which Elaine owed to ^lassachusetts ; but he said that 
sometime some bold, daring genius would arise in Maine who would 
! inspire her people with his own ambition, and, he added : "He will 

tear off Maine from Massachusetts, and leave her a State below 
mediocrity in the Union." When IMr. Adams gave this advice he 
undoubtedly had her great past in mind. He thotight it would be 
i better that ^^laine and ^Massachusetts should continue to have one 

I history, even though, generations before, they had two histories. 

; But the world vvill say whether he was right in prophesying for 

Maine a future 'below mediocritv." The debates of the Consti- 
! tutional Convention do not show Elaine intellectual character below 

mediocrity. They compare well with the debates in the great Con- 
' stitutional Conventions of \^irginia, ^lassachusetts and New York. 

They show appreciation of the conditions of the country and of 
the State. They are a valuable and fitting preface to !Maine his- 
tory. They are well worth reading today by the men of ]\Iaine. 
1 need not speak of the men in that convention. They were men 
f who rank high with the other great men of Massachusetts. They 

1 furnished a fitting forecast of the men of Maine who were to suc- 

' ceed them, in politics and statesmanship, in literature, in commerce 

i and in industry, in every sphere of human interest and labor. 

• The span of a hundred years, after all, is not long. I have 

known one of tlie descendants of Robert Jordan who voted for 
every President from Washington to Lincoln. As a young man 
I knew old men who, when young, participated in that convention. 
; . They have been followed by men like them in character, attain- 
f ments and ability. I cannot pretend that I am unprejudiced in 

i speaking of the men of Maine who followed. They are splendid 

- figures in the generations just past. They made the State famous 
forever. Longfellow and Hawthorne would make any state or 
nation famous. I hardly dare trust my voice to speak of Fessen- 
den, Hamlin, Morrill, Blaine and many who have followed. The 
world has known them ; the Nation today feels the impress of their 
work and the impulse of their memory. 

The strenuous — the heroic — spirit of the old District has endured. 
Witness Maine's record in the Civil War, we witness Howard and 
Chamberlain, and'a score of other great military chieftains. Wit- 




ncss such an incident as tliis : On a summer night in 1863, a Con- 
federate privateer stole into Portland harbor and took out die 
Revenue Cutter ''Caleb Cushing," a sailing vessel. The next morn- 
ing: the mayor, Jacob McLellan, did not wait for the Army and 
Xavy. He, together with the collector, Jedediah Jewett, mobilized 
the citizens of Portland into a fighting force. They rigged up 
steamers and followed and caught the rebel craft. They captured 
the privateersman and his crew, and held them in prison until the 
war was over. This Maine incident is said to be one of the most 
dramatic of the Civil War. It was little noted though it will be 
long remembered in i\Iaine. 

I am not giving a Homeric recitation. But no man can refer to 
Maine heroism without pointing to the most famous man of the 
generation, in Maine, and perhaps in the Nation. We can never 
forget the thrill the world felt when the message was flashed through 
the air : "The Stars and Stripes are nailed to the North Pole" ; 
and we knew that what men had long thought impossible had been 
accomplished by Peary of Maine — of Bowdoin 'jy. 

I have talked to you about the forests, the seashore, and the 
j>olitics of the old District. They are still there. The unresting 
^a can never change or fail. The forest, too, is not vitally changed 
by the busy axe of industry. Maine is still two-thirds forest. 

\ The total acreage of Maine is 19,132,800 acres. The acreage of 
torest lands of the State is, today, over fifteen million acres. The 
rorest Commissioner says that, so far as can be gathered from all 
v>urces, it is safe to say that the forest lands of Maine have not 
♦«ome less since 1870. In 1902 the Forest Commissioner made 
?J^e report that there were 31,500 square miles of territory; and 
of this 21,000 square miles were forest. The forest lands appear 
to have increased somewhat. In many parts of northern !Maine 
ihc forest acre is worth more than the farm acre; many old farms 
arc becoming young forests ; in the improved methods of forest 

^ culture and wild-land management, the percentage of acreage is 
apparently increasing. Of course forest values are greatly grow- 
»"j:. The report of the Board of State Assessors shows that the 
a^ses^d value of forest lands in Maine, in 1870, was $5,156,356; 
'" »0oo, $19,631,755; in 1920, $61,922,567. The facts from official 
ft'cords afford complete answer to the charge that the forests of 
'ainc are disappearing and are losing their actual and relative 
^'"»iues. Be of good cheer. You may still come to Maine and find 


her forests. Some of them full of game. You will find her poli- 
tics, too; some of them, too, it is said, full of game. 

The record of ]\Iaine in shipbuilding and fisheries tells the story 
how the men of Maine have used the sea. The use of the forests 
and of the water power, in tlie pulp and paper industry and otlier 
great labors, show how the men of Elaine have drawn upon the 
forest, and how they have added value to it. 

They have added value to the hand of labor as well as to prop- 
ert}^ Maine has never believed in some of the modern philosophy 
of labor. She has followed the doctrine taught by Abraham Lin- 
coln to the Workmen's Association in 1864: "Let not him who 
hath no house tear down the house of his neighbor; but rather let 
him strive diligently to build a house for himself." 

The fat lands of the West have been called the garden spot of 
America ; but !Mame has well attained her repute as the summer 
Paradise of the world. Her forests and sea make their greatest 
appeal to the world of busy men and women who here, in summer, 
renew the strength which the ^usy year has taxed. 

If I am permitted to give a .^ast, in these dry times of prohibition, 
(in which also, by the way, you must remember that ^vlaine leads), 
I will recall an old toast which I heard Tom Reed give at a great 
Maine meeting in the earlier and wetter days of the republic : 

"Here's to the State of Elaine; settled mostly by the blood of 
Old England, always preferring liberty to ancestry; a strong old 
Democratic State, yet among the first to help give liberty to the 
slave;. may her future be as noble as her past. Here's to the State 
of Maine; the land of bluest skies, of greenest earth, of richest 
air; of strongest and sturdiest men, of fairest and truest women 
under the sun.'* 



(Contributed by Georg^e E. Minot of Belgrade. Maine) 


The deposition of one Delia Bodge, containing the most indecent 
chargej against ]Mr. Hunton, has been published in an Extra from 
the office of the Bangor Republican, and the substance of it vaunt- 








injzly set fortli in the Argus under the head of "MORE EVI- 
DENCE." It may seem superfluous to notice her statements ; but 
we are unwiUing any falsehood of the slanderers should go uncon- 
tradicted, be it ever so base and contemptible, particularly as the 
means of refutation are at hand. As further evidence of the char- 
acter of this Delia Bodge, it may be mentioned that while her father 
bv his last will made a handsome provision for each of his other 
children, he bequeathed her ONE DOLLAR. To what disgrace- 
ful and abominable means will an unprincipled and desperate party 
not resort ! 


$ I, Margaret Chandler of \Mnthrop in the Coimty of Kennebec, 

of lawful age, do testify and say, that I was in the family of Jona- 
than G. Hunton^ for the last three weeks previous to the death of 
Mrs. Hunton, and that I saw nothing unkind or improper, but on 
the contrary he was very kind and attentive to her in her sickness. 
I was the nurse in the family ; and I further say that I never told 
Delia Craig, who afterwards married a Cottle, and then run away 
uith a man named Bodge, anything of the kind, which she has 
stated in her deposition of September the eighth, A. D. 1829, taken 
I'cfore Nathaniel ]\Ic^Iahon, Justice of the Peace. I further state 
that the said Delia Bodge was generally considered a woman of 
loose character, and whose word would not go far where she was 
known. I further state that previous to the three weeks above 
mentioned I had lived in the family of ^Ir. Hunton for the space 
of seven months, during all which time he was kind and attentive 

?, to his wife and family. - 

Margaret Chandler. 

Kennebec ss. — Sept. 11, 1829. — Then personally appeared the 
alove-named ^Margaret Chandler, and made oath to the truth of 
the foregoing deposition by her subscribed. 

Before me, Seth May, Justice of the Peace. 

'Jonathan G. Hunton of Readfield was Governor of Maine 1830-31. 



Win throp, Sept. ii, 1829. — We the subscribers, having been ac- 
quainted with tlie above-said Margaret Chandler for a long time, 
are satisfied that she is a woman of truth and veracity. 

Samuel Wood, 
Seth IMay, 
Alex Belcher, 
John May, 
H. B. Farnham, 
Samuel Cordis, 
Samuel A\^ood, Jr. 


I hereby certify that it appears by the records in my office that 
Rachael Craig, the widow of Thomas Craig dec'd, was appointed 
sole Executrix, of his will, and that subsequently George Waugh 
was appointed administrator of the goods and Estate of said Craig, 
not administered upon by said Executrix with the will annexed, 
and returned an inventory August 5, 1817; and I find no evidence 
on my records of any odier Executor or Administrator on the- 
Estate of said Thomas Craig dec'd. 

Williams Emmons, 
Register of Probate Co. Kennebec. 


WRITTEN DEC. 13, 1607 
The Lewiston Journal 3^Iagazine recently published the follow- 
ing, its editor saying that it is "an exact copy of an interesting 
paper, found among the treasures of a Bath attic," The paper 
was written at the settlement of the Popham Colony in the Province 
of Maine, when all of the territory now comprising what Captain 
John Smith later named New England, was known as Northern 

George Popham to King jA:\rEs L, 13 December, 1607 

At the feet of his ^lost Serene King, humbly prostrates himself 
George Popham, President of the Second Colony of Virginia. If 
it may please the patience of your devine Majesty to receive a 
few things from your most observant and devoted though unworthy 
servant, I trust it will derogate nothing from the lustre of your 





Highness, since they seem to redound to the Glory of God, the 
greatness of your Majest}- and the utiUty of Great Britain. 

I have thought it, therefore, very just, that it should be made 
known to your ^lajesty, that among the Virginians and I^Ioassons, 
there is none in the world more admired than King James, Sov- 
ereign Lord of Great Britain, on account of his admirable justice 
and incredible constancy, which gives no small pleasure to the 
natives of these regions, who say, moreover, that James, under 
uhoes rule and reign they would gladly fight. Tahanida, one of 
the natives who was in Great Britain, here proclaimed to them 
your praises and virtues. What and how much I may avail in 
transacting these affairs and in confirming their minds, let those 
judge who are well versed in these matters at home, which I wit- 
tingly avow that all my endeavors are as nothing, when considered 
in comparison with my duty towards my Prince. "^ 

My well considered opinion is that in these regions the glory of 
God may be easily evidenced, tlie empire of your Majesty enlarged, 
and the welfare of Great Brittain speedily augmented. So far as 
relates to commerce, there are in these parts, shagbarks, nutmeg 
and cinnamon, besides pine wood and Brazillian cochineal and 
Ambergris, with many other products of great value, and these in 
the greatest abundance. 

Besides, they positively assure me that there is a sea in the oppo- 
^'tc or western part of the Province, distant not more than seven 
d-ivs' journey from our fort of St. George in Sagadahock; a sea 
^arge, wide and deep, the boundaries of which they are wholly 
i^n^orant of. This cannot be any other than the Southern Ocean, 
reaching to the regions of China, w^hich unquestionably cannot be 
**r from these regions. 

If, therefore, it may please you to keep open your devine eyes 
♦>n this matter of my report, I doubt not but your Majesty will 
t*erform a work most pleasing to God, most honorable to your 
JTreatness, and most conducive to the wealth of your kingdom, which 
^">^h ardent prayers I most vehemently desire. And may God 
Almighty grant that the ^Majesty of my Sovereign Lord, King 
Ji^^es, may remain glorious for ages to come. 

At the Fort of St. George, in Sagadahock of Virginia, 13 Decem- 
^<:r, 1607. 

'" all things your Majesty's devoted servant 

George Popham. 


j>^,**>- - 






Franxis Ormax Jefferson Smith 

One of the most brilliant lawyers and versatile minds at the 
Cumberland bar was Francis Orman Jefferson Smith. He was 
bom in Brentwood, X. H., Nov. 23, 1806, and died in Deering, 
Maine, October 15, 1876. 

Of positive convictions regarding all subjects of importance 
which commanded his attention, possessing a natural aggressive- 
ness in advocating and acting upon them, as a law}'er, political 
leader, Congressman and publicist, the name of F. O. J. Smith 
was, for a lifetime, ver>^ much in the public eye in both state and 












There Katahdin lifts supreme 

O'er the link of lake and stream 
That bind the hills of green that ever glows, 

With a mighty water chain 
In the intervales of Elaine 

Where the Pine Tree fringed Penobscot River flows. 

Here the ^Master wrought with love 

In the skies so fair above, 
At every vista's turn his favor shows, 

Castled rock, and bloom of plain, 
In the intervales of Elaine 

Where the Pine Tree fringed Penobscot River flows. 

Blest the water ways to roam, 

Blest the sacred forest gloam, 
W here the twin flower, and the loved arbutus blows. 

Sweet the thrush's twilight strain 
In the intervales of ]\Iaine, 

W here the Pine Tree fringed Penobscot River flows. 

Other skies may be as fair. 

Other scenes may be as rare. 
But 'tis here a lasting memory ever goes. 

^\ ith a love that ne'er can wane 
For the intervales of Alaine, 

Where the Pine Tree fringed Penobscot River flows. 

Geo. a. Cleveland. 






(By Charles F. Holden.) 

David Ray, the subject of this sketch, was born in WVentham, 
Mass., September 7th, 1742, the son of Samuel and EUzabetli, and 
the oldest of nine children. His mother's maiden name was Tuel. 

November 15th, 1770, David married Eunice Whiting, the daugh- 
ter of a prominent Wrentham family. x\t the breaking out of the 
war of the Revolution he belonged to a company of Minute-men 
and was ordered into action on the day of tlie battle of Lexington. 
He served in the Ticonderoga campaign under Gen. Gates, and 
in what was known as the "Secret Expedition to Rhode Island." 
In all a service of about five years, during which he received an 
officer's commission. 

The Continental money he received for his service had depreci- 
ated till forty dollars would bring but one dollar in specie, and a 
pair of boots cost five to six hundred. (Barnes' School History.) 

Mr. Ray at the time of leaving the army was 38 years of age 
and had a wife and two young daughters — Eunice and Polly. A 
company of men in Boston and vicinity owned at that time a town- 
ship of land in the Province of Maine, and held out inducements 
for families to go there and settle. Mr. Ray made a journey of 
exploration and concluded to move his family to the new district, 
which he did in the spring of 1780, locating at first on the west 
side of Crooked River near what is now Ede's Falls, in the town 
of Naples, then a part ^f Otisfield ; he made a clearing and built 
a house in which he lived for about three years, and where his 
third daughter — Betsey Whiting — was born. 

Before leaving Wrentham Mr. Ray had agreed with the propri- 
etors of the town to build a grist-mill for grinding corn and rye, 
if a suitable site was found ; he discovered such a site at the outlet 
of Saturday Pond, and in the year 1781 had a mill in operation; 
this proved a great public benefit not only to the few people who 
had settled in Otisfield, but others who for many years came from 
Norway, Paris and Hebron (now Oxford) ; the mill being situated 
several miles from where he lived, Mr. Ray set aside two days each 
week, when he staid and ground for whoever came. 

At the end of two years he built a log house near the mill and 



nioved his family into it May 6th, 1783 — moving by ox-cart or sled 
over what was but a bare semblance of a road. A few years later 
Mr. Ray built on the same stream, a saw-mill, also by contract with 
tlie town proprietors, entered into at Groton, ^lass., Sept. 6th, 1786. 
For building these two mills Mr. Ray received deeds to about three 
hundred acres of land in the immediate vicinit}- of Saturday Pond. 
David Ray was not the very first of the Otisfield pioneers, a few 
families having preceded him by short periods. These were George 
Pierce, Esquire, Benjamin Patch, Daniel Cobb, Joseph Spurr, Jona- 
than floors, and Samuel Reed ; these were all located at various 
intervals south of where ^Ir. Ray established himself and his mills, 
beyond which to the north was still an unbroken forest. 

By the year 1787 various other families had come to the new 
township, and Mr. Ray started a movement to organize some sort 
of local town government, and a petition was drawn up and signed 
as follows : 

To George Pierce, Esq., one of the Justices of the 
Peace for the Count}' of Cumberland, Common- 
wealth of ^lassachusetts : 

We the subscribers, being five of the inhabitants 
of the Plantation of Otisfield, do hereby apply to your 
Honor for a warrant to call a meeting of the inhab- 
itants of said plantation at the dwelling-house of Dea. 
Stephen Phinney, in Otisfield, on Tuesday, ye 15th 
day of May next, at ten o'clock, A. M., to act on the 
following questions, to wit: 
ist, to choose a ^loderator. 
2nd, to choose a Plantation Clerk. 
3d, to choose Selectmen. 

4th, to choose Assessors, and to do such other busi- 
ness as may be thought necessar}-. 

(Signed) David Ray, 

Benjamin Patch, 
Joseph Hancock, 


Samuel Gammon. 
Dated April 23, 1787. 
This was the first public meeting for town purposes held in Otls- 
!^' At that meeting David Ray was chosen Moderator ; Joseph 
^•^Jfjht, Jr., clerk; David Ray, Benjamin Patch and Noah Reed, 
Assessors; and Johnathan IMoors, Collector. 

' v.- .vv.i'. v.v,^V ■ ■ ■■*■'.■'• , ^^^ .■■ a^JT* Vj 

__ _ ,.> ,f> r .; ■■ .. ,•■ • •';'■■> ■ 
.^, j:;v' ^^5;. 'n^'^V J■■^^!..5^i ^ ■• 

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Though assessors were elected, no money tax was assessed for 
several years. They made assessment for highway taxes to be 
worked out on the roads, which at that time meant felling trees, 
cutting away stumps and moving the larger stones to make a chance 
for ox-carts. 

From the time of this first meeting Air. Ray served the town in 

■ some official capacity for twenty-five consecutive years. In 1794 

he was chosen its first treasurer; in 1810 he was elected to repre- 

j. sent his district in the General Court of Alassachusetts. 

i In 1812 — Sept. 2 — a convention was called to meet in the town 

I of Gray, "to consider the distressed condition of our country," and 

Mr. Ray elected as delegate, and the following were chosen as a 

I committee to draft resolutions : Dr. Silas Blake, GrinfiU Blake, 

Esq., Captain Daniel Holden, Benjamin \\'ight and David Ray. 
Just what resolutions were reported by this committee or what 
action was taken by the convention at Gray I am not informed. 

As Air. Ray was now about seventy years of age this was prob- 
ably about the last of his public service; I will therefore take up 
again the more personal side of his life. After moving into his 
log house near the mill his fourdi daughter — Abigail Alann — was 
born, and in 1795 he built a frame addition to the log house for 

i a schoolroom, and employed Alajor William Swann at his own 

expense, to teach. The school was intended for the benefit of his 
daughters, and though the eldest was then married, she was a reg- 
ular attendant, as were several others from families living within 
reasonable distance. An interesting fact incident to this primitive 
school, was the making from birch bark by the Ray daughters, of 
copy books for the schoolroom, from which they learned to write — 
paper being very scarce and expensive. 

The first valuation of the town was made in April, 1795, and 
Mr. Ray's name was highest on the list, so that in those days of 
small values he was considered as in good circumstances. He was 
a public-spirited man in the sphere in v/hich he moved. He gave 
an acre of land for the site of the first meeting-house built in town, 
and a large lot adjoining for a public burial-ground. 

In January, 1795, he entered into a contract at Groton with the 
proprietors of the town, to build the first meeting-house; this was 
situated on the summit of "Otisfield Hill," afterward known as 
"Meeting-House Hill," and in later years as "Bell Hill" ; Mr. Ray 
was so much interested in this undertaking that he furnished needed 


^material and money, and when the house was completed he took 
>Ix of the pews. 

During this same year he built for himself a new two-story frame 
house near the log house in which he was living; this new dwelling 

\ was a fortress for strength. The timbers were mostly eight inches 
s^juare, and it was boarded with two-inch oak plank firmly pinned 

I to plates and sills with oaken pins. The heaviest winds never shook 
it. The chimney was a marvel in itself — fifteen feet square in the 
lower story, with three open fireplaces and two brick ovens ; the 

\ largest fireplace would take wood six feet long, and each of the 
(.vens was large enough for a village bakery. In this house the 
'T'irst Congregational Church" was organized and the Rev. Thomas 

[ Koby installed as pastor. 

Mr. Ray was a man of benevolent and kindly character. If 

f fK.'ople whom he knew to be poor came to his mill with grain to be 

f jjround, he took no pay; if a man was down, he did not pass him 
l»y on the other side, but gave him a helping hand ; he instructed 

\ nis daughters to be kind and courteous to strangers, telling them 

; they might be entertaining angels unawares. 

I have previously omitted to state that ^Ir. Ray was, for that 

• <iav, a skilful physician — the first in Otisfield — having studied in 

, earlier life with Dr. ^lann of Wrentham, and possessing quite an 

^extensive medical library; his services were of great value and 
^^e^e much sought for many miles about. He died December ist, 
i^^-'J, aged 80 years and 84 days. 
.Mrs. Eunice Ray was a woman of genial and sunny disposition, 

?;Hho made those around her cheerful and happy. Of settled re- 

[► li^-ous convictions, she brought up her family in the fear and ad- 
'••onition of the Lord. She was an excellent horsewoman and rode 
»?Jnch in the saddle, as did all her daughters ; there were no wagon 
f'-atls for twentv years in their section, and all travel was on horse- 
'•A^k : Mrs. Ray made frequent trips to Portland, and twice went 

■ *^ far as Wrentham in the saddle. She was a skillful weaver, and 
^rou^'ht many curious fabrics for the use of her family, and for 
■<^l<rmg and table use ; her well-trained fingers could spin the finest 
S"^Jity of Hnen thread. This remarkable woman never grew old 
'" »<?r own mind — at the age of ninety-five she would walk a third 
^^^ a mile to a neighbor's and back. She died July 4th, 1843, lack- 
^ i>ut a few days of 97 years. She was buried by the side of 
*''■ husband, on Aleeting-House Hill, in the cemetery donated by 
*'•'» for public use. 




A few years subsequent to the coming of David Ray and family, 
there came to Otisfield the family of John Holden, from Groton — 
probably about 1785 — and later that of Captain Daniel Holden, 
both of whom had served in the Army of tlie Revolution. In this 
connection it is a matter of pride with me to state that from ^las- 
sachusetts alone no less than 147 Holdens took part in that fateful 
war which was destined to become so important an epoch in the 
world's history. These were descendants of Richard and Justinian 
Holden, who came from Suffolk, England, in tlie brig Francis, in 
the year 1634, and landed at Watertown. 

In John Holden's family were four sons — John, George, Jesse 
and Henry. Two of these sons married daughters of David Ray — 
John choosing Polly, the second, and Henry taking Abigail !Mann, 
the youngest ; this latter couple making their home with their father 
and mother Ray, and caring for them in their old age, receiving 
in return the larger portion of David Ray's estate. 

Henry Holden and his wife raised a family of eight sons and 
three daughters, all of whom lived to adult age, and several to 
unusual advanced age. This large family was born and reared in 
the large frame dwelling house previously referred to as built by 
Mr. Ray in 1795. With the assistance of his growing sons he 
cultivated many acres of the farm land, and operated the grist-mill 
and saw-mills ; the writer, a grandson of Henry Holden, well re- 
members the remarkable old homestead which was almost as much 
home to the grandchildren as their own. 

I recall the big open attic with its various objects of interest — 
a great hand-made cradle in which every Holden of that family, 
and the children of many visitors, had been rocked; old-fashioned 
beds on which one could lie through storm or shower and listen 
to such soothing music as can be heard only from the rain upon 
the roof ; among other things were three swords, each of a different 
style of blade and hilt — these had belonged to David Ray and used 
by him during his service in the army. 

In a room below was the weaving and spinning equipment of 
my great-grandmother Eunice Ray — the old loom with its heavy 
hard-wood frame, the spinning wheel and reel, and a smaller wheel 
for flax. All these were also used by my grandmother in the earlier 
portion of her married life. In the large square living-room on 
the lower floor was the immense fireplace with its long swinging 
crane and an assortment of iron cooking utensils of varied shapes 
and sizes, and on either side a great oven built into the massive 








chimney; these ovens were filled every- Saturday witli quantities 
of the wholesome foods which nourished the stalwart sons and 
healthy daughters of our Xew England ancestors. Before my own 
dav an addition had been connected with the big house, and this 
contained a large pantry, a feature of which was the "meal chest" ; 
this was a long covered chest with four divisions, each holding 
several bushels, in which was kept flour and meal of wheat, corn, 
ne, and barley, ground in the grist-mill nearby, from grains raised 
on tlie farm. 

At a later period — probably about 1820 — tlie town having become 
more closely populated, another meeting-house was built under the 
hill, and known as the "Free-Will Baptist" house ; this site was 
al-o taken from the Rav estate, and here for manv vears the "Free- 
W'illers" met and listened to tlie vigorous expounding of that doc- 
trine by various preachers from round about. This meeting-house 
was situated a few minutes' walk from Henry Holden's home, and 
c\cry Sunday the Holdens literally kept "open house," and I might 
auM, "open barn," for here came the minister often on Saturday, 
to remain perhaps till ^londay — sure of a welcome and good fare 
for himself and horse — and here came various friends and rela- 
tnes who lived several miles away to "bait" their horses, and during 
tl:c hour and a half between sermons, to partake of the generous 
l.«»pitalit}- of the Holden house ; the big round family table was 
il'.vays filled, often a second time, while others found their way 
• n!.) the pantry and freely helped themselves to pie and cheese which 
'A as abundantly set out upon the broad shelf. ^Ir. Holden himself 
^'^as a reserved sort of man, and little given to conversation, yet 
tr.ts open hospitality was one of his chief pleasures, and I mention 
•^ as illustrative of the sterling t\'pe of citizens who were among 
the earlier settlers of the old State of ^Maine. 

Nearly fifty years later still, the old Free-Will house was re- 
'•Jo-icled and became the "Union Fleeting-House," to which came 
^iMr^ of any and every denomination and creed, and where some 
"» the descendants of the earlier generations still meet for worship. 

.\cro>s the level road, directly opposite this little church, in the 
'^.■^cetul quiet of the beautiful countr}' cemetery, is the last resting 
."•■afe of Henry Holden and all of his children; several grand- 
^•li-dren— great-grandchildren of David and Eunice Ray — are yet 
"^'ng, but their number is small, and thev too must soon "cross 
^-^ road." 





Was born in Sandwich, Massachusetts, October 1, 1870. Graduated from Bowdoin College 
in 1894. Soon after this he commenced his life work as librarian by entering the New York State 
Library School at Albany. In 1896 he became assistant and later sub-librarian in charge of 
history and genealogy at the N'ew York State Library at Albany. In 1900 he resigned this posi- 
tion to accept the charge of American History in the Catalogue Division of the Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. He remained there until 1913 when he was called to a.ssume charge of the 
Public Library of Bangor, Maine, where he remained until the time of his death. 

He received the degree of B. L. S. in 1899 from the N'ew York State Library School, and in 1902 
the George Washington University conferred on him the degree of M. A. He was a member 
of the American Library .Association, the Maine Library Association, the Maine and the Bangor 
Historical Societies, the New England Historic and Genealogical Association, the American His- 
torical Association, an honorary member of the Piscatanuis Historical Society. His church was 
the Unitarian and his political party the Republican. He died in Bangor. March 28. 1920. 

He was compiler and author of " An .Alphabetical Index of Revolutionary Soldiers Living in 
Maine " which has recently been published as a serial in the Journal. It is one of the most valu- 
able Maine historical items ever presented to the public and is the only complete authentic col- 
lection of the names and data of Maine Revolutionary Soldiers now existing. 



(By W. Scott Hill.) 

Read before the Maine Writers Research Club by Mrs. Mabel 
Goodunn Hall, at its very interesting annual meeting at the Hallo- 
li'cll House, Hallozi'ell, Maine, February 18, Ip2i. 

The colonists to New England brought many of the home customs 
witli them, and in time came the demand for the tavern, the com- 
bination of all the services of public houses in England, where food, 
wines and liquors were sold, lodging for travelers and strangers, as 
well as stabling and feeding horses and cattle. There were strin- 
gent laws for failing or refusing to care for man or beast. Taverns 
were also places for public meetings and social gatherings. 

The first tavern in Cushnoc, now Augusta, on the west side of 
ihc river, was on the corner of what is now Grove and Green 
streets, and was built and kept by Josiah French probably in 1763. 
This was a log house. David Thomas kept the first house of 
entertainment on the east side in 1764, just above Whitney Brook. 
He afterward moved to the Fort lot where he had another tavern. 
I think this was aftenvards used as a cooper's shop by Freeman 
Barker when burned about 40 years ago. In 1784, Amos Pollard 
had a tavern on the south side of what is now Market square, 
probably where the Opera House block now stands. It was fre- 
<jiiently used for public meetings and was an important place in 
the village. Hilton's tavern was a large farm building just north 
<>i Whitney Brook, built before Bangor road was laid out, and 
faced on -the Shirley military road, as did the Great House of 
Col. Howard built in 1770. \\'hitney Tavern was another early 
Uvern at the corner of Clark street and Bangor street. The brass 
►^nocker was taken from its front door. This tavern had a two- 
''^ory piazza like the old Cushnoc House. It was torn down many 
years ago. Reed's tavern was a later one, and stood on the site 
**» 40 and 42 Bangor street, into which it was remodeled a few 
years ago. 

Currier's tavern in Hallowell was a noted tavern when Hallowell 
^as the center of trade on the Kennebec. The site was on that 
I'irt of Water street known as Joppa, a large square two-story 
'•'^use. It was torn down years ago after being used as a boarding 
^ouse known as the Granite House. 

Cage's tavern was one of the early taverns before the laying out 



of the present Western avenue. This was on the farm formerly 
o^vned by James R. Townsend. At the time tliis tavern was built, 
all the teaming from Farmington and intervening towns to Hallo- 
well, then the seaport, was over the road near here, long since dis- 
continued, which ran in a direct line from the Whitman corner 
to Hallowell. The shack built for the Italians a few years ago 
and still standing was on this abandoned roadbed. The tavern was 
burned about twenty years ago, and the old sign "Gage's Tavern" 
stored in the cellar was destroyed with it. It was a two-ston,' 
frame house. 

Norris's tavern is still standing on the old road from Hallowell 
to Manchester Cross-Roads. It was a finely built house, the inside 
finish being much better than most houses built at that time, ^vhich 
was in the early years of iSoo. This, like Gage's tavern, was for 
travelers west of there going and coming from Hallowell. It is, 
or was occupied by Italians and a sad wreck of its former self. 
The large barn connected witli it was struck by lightning and burned 
a few years ago. 

The business of the Norris, Gage and Currier taverns was ruined 
by the building of the back route railroad from Lewiston, through 
Greene, Leeds, ^lonmouth and other towns, to Waterville, and the 
Leeds and Farmington railroad, and Hallowell lost its prestige as 
a commercial center. • 

Piper's tavern, still standing on upper Water street, was a noted 
tavern. Water street was originally laid out from this house. The 
handsome wrought-iron sign frame is still in place, but the sign 
long since disappeared. The Fuller tavern on Maintop, built and 
kept by the late John J. Fuller, was a favorite house for the travel- 
ing public from the country north of Augusta. It was moved to 
the west side of Northern avenue, and is now occupied as a farm- 
house by C. \\'esley Cummings. The old Cushnoc House was built 
by Amos Partridge in 1803. For eighty-five years it bore a con- 
spicuous part in the business life of Augusta, especially the period 
of the Civil War, 1861-1865. It was rumed by fire Dec. i, 1888. 
and one week later sold with the two stables adjoining to the Lith- 
gow Library Association for the site of Lithgow Library. 

One of the reminders of stage coach davs is the house at Brown's 
Comer, built for a tavern by Samuel Homans more than a centur}' 
ago, and occupied more than sixt>' years by the late Howes Robbing 
and his son, Prescott. It was a finely built house, still standing 



and now used as a farmhouse. The long bowHng alley still remains, 
though used for other purposes. This was a favorite resort for 
t Icasure parties in days long gone by, as well as for travelers. 

liachelder's Tavern, in Litchfield, still standing, was a noted 
tavern in stage coach days from Augusta to Portland. It was a 
station for changing horses, and for many years after the passing 
<il the stage coach a favorite house for merry-makers in that section. 




(By Mrs. [Mabel Goodwin Hall, Hallowell, [Maine.) 

Joseph Abbot — Died Nov. 30, 1832, and is buried at Strickland's 
Ferr>'. He was private and corporal. He served as corporal 
in Capt. William Smith's co.. Col. x\bijah Pierce's regt., enlisting 
from Lincoln Co. 

Samuel Adams — Died Jan. 7, 1828, aged (ij. Buried at Greene, 
beside wife Susanna, who died Sept. 6, 1852, aged 85. She rec'd 
I>ension in Greene in 1840, giving age as ^2. 

Tliomas Agry — Born in Barnstable, Aug. 6, 1756, came to Hallo- 
well in 1781, died April 25, 1821, and is buried at Hallowell. 
Corporal in Capt. Oliver Colburn's co.. Col. Arnold's regt., 1775. 

John Allen — Died Dec. 22, 1834, aged 74, and is buried at Greene, 
I'cside his wife Cynthia, who died Sept. 6, 1844, aged Z^, He 
was on the Rev. pension rolls July 1834. Cynthia was on the 
pension list, 1840. 

Hiomas Allen — He died at Winthrop (later Manchester), Jan. 31, 
1814, aged 74 yrs. He is buried in the small cemetery at Plonk's 
Hill, Manchester, beside his wife Rachel. His headstone is 
broken and the inscription destroyed. His tax was remitted by 
the town in 1778 on account of military service in 1775. 

Samuel Ballou — Died March 2, 1819, aged 61, and is buried in 
?^mall cemetery on State road near No. Monmouth, beside his 
^ife Hannah, who died Sept. 8, 1841, aged 78. Hannah was 
on the pension list, 1841. 

John Beeman — Died March i, 1827, aged y2, formerly of Deer- 
^'cld, Mass. He served in Capt. Alexander's co. in the march 
to Canada, March, 1776. He is buried at Hallowell. 


Batchelder Bennett — Born in 1743, died IMarch 7, 1820. Buried 
at Winthrop. He served as corporal in Capt. Abiel Pearce's co., 
which marched from ^liddleborough, ]Mass. 

Squier Bishop, Deacon — Born Nov. 4, 1733, died Sept. 6, 1801 ; 
buried near Stanley's at Winthrop. He served as private in 
Capt. John Blunt's co., Col. Samuel IMcCobb's regt., and was 
^^ounded, receiving a pension in 1793. 

Zadock Bishop — Born in Rehoboth, April 24, 1749. He died after 
1840 and is buried at Leeds, having a gov't stone. He served as 
private in Capt. John Wood's co.. Col. Paul Dudley Sargent's 

John Blake — Died Jan. 20, 1848, aged 90, and is buried in Gardiner. 
He was on the Rev. pension rolls in 1833 ^^^ 1840. 

Benjamin Brainerd — Born in Haddam, Conn., Jan. 25, 1747-8. Died 
Dec. 16, 1788, and is buried near Stanley's, Winthrop. He was 
allowed 12s. by vote of the town for military service. 

Reuben Brainerd — Born in Haddam, Conn., Apr. 13, 1752, died 
May 31, 1824. Buried at East \\"inthrop. He served as private 
in Capt. Edward Eell's co., Col. Comfort Sage's regt. - '■ 

Josiah Brown — Born Nov. 5, 1761, probably in Epping, N. H. 
Died Oct. 15, 1816, and is buried at ^Monmouth, beside his wife 
-Mary, who died May 3, 1847, aged 81. Mary rec'd a Rev. pen- 
sion 1840. 

Ichabod Burgess — Died Dec. 17, 1834, aged 82 yrs., 8 mos., and 
is buried between Wayne and Strickland's, beside his wife, 
Keziah, who died Sept. 5, 1842, aged 82 yrs., 4 mos. He served 
3 yrs. in Capt. Chas. Church's co. and re-enlisted for during the 

Isaac Case — Born in Rehoboth, ]\Iass., Feb. 25, 1761, was ordained 
a Baptist preacher, 1783; came to Elaine and gathered the first 
church in Thomaston, 1784, and was its pastor 8 yrs.; came to 
Readfield, 1792, gathered a church, and officiated as its pastor 
till 1800. Died Nov. 3, 1852. He is buried at Monk's Hill, 
Manchester. He enlisted from Swanzey, in Capt. Peleg Shear- 
man's CO., Col. John Hathaway's regt.; also, same Capt., Col. 
Thomas Carpenter's regt. ; also served in 2 other companies. " | 

Joel Chandler — Born New Ipswich, N. H., Sept. 10, 1757. He 
died Apr. 19, 1794, and is buried at Winthrop. Served as pri- 
vate in Capt. Nathan .Smith's co., Col. Samuel McCobb's regt, 
also in Col. Henry Jackson's regt. in 1781 for 3 yrs. 





John Chandler — Born New Ipswich, N. H., Nov. 17, 1754. He 
died Nov. 7, 1837, and is buried at W'inthrop. He came to this 
town in 1769, then a wilderness. Served as 2d Lieut., Capt. 
Timothy Foster's co., Col. Joseph North's regt. Commissioned 
July 2T„ 1776. He was at Ticonderoga in 1776. 

Nathaniel Chase — Died June 3, 1850, aged 90, and is buried at 
Litchfield. He served as private in Capt. Nathan ^lerrill's co., 
in a detachment raised in Cumberland co., on Penobscot Ex- 

Jonas Childs — Born Apr. 15, 1761-2. He died Feb. 14, 181 5, and 
is buried at Hallowell. Served in Capt. Hastings' co., Col. Jack- 
son's regt., enlisting from \\^atertown. Rec'd a pension. 

Isaac Clark — Born in Attleborough, Aug. 16, 1741, died June 30, 
1824, and is buried at Hallowell. Served in Castine Expedition. 

Benjamin Clough — Born Oct. 7, 1764, died June 12, 1840; buried 
at Monmouth. Enlisted from \\'inthrop ; is on pension rolls in 
1835 and 1840. " 

Thomas Colby — Born 1762, died ^larch 22,, 1806, and is buried at 
Litchfield. He enlisted near the close of the war at the age of 
16, from Amesbury. Served as private in Capt. ]Moses Nowell's 
CO., Col. Titcomb's regt. 

Samuel Cole — Died ^larch 29, 1844, aged 88 ; buried at Barker's 
Mills, Lewiston. He served as private in Capt. Nathan W'atkins' 
CO., and was at Valley Forge, 1777-1778; also other service. 

Saul Cook — Born in Marshfield, May, 1758; died Jan. 8, 1846; 
buried at Litchfield. He was a revered citizen. On pension 
rolls of 1835 ^"d 1840. 

John Coombs — Died Nov. 20, 1835, aged 76, and is buried at Read- 
field. He was formerly from Stratham, N. H. He served 5 
yrs., 9 mos. in the Rev. war, one enlistment was in Capt. Richard 
W'eare's co.. Col. Scammell's regt. 

John Couch — Born 1760 in ^\'iscasset, died March 14, 1830, and is 
buried in Hallowell. He enlisted from Hallowell, Capt. Cocks' 
CO., Col. North's regt. 

Hugh Cox — Died Nov. 17, 1835, aged 76, and is buried at Farm- 
ingdale. He served as private, enlisting from Bristol, Lincoln Co. 

Thomas Davis — Died Nov. 16, 1844, aged 85 ; buried on Litchfield 
road, Hallowell-Farmingdale. "He was a Frenchman by birth 
and came to this country with Count De Grasse to assist our 
countrymen in fighting the battles of Liberty." He enlisted from 


Falmouth, served as private in Capt. Joseph Palmer's co. 
Simon Dearborn — Died July 17, 1853, aged 92; buried near No. 

Monmouth. He served in the 3rd N. H. regt. and enlisted from 

Epping as private. 
John Dennis — Born May 10, 1741 ; died Apr. 30, 1816; buried in 

the Grant Neighborhood, Litchfield. He was a mariner, and was 

appointed Prize ^^laster of the ship ''Franklin" during the Rev. 

Jeremiah Dummer — Born in Newbur}*; died Aug. 18, 1834, aged 

71 ; buried at Hallowell. Private, Capt. Thomas ^lighill's co.. 

Col. Nathaniel Wade's regt., service 3 mos., 4 days. Pensioner, 


Nathaniel Dummer — Born at Byfield, IMarch 9, 1755 ; died Sept. 
15, 1815, and is buried at Hallowell. Came to Hallowell, 1789. 
He was appointed Commissary of prisoners in Rev. war, stationed 
at Providence. 

Richard Dummer — Born in Newbur>% ^lay 19, 1757; died Sept. 2, 
1832 ; buried at Hallowell. Same military service as brother 
Jeremiah (Dummer). 

Abijah Fairbanks — Born in ^ledway, !Mass., Jan. 21, 1745. Settled 
in Winthrop, 1800. Died Aug. 13, 1830, and is buried near Stan- 
ley's. Served as Corp., Capt. Joshua Partridge's co.. Col. John 
Smith's regt. 

James Fillebrown — Died Apr. 4, 1838, aged 81 ; buried at Readfield. 
He served as corporal, enlisting from ^lansfield, Mass., service 
5 mos., 19 d. •• 

Thomas Fillebrown — Born Woburn, Mass., Oct. 8, 1768; died June 
14,' 1844; buried at East Winthrop. Resided in Hallowell, re- 
moved to A\'inthrop, 18 10. Served as private, Capt. John Berr's 
CO., Col. Jacob Gerrish's regt., service 4 mos., 3 days. 

Jirah Gish — Buried at Leeds, having a gov't stone. He served as 
private in Capt. Simeon Fish's co.. Col. Freeman's regt. 

Caleb Fogg, Rev. — Died Sept. 6, 1839, ^Z^^ 7^- Buried near No. 
Monmouth. He enlisted from Newbur>'port in Capt. Phineas 
Parker's co. 

Enoch Greeley — Born, Kingston, N. H., Aug. i, 1754; died Feb. 

. 28, 1815; buried at Hallowell. Served in Capt. Phillip Tilton's 
CO., Col. Enoch Poor's regt. 

John Hains — Died ^lay 16, 1809, aged 71. (He was born in Ex- 
eter, N. H., Oct. 6, 1738.) Buried in Hallowell. Came to H. 



1785. Served in Capt. John Rice's co., service 3 days. 

John Ham. Died No\. 29, 1S48, aged 90 yrs., 8 mos. He is buried 
at ^Monmouth. He enhsted June 24, 1779, from Newington, 
N. H., for duration of war. 

Levi Harriman — Born Jan. 17, 1760, in Henniker, N. "H. Died 
Sept. 2, 1832, and is buried in tlie Grant Neighborhood, Litch- 
field. He was assigned to Capt. Bagley's co., duty during the 
battle of Bennington. He enlisted again, Aug. 6, 1778, and joined 
the army in R. I. 

Obadiah Harris — Born in Wrentham, July 7, 1736; died July 5, 
1800; buried at Halloweli. Served in Capt. Samuel Fisher's co.. 
Col. Ephraim Wheelock's regt., service 4 days. 

Israel Herrick — Born Dec. 3, 1721 ; died Sept. 14, 1782; buried at 
Barker's Mills, Lewiston. He lived in Topsfield, ]\Iethuen, Box- 
ford, and Lewiston, Maine. Entered the army as Lieut., 1745. 
Served in 19 campaigns ; left army 1763, as brevet-major. Fought 
at Bunker Hill. 

Thomas Hinkley — Born at Brunswick, Dec. 7, 1736, died Dec. 11, 
1821 ; buried at Halloweli. Enlisted July 3, 1778, service 6 mos., 
12 days. 

Asa Hutchinson — Died June 26, 1848, aged 88 yrs., 7 mos., and is 
buried at Fayette. He was a native of Amherst, N. H., and 
served in the N.'*H. militia. He is on the pension rolls of 1835 
and 1840. 

Israel Hutchinson — Born in i\mherst, N. H., March 3, 1765. He 
entered the army at the age of 14. Was chosen by Washington 
as one of his Life Guards, where he served 18 mos., till the army 
was disbanded. He drove the first team through the forest from 
Litchfield to Halloweli. He died June 12, 1850, and is buried 
on Litchfield road, Hallowell-Farmingdale. 

Bartholomew Jackson — Died Sept. 27, 1837, aged 89. Buried at 
East Wales. Rev. pensioner. 

John Kezer — Died July 20, 1843, aged 80 ; buried at East Winthrop. 
Private, Capt. Samuel Huse's co.. Col. Jacob Gerrish's regt., ser- 
vice 3 mos., 4 days. 

(To be continued.) 




-(Contributed by Evelyn L. Gilmore, Librarian, Maine Historical Society) 



^, if»^ i-iu*JB!AJU"T- 


House built by Capt. George Tate, mast-agent for George II, 
-succeeding Col. Thomas W'estbrook. Tate bought the land, near 
the Stroudwater river, in 1753; the house was completed in 1755. 
The timber for its frame came from the woods near by, but the 
fine carved work was brought from England. Fireplaces are in 
every room, including the slaves' quarters. The house was never 
painted and is entirely without closets. 



. COUNTY IN 1847 

(By Frank E. Guernsey.) 

Hon. James S. \Mley, a member of the Piscataquis bar, and for 
many years a practitioner at Dover, Elaine, was born in the town 
of fiercer, ]vlame, January 22, 180S. When he first came to Dover 
he was an instructor in the Foxcroft Academy. In 1846 he was 
elected as a Democrat to the Congress of the United States, and 
served as Representative in the thirtieth Congress from ^larch 4, 
1847, to March 3, 1849. He died at Fryeburg, Elaine, in 1891. 

It is related that when he sought the nomination for Congress, 
being a man of limited means he traveled the entire district on foot, 
defeating for the nomination, his chief opponent, the late Alexander 
M. Robinson, also of Do\er, an eminent lawver in his dav, who 
conducted his canvass with greater ease and speed, as he traveled 
about the district with a horse and bugg}'. ^Ir. Wiley's service in 
Congress, while it was not long, being confined to a single term, 
nevertheless was not without practical result as he managed to save 
from his salary, which was then $6 per day, a sufficient amount to 
build on his retirement from public life a splendid home at Dover, 
constructed after the architecture of the colonial houses of Virginia. 
Due to his comparatively short service in Congress his activity 
there was necessarily limited, but he made a speech, which in the 
light of subsequent events was prophetic and of interest to this day. 
When Mr. Wiley entered Congress, this country was at war with 
Mexico, and during the latter part of his services, the war having 
ended, terms of peace were under discussion in the United States, 
and questions of indemnity involving the ceding of New Mexico 
and California to the United States were under consideration. The 
most distinguished senator of the times, Daniel Webster, was un- 
compromisingly opposed to the policy of the acquisition of more 
territory by the United States on the grounds of the unconstitu- 
tionality of the measure and of the worthlessness of the territory 
involved, as he asserted. Webster stated on the floor of the Senate, 
"I am against the creation of new States." Again, 'T say, sir, if 
I am asked today whether, for the sake of peace, I will take a 
treaty which brings two new States into this Union, on its southern 
^xiundary, I say No — distinctly, no. I have said on the southern 
^^undary, because there the present proposition takes its locality. 



I would say tlie same of tlie western, the eastern, or any other 
boundary. I would resist today, and to the end, here and every- 
where, any proposition to add any foreign territory on the south 
or west, north or east, to the States of this Union as they are now 
constituted and held togetlier under tlie Constitution. Sir, I hold 
this question to be vital, permanent, elementary, to the future pros- 
perity of this country and tlie maintenance of the Constitution." 
And the distinguished senator added tliat the opposition on consti- 
tutional grounds, *'if not tlie undivided was tlie preponderating sen- 
timent of tlie whole North." 

On the 1 6th day of ^lay, 184S, Mr. AMley in the House of Rep- 
resentatives made a speech replying especially to ^Ir. Webster's 
argument. In the course of his speech he stated, "No doubt the 
senator is correct in his opinion so far as die Federal States of the 
North are concerned, but, sir, I am confident that such is not the 
sentiment of New Hampshire. No, sir, the recent election there 
has told the story for the Granite State, and I know, sir, that such 
is not the sentiment of ^Nlaine. " , 

"But, sir, opposition to tlie measure of acquisition is just what we 
should expect from \Miig States, and Whig Representatives and 
Senators here. They have always been opposed to the enlargement 
of our border. Their policy has rather been to curtail and contract 
the area of freedom. Yes, sir, the Senator from ^Massachusetts is 
in principle opposed to the acquisition of any more territory, except 
a harbor or two on the coast of Massachusetts. There are some 
whale men from that State who pursue their occupation in ^he 
Pacific and they must be provided for of course, but no more new 
States must be added to the Union, for ]vlassachusetts might not 
in that case, exert her due weight of influence in the councils of 
the nation. On the other hand when you come to the question of 
ceding away — selling out territory, inhabitants and all, for a mere 
nominal equivalent, why, then the Senator is not quite so scrupulous 
as to the right to do so — as the State which I have the honor in 
part to represent once had the misfortune to learn, to her ever- 
lasting regret." 

In the course of his remarks Mr. Wiley, with prophetic vision, 
declared that the territory we would acquire was far from being 
worthless territory and only an Indian country, as Mr. Webster 
claimed. He predicted the development of California into a rich 
agricultural country, particularly Upper California. He predicted 


•'Sv/; ■' 


tlie vast mineral wealth of the Pacific slope and rich deposits of 
gold within the territory to be acquired. This speech was made 
on May 16, 1848. 

Gold in large quantities was discovered in 1848, and in the spring 
of '49 there was the greatest rush of peaceful migration westward 
that the world has ever witnessed. Upwards of 50,000 emigrants 
went by land and sea from tlie east to the region west of the Rock}- 
ijvlountains to California, where many of them remained and laid 
the foundation of the development of one of the largest and richest 
States in the Union. 

Had the views of ^Ir. Webster prevailed, California would have 
been a part of IMexico today and the development of the United 
States in the west would have been far different than at present. 
Instead of a nation reaching from ocean to ocean, the republic of 
i^Iexico, a far more populous and powerful nation, would have cut 
us off from the Pacific, and Japanese who are attracted to Cali- 
fornia by soil and climate, would have swarmed on to the coast 
unrestricted, and have presented to us a Japanese question that 
would have been of tremendous national embarrassment, rather than 
of local importance, as it is at the present moment. 

The vision of the Down East Yankee was sound, though it was 
at variance with the ablest legislator of that day, Daniel Webster. 



This exceedingly valuable work compiled by the late Charles 
Alcott Flagg, was published as a serial in the last two volumes of 
the Journal. Only two hundred copies of this have been preserved 
in book form. It makes a book of 91 pages with 3 illustrations. 
It contains the names and data of fourteen thousand one hundred 
snd sixty-one such pensioners. It is neatly bound in paper boards, 
schoolbook style with label titles. This is the only authoritative 
work of any extent upon this subject ever published in Maine and 
is invaluable to all interested in Revolutionary history and ancestry. 
Price, $3.00. Orders for this may be mailed to Sprague's Journal, 
I^over, Me., or to A. J. Huston, 192 Exchange St., Portland, Maine. 





(By Edgar C. Smith) 
Prominent in the Printing Industry for 170 Tears 

I recently had an interesting interview with Samuel D. Edes 
of Foxcroft, the veteran printer and former editor and publisher 
of the Piscataquis Observer. Mr. Edes retired from active labors 
many years ago and now resides at the old homestead on Edes 
avenue, Foxcroft. His physical infirmities confine him to the 
house, but his active mind is unimpaired and his reminiscences 
of his more than seventy years' residence in Dover and Foxcroft 
and of the printing trade in general are of much interest. 
* Mr. Edes comes from a race of printers. The name Edes has 
been prominent in the annals of the printing trade in Xew England 
for nearly one hundred and seventy years. The great-grandfather 
of Samuel was Benjamin Edes of Boston, who, with John Gill in 
1/54, founded the Boston Gazette and Country Journal. This paper 
was the official organ of the ^lassachusetts Bay Colonists before i 
and during the Revolution and in those stirring times numbered 
among its contributors such men as John Adams, James Otis, | 
Samuel Warren, John Hancock and many others of equal note. | 

The paper was the official gazette of the town of Boston as well, | 
and all public notices of the town were printed in its columns. | 

Benjamin Edes besides being an editor and publisher was a man ! 
of considerable note in his dav. When the Revolution of the col- 
onists broke out he had acquired a comfortable fortune for those 
times. . But the war ended and the Constitution of the new nation 
adopted, the interest in his paper waned ; no longer those great men 
of the day contributed their able and patriotic articles to its columns, 
and its list of subscribers gradually fell off. Notwithstanding the ] 
loss of patronage, he continued the publication of his paper until | 
September 17, 1798, and after that date maintained a small job | 
printing office, up to the time of his death, which occurred in De- | 
cember, 1803. | 

Another notable member of the Edes family was Peter, the son | 
of Benjamin, and a great-uncle of Samuel D. Edes of Foxcroft. \ 
He was born in Boston, December 17, 1756, and died in Bangor, J 
March 29, 1840. Peter Edes was the first printer in Augusta and | 
the first in Bangor. After attaining his majority he was in com- | 
pany with his father in the publication of the Boston Gazette. | 
After withdrawing from the partnership he conducted a job printing 



office in Boston for a time, then located in Newport, R. I., and pub- 
lished a newspaper called the Newport Herald. 

In 1795 ]Mr. Edes located in Hallowell, in that part of the ancient 
town which is now Augusta, and commenced the publication of the 
"Kennebeck Intelligencer." He remained at Augusta until 181 5, 
publishing his newspaper and maintaining a job printing office. 
The name of tlie paper was changed in 1800 to the "Kennebec 
Gazette," and in 18 10 the name was again changed to the "Herald 
of Libert}'." In 18 15 Peter Edes removed to Bangor and founded 
the Bangor Register. He published the Register a little more than 
two years and then sold it out. 

After disposing of his interests in Bangor, ]\Ir. Edes went to 
Baltimore to live with his son Benjamin, who was a printer in that 
city. He remained there until his son's death in 1832, when he 
returned to Bangor and passed his few remaining years in the 
family of his daughter, Mrs. ]\Iichael Sargent. As a pioneer 
printer of ]vlaine, Peter Edes is in the front ranks. From his press 
were issued many of the important, and now rare books and 
pamphlets connected with the founding of the printing trade in 

George A^alentine Edes, father of Samuel, was a pioneer printer 
of Somerset County, also the first printer to locate in the County 
of Piscataquis. He was born in Boston, February 14, 1797, and 
died in Foxcroft, November 26, 1875. His father died in 1805, 
when George was but eight years of age, and he was placed in the 
family of his uncle, Peter Edes. In 1810, when but thirteen years 
of age, he commenced his apprenticeship in his uncle's office at 
Augusta. In 181 5 when his uncle Peter removed to Bangor, he 
remained with him and was employed at the printing office there 
until 1817, when Peter Edes sold out. 

After this, George returned to Hallowell and worked for a time 
in the office of Ezekiel Goodale. In 1823, in company with Thomas 
J. Copeland under the firm name of Edes &. Copeland, they estab- 
lished the first printing office in Somerset County at Norridgewock 
and commenced the publication of the Somerset Journal. This 
partnership continued only about a year and a half when Mr. Cope- 
land purchased the Edes interest. Mr. Edes, however, continued 
as an employee until 1836. In 1838 when Piscataquis County was 
incorporated George V. Edes came to Dover and opened a printing 



office and commenced the publication of tlie Piscataquis Herald, 
the first number being- issued June i, 1838. 

This paper espoused die Whig cause and it is said to have been 
the first newspaper in the country to advocate the nomination of 
William Henry Harrison for the presidency. In 1842 the name 
was changed to the Piscataquis Farmer, and again, in November, 
1847, the name was changed to the Piscataquis Observer, under 
which title it has ever since made its weekly appearance. From 
1838 until some time in the early 70's George V. Edes was the sole 
proprietor and publisher of this paper, but at that time a partner- 
ship was formed with his son Samuel D. Edes, under the firm name 
of G. V. Edes & Son. 

On January i, 1875, Fred D. Barrows was admitted as a partner 
and the firm name changed to Edes & Barrows. After the death 
of the senior member of the firm, in November of tliat year, Samuel 
D. Edes took over his father's interest and the publication of the 
paper was continued under the firm name of Edes & Barrows until 
1888, when the Observer Publishing Company was formed, and 
Samuel D. Edes retired from active interest in the Observer, 
although for a number of years he acted as editor of the paper. 
Another brother, George A. Edes, learned the printers' trade and 
when a young man located in a South Dakota town and established 
a newspaper there ; after he removed to Morgan Hill, California, 
and twent>"-tAvo years ago established in the latter town the Morgan 
Hill Times, which is still published by Mr. Edes' successor in busi- 
ness, he having died about eleven years ago. 

It is doubtful if another family in the State of Maine can boast 
of such a record. The foundmg of six New England newspapers, 
four of which were State of Maine publications; the establishing 
of four pioneer printing offices in Maine, in localities where none 
before existed, are achievements worthy of a permanent memorial. 
The last survivor in the State of this family of printers is Samuel 
D. Edes, above referred to. He learned his trade in his father's 
cases. Learned every phase of this business as those old-time 
printers always did, they edited the newspaper, were compositor 
and pressman and in many instances were printer's devil. They 
are a type of a bygone day and only a scattered few of these vet- 
erans like Mr. Edes remain to link the present with the past. 


-^hM!^-4i^'-':^ ;*' 




(Contributed by Nellie C. Dodge, Ellsworth, :Maine.) 

EGA YTE^( 69gg3^ 

I find the following on page 52 of an old English book entitled : 
"God's Wonders in the Great Deep, recorded in Several wonderful 
and amazing accounts of Sailors who have met with unexpected 
Deliverance from Death when in greatest danger." "Gravesend; 
Re-printed by R. Pocock, and sold by the Booksellers in Paternoster 
Row, 1803." 

"Rich*^. Clark, of \\^e}Tnouth, was master of a ship called the 
Delight, which in 1583, went with Sir H. Gilbert for the discovery 
of Xoremberga; it happened tliat the ship struck on the ground, 
and was cast away. Of those that escaped shipwreck, sixteen got 
into a small boat of a ton and a half, and had but one oar to work 
with. They were seventy leagues from land, and the weather fouL 
The boat being over burtliened, !Mr. Hedley made a motion to cast 
lots, that tliose four who drew the shortest should be thrown over- 
board, provided if one lot fell on the master, yet he should be 
preserved for all their safeties. The master disavowed the accept- 
ance of any such privilege, replying that tliey would live and die 
together. On the fifth day Air. Hedley and another died, whereby 
their boat was lightened. Five days and nights they saw" the sun 
and stars but once, so tliat they only kept up their boat with their 
single oar, as the sea drove it. They continued four days without 
sustenance, except what the weeds in the sea and the salt water 
did afford. On tlie seventh day tliey had sight of Newfoundland, 
and came to the south part thereof. All the time of their being 
at sea the wind kept south ; if it had shifted she had never come 
to land; but it turned to the north in half an hour after. Being 
all come to shore, they gave God praise for their miraculous de- 
liverance. There they remained three days and three nights, making 
a plentiful repast upon berries and wild pease. After five days 
rowing along the shore, they happened to meet a Spanish ship of 
^t- John de Luz, who brought them to Biscay, where the visitors 
*5t the Spanish Inquisition came aboard, but by the master's favour, 
Jind some general answers they escaped; yet fearing a second search, 
by going twelve miles one night, they got into France, and safely 
arrived in England." 





This Department is open to 
contributions from all teach- 
ers and pupils. 

Conducted by Augustus O. 
Thomas, State Superintend- 
ent OF Schools, Augusta, Me. 



Maine's Centennial Celebration is over but not so its memories. 
They will continue to thrill with pride the hearts of her sons and 
•daughters until another hundred years of achievement, greater even 
than the last, shall inspire those living in 2020 to prepare a better 
and more worthy commemoration. 

Something like seventy towns and cities from Kittery to Mada- 
waska, from Eastport to Upton, and a large number of schools 
have in some way contributed to the success of the Centennial and 
have given citizens in all parts of the State a renewed interest in 
its history. 

History like charity should begin at home, and in order that our 
boys and girls may become the best American citizens they must 
know something of home affairs and local interests. No man or 
woman can be considered broad-minded or well educated who is 
indifferent to the conditions of the community of which he or she 
is a part. 

In our schools then, the child must be taught that his town is a 
unit of the county, the county of the state, the state of the nation, 
in order to develop an intelligent and elevating civic patriotism 
and to put him more fully in touch with his local political, social 
and industrial environment. In doing this a long stride has been 
made toward teaching him to know and love his country. 

Local history has received far too little attention in our land. 
We are careless of our relics and monuments, which to be sure 
are of a different kind from those of Europe but no less interesting 
and important to preserve. Let us trust that a deep appreciation 
of the value of •Maine's splendid history shall be one lesson learned 
and remembered from the Centennial. 

During the year Dr. Thomas, State Superintendent of Schools, 
issued a booklet called "One Hundred Years of Statehood," which 






contains many helpful suggestions for studying local history accord- 
ing to the "source" method. 

This little book so fascinated me that I was seized with a desire 
to see how big a project could be worked out in my history class, 
so when the fall term opened, each student was given a copy and 
it was read aloud during the recitation period with a view to carry- 
ing out many of its suggestions. 

There were thirty- four members in the class. They came from 
all parts of the county and from several towns outside of Aroos- 
took. The varietv' of interest added zest to the problem and from 
that day until the project was completed, there was no lack of 
interest shown. 

To describe fully each project would make this article too long, 
but in order to give an adequate idea of the scope of the under- 
taking, perhaps it is best to enumerate them and to state briefly 
the sources from which material was secured. 

History of Railroads in Aroostook — ^laterial obtained from old 
newspaper clippings and scrap-book. 

History of the Presque Isle Public Library — Obtained from libra- 
rian and members of committee at time of establishment. 

The Churches of Presque Isle — From past and present ministers 
and church records. 

The Village Schools of Presque Isle — From Rev. G. M. Park,, 
town historian ; past and present superintendents of schools ; town 
reports ; school reports and catalogs. 

The Rural Schools of Presque Isle — From History of Aroostook 
by Hon. Edward Wiggin; Supt. S. E. Preble; town reports 1883- 
1920; "Star Herald." 

Our Service Flag — A storv^ of Presque Isle's war service, from 
information secured from Col. Frank M. Hume; Capt. E. H. 
Cooper; Principal of P. I. H. S. ; Ernest M. Libby, Y. M. C. A. 
worker; Y. D. Roster, and several ex-service men. 

History of Madawaska — Pictures, data from old citizens. • 

CTiurches of Madawaska — From History of Madawaska, super- 
intendent of schools, citizens. 

History of Madawaska Training School — From Miss Mary Now- 
••■ind, many years the principal. 

Protection of Wild Lands — From Maine Forestry Department; 
^^as. L. Weeks, Chief Warden of Aroostook and Big Machias 


The Canning Industry in Alaine — From E. M. Lang, Jr., Port- 
land; Miss Alfreda Ellis, Assistant State Club Leader, Orono. 

Northern ]Maine Fair — From secretary's reports; president of 

Potato Industry in Aroostook — From F. P. Loring, Instructor 
in Agriculture; Maine Department Agriculture Year Book; school 
library; farmers. 

An Aroostook Industr}-, Lime — From Mr. Dane Willard, pro- 
moter of the idea. 

Automobiles in Presque Isle — From L. S. Bean and other deal- 
ers; papers. 

History of Fort Fairfield — From Ellis' History; Census Book 
1920; citizens. 

Town Schools of Fort Fairfield — From Fort Fairfield Register; 
Public Library ; Town Reports, 

Churches of Fort Fairfield — From Ellis' History; Report of 
1904 ; pastors ; citizens. 

Sports that Children Enjoy — From Playground Magazines, per- 
sonal observation and experience. 

History of Aroostook State Normal School — From Rev. G. M. 
Park; teachers in the school at its opening; school catalogs; "Sal- 
magundi," tlie school paper. 

Lumbering in Penobscot — From Thoreau's "Maine Woods"; 
E. B. Draper, Bangor ; Delmont Emerson, Island Falls ; Merrill 
Mill Co., Patten ; Henry Prentiss, Bangor ; Bangor Commercial, 
April 20, 1920. 

Lumbering in Aroostook — From woodsmen, dealers in lumber. 

Histor}' of New Sweden — From a book written about New Swe- 
den in 1880 bv ]\I. E. Olson ; citizens. 

History of Maine Central Institute — Catalogs, reports, alumni. 

The Starch Industry — From Rev. G. M. Park, H. E. Duncan. 

History of Sherman — From a descendant of the pioneer settler 
and other citizens ; town records. 

History of Caribou — From A. W. Spaulding, a prominent citizen, 
newspaper articles. Public Library, Hon. Edward Wiggin's histor>'. 

History of Hartland — From Eastern Somerset County Register, 
selectmen, citizens, x^merican Woolen Co. 

Great Northern Paper Co. — From employees. 

History of Houlton High School, 1899- 1920— "North Star"; the 
school paper; pictures and information from alumni, teachers. 



The Playground — From State Department of Education. 

Sports in !Maine — Pictures and information from proprietors of 
sporting camps. 

This list shows that data was gatliered from ex-town officers, 
present officers, pastors, school superintendents, oldest living citi- 
zens in the towns ; from county, town, school and church records ; 
from old diaries, newspapers, school catalogs, scrap-books, from 
the public libraries. 

When the students had selected what they considered important 
and authentic material they proceeded to preserve it in books of 
their own making, which exhibit originality and artistic ability in 
arrangement and decoration. 

Those who chose to write tlie histor}- of a school finished the 
binding in school colors, and in one instance the school seal fur- 
nished the decoration for the cover. : - . 

From their research these students discovered the truth of the 
old adage, "where there's will there's a way," and pursued in the 
face of discouragement many voyages to obscure sources to be 
happily rewarded with the information they were seeking. Present 
day affairs were not forgotten and in some instances old and new 
methods are contrasted. 

Nearly all of the books are illustrated with kodak pictures snapped 
by the girls themselves or solicited from their friends, and there 
are many beautiful Aroostook scenes as well as pictures of homes, 
schools, churches, barns, potato-houses and farm machinery. 

Aside from the knowledge gleaned in local history, they have 
had practice in writing business letters to persons in responsible 
positions. I feel sure in every case they have courteously expressed 
their appreciation for the material and information given them. 
Several dedicated their booklet to the man or woman who gave 
them assistance. 

They have learned something about the make-up of a book; its 
title page, table of contents, index, arrangement of illustrations and 
binding, and are convinced that art plays an important part in book- 

More valuable than all this is the fact that these student-teachers 
3re going out in all sections of the State to quicken an interest in 
history for Maine children. They have learned and will pass it 
^n that our State has a local history v.'orthy of study and that she 




will continue to play in the future as she has in the past, an im- 
portant part in tlie Nation's development. 

W'Q hope the interest aroused will continue to grow, and develop 
such a strong love for Elaine that the priceless traditions of strength, 
manliness, patience, uprightness and confidence in God possessed 
by her pioneers shall continue to be exhibited in her posterity in 
order tliat she may be an "enlightened, cultivated, God-fearing,. 
free democracv." 

Nellie Woodbury Jordan. 

(Published by arrangement with The National Security League.) 


Q. What is the Constitution? 

A. The Constitution is a written document providing a form 
of government for the United States. • ■ 

Q. \\'ho framed the Constitution? 

A. Representatives of the people in Philadelphia in 1787. 

Q. Who was the President of the Constitutional Convention? 

A. George Washington. 

Q. What made the Constitution necessary? . " 

A. The x-\rticles of Confederation, which preceded the Con- 
stitution, were inadequate to hold the States together. 

Q. Why was the Constitution adopted? 

A. The preamble of the Constitution declares that "we, the 
people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the com- 
mon defense, promote the general welfare and secure the blessings 
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish 
this Constitution for the United States of America." 

Q. How was the Constitution ratified? 

A. By the people of the United States, acting through special 
conventions, "chosen in each State by the people thereof." 

Q. When did it become effective? 

A. On the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, S2.00. Single copies of current and previous vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, 82.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 




Preserve this issue of the Journal. Y'ou will then always have 
what will be of exceeding interest and worth to yourself and family. 
Hand it along to future generations ! It will be of priceless value 
to them. 


During the past year, while Col. Edward L. Logan was com- 
inander of the Massachusetts department of the American Legion, 
Jie instituted a campaign there for stimulating and intensifying the 
study of American and local history in the public schools as a first 
^^ep towards the promulgation of true Americanism. 

The Boston Transcript in commenting upon this at the time, 
''bached to the roots of the entire subject in saying: 

'Colonel Logan finds, in his investigations through the Ameri- 
t^anization committee of the Legion, that there are many schools 
^nich ignore our Colonial history altogether, beginning their in- 
•'^ruction with the Revolution. To do that, it is needless to say, 
«^ to ignore the most Interesting part of ^Massachusetts history, 
^"d really to leave the Commonwealth up in the air without any 


underpinning. The secret of interesting children in histor}* is the 
abihty to vitahze it with personages and with incidents, and such 
vitaUzing persons and incidents are comparatively rare after the 
Revolutionary period. By tliat we do not mean to imply that our 
post-Revolutionary history should be neglected. To leave out 
Webster, Sumner and the Yankee Division would be as grievous 
and stupid a fault as to leave out the Pilgrim Fathers. But all 
these later heroes stand on the Fathers' shoulders; it is through 
an interest in and knowledge of them that the boy or girl of today 
may readily acquire an interest in the history of the Commonwealth 
since it became a State of tlie American Union. 

"Really to interest the young in historical study and knowledge 
is a gift on the part of a teacher, but it need not be so rare a gift 
as some suppose, because the interest is latent m every child, ask- 
ing only to be intelligently met. Does not the dramatic appeal to 
the child? And what is history but a drama? The great trouble 
is that historical study is deliberately made a thing of rote, a droned 
rigmarole, in many of the schools. It wants the element of human 
interest; and if teachers do not know how to impart this element, 
they should be taught how. It may be a good thing for Colonel 
Logan and the committee to overhaul the normal schools in this 

What the Transcript urges regarding the study of the colonial 
history of ^lassachusetts, is of equal importance in this State, 
possibly more so, as our colonial period begins with the French 
settlement at St. Croix Island in 1604, sixteen years before adverse 
winds compelled the Pilgrims to begin tiie making of history at 
Plymouth Rock. 

Moreover, there is yet another fact augmenting the value of all 
American colonial history— fully as cogent a reason for its study 
as any, and yet seldom referred to; and that is that when one begins 
its study on any line of research, from any angle whatsoever, one 
is at once in the most interesting part of European history. Our 
history is so intertwined with old world political convulsions of 
two and three centuries aga — momentous epochs in the world strug- 
gle of the ages between the forces of freedom and despotism, that 
it is impossible to read the one without a desire to more fully under- 
stand the other. 

If a knowledge of the evolution of freedom and human rights 
from !Magna Charta to the armistice of 1918 is essential in germi- 


nating Americanism, tlie schools of this comitry have a grave duty 
to perform in this regard which cannot be doubted or ignored. To 
neglect it would be as illogical as for tlie Bible student to ignore 
the history of the Children of Israel. 

Those who were privileged to listen to the address of ^lajor 
William B. Dwight of New York, representing the National 
Security League, at the S. A. R. Washington Anniversary Banquet, 
in Portland, Feb. 22, 1920, will recall with what earnestness and 
eloquence he advocated an awakening along these same lines, if 
we in x\merica are to successfully resist tlie Karl ]\Iarx peril. He 
criticised much of the present method of studying history in the 
schools, and very forcefully urged that it be localized and x\meri- 

James ^Mathison, Superintendent of the Oquossoc Angling Asso- 
ciation at Indian Rock, Elaine, in the Rangeley region, contributes 
to the Journal the following copy of the records of that x\ssocia- 
tion, dated ]\Iay 24, 18S4: .- 

"James P. Baxter, Portland, Elaine, ^lay 24th to June 3rd, inclu- 
sive, six days' fishing with his son, Percival P., took fifty-two fish^ 
four of which weighed twenty-four pounds. The largest was taken 
in Cupsuptic Lake June 3rd by Percival and weighed /J pounds 
before being dressed. The guide made his weight 8 pounds when 
taken from the water. The weight of the four fish when caught 
was as follows : 8 lbs., 6^ lbs., 5 lbs,, and 4^ lbs. — 24 lbs. 

Written by ^Ir. James P. Baxter." 


Minnie Atkinson of Newburyport, ^lass., is the 'author of a 
neatly bound book of 122 pages and twelve illustrations, entitled 
"Hinckley Township or Grand Lake Stream Plantation," which 
•s a real gem. Already we believe between eight and nine hundred 
Maine Town Histories have been published. So far as we know 
this is the second one of a Maine plantation that has ever been 
printed, the first one having been the historical sketch of Jackman 
and Moose River Plantation which appeared in the Journal, Vol. 3, 
N'o. 2. 

Any true story of the developments of a town from its pioneer 
^ays to its time of maturity and prosperity as a municipality, is a 


bit of history of the utmost vahie and interest to the student of the 
nistor}' and growth of a commonweakh ; ahvays a fascinating tale 
of human endeavor and ukimate achievement. 

We recall many such items of Elaine history which are classics, 
such as "Old Hallo well" by Emma Huntington Nason, ''An Old 
River Town" — a history of \Mnterport — by Ada Douglas Little- 
field, etc. None of tliese superior literary productions has sur- 
passed and but few equal ^liss Atkinson's book. She commences 
with much of importance relative to the Indians in the Passama- 
-quoddy region prior to and during the Revolution, when Colonel 
John Allen, under General \\'ashington, was the superintendent of 
all the Indian Tribes in eastern Maine, and follows the develop- 
ment of this plantation full of interesting, fascinating and impor- 
tant historical details to the present day. After a careful perusal 
■of this book we do not hesitate in heartily recommending it to our 
readers. ' ^ 



The following was recently received by Governor Baxter: 

Old Town, Elaine, Februarys 21, 1921. 
Percival P. Baxter, 

Governor of Maine, ; 

Augusta, r^Iaine. ^ 
Dear Sir : 

Now that the women of ^^laine have full suffrage, we, the wards 
•of the State of Elaine, members of the Penobscot tribe, believe that 
we should have the right to vote in all tribal meetings. We are 
informed that the present agent of our tribe submitted the question 
of whether Indian women had such right to the last State admin- 
istration but that Secretary Ball gave no definite answer. Local 
attorney advises that we always had the right to vote and that the 
agent cannot refuse to accept our votes at election time and sort 
and count the same, as provided by statute. 

Will you not kindly refer this matter to the attorney general's 
office that our agent may be fully informed in the premises. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) Mrs. Peter Nicolar. 



Report Committee on Resolutions 

The year 1920, so eventful historically, has for the Bangor His- 
torical Society been notable necrologically, for among officials here 
one year ago and not witli us today are Charles Alcott Flagg, Libra- 
rian and Cabinet Keeper, and also a valued member of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee ; Dr. Thomas L^pham Coe, for nearly forty years 
Treasurer and also prominent on the Executive Committee; and 
William Warren Fellows and James Putnam Walker, botli faithful 
and exceedingly useful members of the Executive Committee. 

Resolved, That the Bangor Historical Society, assembled in an- 
nual session, and with a full realization of the great loss sustained, 
gives voice to heartfelt appreciation of the zealous and devoted 
services of our departed associates. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the records, and 
copies be given to the press for publication. 

Edward 'M. B landing, 
William C. ^L\son, 
Fannie Hardy Eckstorm, 

Committee on Resolutions. 

Bangor, Elaine, Jan. 4, 1921. 

Adopted by Bangor Historical Society at annual meeting, Jan. 4^ 

Attest: Edward ^Mitchell Blanding, 



The Elaine Centennial towns for 1921 are Concord, Peru, Canton 
and Cumberland, rather less than the usual number. Concord is 
a little farming town far up the Kennebec valley, in Somerset 
County, bordering on the river. It does not appear in the records 
why it was named Concord, but its name may have suggested some- 
thing to the late incorporators of the next town to the west, which 
^^"^s called Lexington. Concord was settled soon after the Revo- 
hition by ]^Iajor Ephraim Heald, who came from Temple, N. H. 
1 nere are people enough to have a celebration with the help of 
^^^e neighbors. 


Peru and Canton are adjoining towns in Oxford County, on the 
Androscoggin river, and may possibly have a combination cele- 
bration. If they don't it will be a rival affair, although the town 
with the Chinese name is somewhat larger than the other. Both 
are on tlie Rangeley division of the Elaine Central Railroad. The 
towns are twins, having been incorporated on the same day, Feb. 5, 

Canton is a lively town and will have a big centennial celebration 
some time in the summer. It has about 2000 people, three churches, 
an opera house, summer hotel, several garages and all the outfit of 
an up-to-date town. Peru with the villages of West Peru and 
East Peru has about 1000 people in its borders. The town was 
originally a grant of land to citizens of Falmouth who moved there, 
the Knight, Lunt, Brackett and Bradish families, followed by the 
Walkers, Trasks and Baileys. Peru will no doubt have a cele- 

Cumberland is a town on Casco Bay and may be a part of Greater 
Portland some time. It takes in numerous islands off shore, in- 
cluding Chebeague Island, where there's a postoffice, also Crow, 
Goose, Hope, Bangs, Sand, Sturdivant, Stave, ^linisterial, Bates, 
Broken Cave and others of the 365 islands in the bay. Cumberland 
Center is the largest community in the town and Greeley Institute 
is an old preparatory' school. Cumberland Foreside has numerous 
summer residences and on Chebeague Island there are half a dozen 
summer hotels and cottagers are numerous. 

— Kennebec Journal. 

Coin and Stamp Collectors 


Prices I Tay— of every U. S. Coin 
•worth over face — 13 cts. 

WANTED What are your wants? Perhaps 

Rare Coins, Stamps and Curios I can supply them 

Stamp Catalogues and other Philatelic and Numismatic 
literature at publishers' prices 

' W. B. GOULD 

292 Hammond St. Bangor, Maine 


4 / 

s \ 

I, . .\i 


A Canoe Iioad of Trophies 
(Courtesy of B. & A. R. R.) 


Jolm Gardiner, Barrister 49 

Indians 61 

Pof-m — To the Pine Tree State 69 

I'of m— A Bit of Maine 70 

Wa.Jhburn Family, Livermore, Maine 71 

I-«-itt-ra 72 

....,........[.[[...[......... 76 


, 80 

: 81 





''•»tten Library 

James Phinney Baxter 

^"luel I.. Boardman 

Karly Churches in [Maine 
Jw-irly Settlement on Kennebec 

»•• if-r Edes 

^'aine History in the Schools . 
•■-'litorial . 


YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset County 

Never a F'tiilure — Xever a Law Suit — What more do you vrant? 

(Member Soc. Col. Wars; Sons Am. Rev.; Past A. A. G., G. A. R.) 

'« have positive evidence of the reliability of advertisers on these pages 


■ i, , .• -' 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. IX April, IMay, June, 192 i No. 2 


(By Bertram E. Packard) 

There are two houses still standing in Maine which are inti- 
mately associated with the subject of this sketch. 

On the eastern bank of the Kennebec, a little way above, and 
opposite the little village of Richmond, stands a large, rambling, 
wooden structure, known as the Old Pownalborough Court House. 
It was built about the year 1753 by Alajor Samuel Goodwin, the 
agent of the Plymouth Company, as his official residence, and as 
a Court House for Lincoln County, at that time comprising the 
larger portion of central and eastern Maine. The old house is 
of great historic interest and is still occupied by the descendants 
of the original proprietor. Here the lawyers of that early period 
argued their cases and transacted their customary legal business. 
The voices of John Adams, James Otis, James Sullivan and David 
Sewall were often heard within its walls. Here the early Justices 
came on horseback to preside when on the Circuit. The building 
also served the purposes of an inn and was their temporary domi- 
cile. And here also, the able, eloquent and scholarly lawyer, 
John Gardiner, often appeared, clad in the wig and gown of an 
English barrister. Some three miles distant in the little hamlet 
now known as Dresden Mills, he resided in the two story tarm 
house erected by his father, Dr. Silvester Gardiner, sometime prior 
to 1760, and still standing in an excellent state of preservation. 

Although the family of Gardiner is one of the most prominent 
in our New England history, numbering among its members many 
>^ho have been celebrated in our annals, yet history is strangely 
silent concerning John Gardiner. One of the most prominent men 
in Boston and Maine during the years immediately subsequent to 
the Revolution, and probably the most talked of man in the news- 
Piipers of that day, only the most fragmentary glimpses of his 


life and career can be gleamed from our numerous historical and 
biographical records. 

He was the oldest son of Dr. Silvester Gardiner and was born 
in Boston, December, 4th, 1731. The career of Dr. Gardiner is 
too well known to need more than passing mention. He was one 
of the most distinguished men of his time and was very wealthy 
for those days. He became the largest single owner in what was 
known as the Kennebeck Purchase, a corporation formed in 1753. 
He first established settlements in Pownalborough, and later in 
what was at that time known as Gardinerstown. He brought to 
this work of development an uncommon zeal and energy and was 
very successful. The city of Gardiner was named in his honor, 
and his decendants still reside in the beautiful old English manor 
house just outside the city on the banks of the Kennebec. 

John recei\'ed his early education in Boston, and in 1745, at 
the age of 14, he was placed in the office of Benjamin Pratt, after- 
wards Chief Justice of Xew York, to study law. He remained 
there three years, and in 1748 was sent to London to pursue his 
legal studies. Broader and more liberal ideas prevailed in England 
than were common in Puritan Boston and he found a wider field 
for his talents. The profession of law was looked upon with less 
aversion than was the custom in a community where church offi- 
cials were also the legal officers. He studied at the Inner Temple, 
and was under the instruction of Sir Charles Pratt, who after- 
wards became Lord Chancellor Camden. In 1761, at the age of 
30, he was admitted a barrister by the Honorable Benchers of the 
Inner Temple and the Courts of Westminster Hall. He practised 
before Lord Mansfield, and soon won his distinguished favor. 
He acquired a brilliant reputation and it appeared at one time 
that he was destined for \-ery high legal honors. He also prac- 
tised law on the Welsh Circuit, and while there married Margaret 
Harries of Haverford West, a woman of most excellent family. 
Here his oldest son, John Silvester John, was born in 1765. Of 
his private life in England but little is known. He frequented 
Drury Lane Theatre when David Garrick and Mrs. Gibber were 
famous there, and it is related that Jacob Bailey, the early pio- 
neer missionar\' to Maine, when in London for ordination, was his 
companion to the theatre. 

But while in London he became intimate with the poet Churchill, 
and the reformer John Wilkes, and when the latter was arrested 

:^*^:"?SS¥i|?S||g#J%5E?*?¥S'' " 


on a general Secretan* of State's warrant, he was junior counsel 
for his defense. He also argued with success in the defense of 
Beardmore and Meredith, who, for writings in support of Wilkes, 
had been imprisoned on a general warrant. His pronounced Whig 
principles as opposed to the prevailing Tor\' sentiment in Eng- 
land at that time, greatly surprised Lord Mansfield, and blasted 
all hopes of his political success. In reference to his efforts in 
these trials, there now remains in the possession of Mrs. William 
R. Cabot of Boston, his great-great-granddaughter, a valuable and 
t)eautiful piece of plate, bearing this inscription: " ' Pro libertate 
semper strenuus.' To John Gardiner, Esq., this waiter is pre- 
sented by Arthur Beardmore, as a small token ot gratitude, for 
pleading his cause and that of his clerk, David Meredith, against 
the Earl of HaHfax, then Secretar\^ of State, for false imprison- 
ment, under his warrant, commonly called a Secretary- ot State's 
warrant, that canker of English liberty — 1766." 

It is of more than passing interest to consider a little more in 
detail Mr. Gardiner's connection with this celebrated case, for it 
illustrates forcibly that in most of his ideas he was far in advance 
of his age and generation. Wilkes, although a rake and a prodi- 
gal, unfaithful to his wife, whose fortune he wasted, lacking in 
generous devotion to any political ideal, nevertheless by sheer 
pluck and impudence led in the fight to establish in the law of all 
English speaking countries five great principles of political free- 
dom: the immunit\' of political criticisms from prosecution; the 
publicity of legislati\e debates; the abolition of outlawry which 
condemned a man in his absence; the protection of property of 
houses from unreasonable search and seizure; and the right of 
the duly elected representative to a constituency to sit in the 
legislature, unless disqualified by law. No matter what personal 
objections his colleagues may have had to his opinions and writings, 
so great were his achievements that his name became a household 
^ord in America. In the eyes of our forefathers, he was one of 
*die most conspicuous combatants against the doctrine so obnox- 
ious to them: that men might be maltreated, imprisoned, exiled 
^nd disfranchised for the supposedly evil tendencies of their politi- 
^"*il opinions. Lord Camden said of the warrant: " If such a 
power is truly invested in a Secretary- of State, and he can dele- 
Kate this power, it certainly may affect the person and property 
of every man in this kingdom, and is totally subversive to the 



liberty of the subject." The law of the case with which Mr. 
Gardiner was connected, namely, that search must be by warrant, 
describing the property to be seized, is embodied in the Consti- 
tution of the United States. 

At a time when party feeling ran high it can readily be seen 
that his espousal of such a cause would seem nothing less than 
heretical to the prevailing Tory influences. It was probably a 
political move to tender him the Chief Justiceship of the province 
of New York in 1766, which he promptly declined. Two ^-ears 
later, however, in 1768, he accepted an appointment as Attorney 
General of St. Kitts, one of the West India islands. It is probable 
that this was a position which he would have hardly chosen for 
himself save for necessity, for it was virtually a political banish- 
ment. Here he became so active as a Whig that it was found 
expedient tor him to leave the island, and after remaining in 
Jamaica for a time, he went to Martinique, where he successively 
held office under the British and French governments. 

The following letter to his father, dated St. Kitts, January 8th, 
1783, well illustrates his political principles: '' I am a staunch 
Revolutionary Whig, you know, and abhor all king craft and 
priest craft. Such have been my principles since I could judge 
for myself, and such, I trust, will be the principles I will carry 
with me to the grave. I have borne a place here under his most 
Christian Majesty which I have discharged the duties of with the 
utmost fidelity and integrity, and without the least view to gain, 
and in such a manner as I would have served his Brittanick Maj- 
esty, had I been entrusted. And it is with gratitude I mention 
it, I have received ever>^ protection and every mark of friendship 
from His Excellency, Count Dillon and the French officers here, 
insomuch so that time shall not obliterate my regards to them." 

In the early summer of 1783, at the instance and through the 
efforts of James Sullivan, he returned to Boston, and in a letter 
to his father, dated Boston, July 14th, 1783, he writes: "Gov- 
ernor Hancock, Samuel Harris, and Dr. Cooper have all received 
me with the greatest cordiality, and General Washington, in con- 
sequence of letters from the French Ministry, overwhelmed me 
with civility during the four days I stayed with him." 
• He immediately resumed the practice of his profession, and in- 
duced his brethren to resume the legal costume, which had been 
laid aside. The custom, however, was not of long continuance, 



and it was said to have been gi\-en up from a countr>'man hearing 
one of the judges, in his gown, using most profane language towards 
a man from whom he was purchasing wood, and expressing his 
astonishment to his friends as to how the Boston parsons would 

That he visited Maine during the year of his return to Boston 
is evidenced by a letter written by Major Goodwin of Pownal- 
borough to Jacob Bailey in Nova Scotia, under date of September 
9, 1783, in which he says: ''John Gardiner is with his brother 
William, looking after his father's interests." Rev. Samuel Parker 
of Trinity Church wrote to Bailey, December 22nd, of the same 
year, saying: '* Your old friend, Dr. Gardiner, has a son returned 
from the West Indies, who in order to ingratiate himself with the 
ruling party, does little else than curse and damn his father as 
an old fool. . . . However, it won't do. He will not get his 
father's estate by this conduct." 

In October, 1783, he petitioned the General Court, "Although 
the Father hath eaten sour Grapes, yet your Petitioner's Teeth 
have not been set on edge, — his political opinions have been, and 
are in total, the ver\' reverse of his said Father's," and prayed 
not to be " visited for the political sins and offences of his said 

But that he was held in high esteem in Boston is evidenced by 
the fact that he and his family were recognized as citizens of 
Massachusetts by a special act of the Commonwealth passed 
Februar>' 13th, 1784, reading: " An act declaring and confirming 
the citizenship of John Gardiner, his wife, and of Anne, John 
Silvester John, and William Gardiner, their children. 

Whereas, the said John Gardiner was born in Boston, the me- 
trojxjlis of this Commonwealth, and while a minor was, by his 
father, sent to Great Britain lor his education, where for a suc- 
ci-ssion of years he remained a distinguished friend to, and through 
•1 vicissitude of fortune, hath continued an avowed and inflexible 
a>sertor of the rights and liberties of his native country, and a 
^'old opposer of the enemies thereof; and having lately returned 
t«'> reside in the said metropolis, and soon expecting his said wife 
^"d children, he and they ought to be declared free citizens of 
lliis said Commonwealth." 

On July 4th, 1785, he was selected as the town orator and dedi- 
«'*'»ted his oration '' To the First Citizen of the World, The Most 


Illustrious George Washington, Esq., late Commander-in-Chief of 
the forces of the free United States of America, with the most 
affectionate respect. By his most obHged fellow citizen, The 
Author." It contains the following allusion to Bunker Hill: 
"Again the battle bleeds; nor do fair freedom's sons give way 
till their whole stock of ammunition's quite expended. Regardless 
of his precious life, disdaining shameful flight, the illustrious 
Warren falls, his country's hero, and his country's pride! What 
though within these hallowed walls his mouldering relicks lie, 
without a sculptured stone to mark the spot, yet shall his fame 
be known, his memory live, to latest ages!" 

It is not strange that there should have been violent and often 
times bitter controversies between John Gardiner and his father. 
Dr. Gardiner was an avowed Loyalist, spending the years of the 
Revolution in England because of his political beliefs. He was 
also a zealous and consistent believer in the forms and doctrines 
of the Church of England. John, on the contrary, was as we 
have seen, a Whig in political belief, and at the same time was a 
Unitarian as to religious belief. He took an active part in the 
alteration of the liturgy of King's Chapel, of which his father had 
been tor many \ears warden and an active member, and was 
largely instrumental in its becoming the first Unitarian Congre- 
gational Church in the United States. He would attend services 
at Trinity Church, where his son, adhering to the ancient faith, 
was assistant minister, for he said he must hear Jack preach, and 
would make the responses from his altered book while the people 
were repeating from the Book of Common Prayer. 

It was in consequence of these disagreements that Dr. Gardiner 
devised the bulk of his property to. his second son, William, be- 
queathing " To John Gardiner, Esq., Barrister at Law, late of 
the island of St. Christopher, now resident at Boston, New England 
(as 'tis said) I give only the sum ot one guinea." He relented 
however, and in a codicil made the same year, 1786, gave him 
one thousand pounds, and devised to him his house and lot on 
Marlborough Street and one half his Pownalborough farm. While 
it may be observed that these estates were without limitations, 
while the estates devised to William were entailed, yet it is clearly 
evident that Dr. Gardiner intended that the bulk of his property 
should pass to William, and in event of his dying without issue, 
to his grandson, Robert Hallowell. 

■S. .-: 


In 1786, his wife having died, John Gardiner removed to Pownal- 
borough with his three children. It might seem strange that a 
man possessed of his brilliant talents and accustomed to move in 
the best society, should have moved to what must have been at 
that time nearly an unbroken wilderness. But we must remember 
that he was nearly sixty years of age, and here was a valuable 
property which he had just inherited; he might have seen the 
opportunity to represent the town in the General Court, which 
position he later occupied; furthermore he was near the bulk of 
his father's estate, and at one time it seemed ver\^ uncertain that 
it would descend as his father had planned. But these are mere 
suppositions, and no reliable information can be ascertained as to 
his real motives. He took an active part in the affairs of the 
town and in 1788 was the moderator of the town meeting. Among 
his gifts to the town was a lot of land for church purposes, pro- 
vided the minister kept a school for instruction in English. He 
often appeared as counsel in cases tried in the nearby Pownal- 
borough Court House, where he invariably attracted attention 
from his copious learning, his polished manners, and his attractive 
elocution. He was easih' the most learned and cultivated lawyer 
in Maine; and no one at the bar of Massachusetts excelled him 
as a general scholar, or in the variety of his information. 

Possibly the most important case in which he appeared as 
counsel was that of the Frenchman, Louis Porronveau, from 
Penobscot, 1791, for murder. The judges were Increase Sumner, 
Robert Treat Paine and Nathan Gushing. Mr. Gardiner and 
William Lithgow, Jr., were the counsel for the defense, and secured 
an acquittal. It is claimed, however, that strong prejudices favor- 
ing the French influenced the verdict. The case was of sufilicient 
importance, so it is said, that the French Consul came down from 
Boston for the trial. 

In 1787 he was elected as a representative to the Massachusetts 
General Court from Pownalborough. During his five years in the 
Legislature he achieved his greatest eminence because of his decided 
^tand concerning many important questions of the day. His ripe 
scholarship, rare wit, and ability as a strong and vigorous writer, 
caused him to be one of the best known men in New England. 
In debate he was fearless, and exceedingly sarcastic and vitupera- 
tive toward his opponents. The writer is indebted to an unpub- 
lished manuscript of the late Charles Allen, Esq., for a valuable 
[ summary of the measures he advocated while a member of the 



General Court. He pleased his friends and irritated his enemies 
'by advocating: — 

1. A removal of the restrictions on theatres. This was in direct 
opposition to the current public opinion. Among his opponents 
on this question were Governor John Hancock, Samuel Adams and 
Harrison Gray Otis. His famous speech on this subject was de- 
livered of date January 22nd, 1792, and while the measure failed 
of passage at that time it was finally passed in 1794. 

2. He was strenuous in his advocacy of laws to prevent the 
entailment of estates and lor abolishing such as might then be in 
existence. He aided effectually in abolishing the law by which 
the oldest son inherited a double portion of his parent's estate; 
and another to abolish the clumsy process of common recovery, 
so that a tenant in tail could by deed dock the entailment. 

3. He opposed the formation of certain associations by lawyers, 
whereby they made a sort of close corporation of law and con- 
spired to injure the people in their rights. By these organizations 
called by him the " Bar Call," none but those especially favored 
were admitted to practise. 

4. He attacked lawyer-made law generally and wished for its 
reform, winning for himself the title of the " Law Reformer." 

5. He advocated the abolition ot special pleading, so as to sim- 
plify the practise in the courts. He was zealously opposed in this 
by the celebrated Parsons and other lawyers, and the measure 
failed of passage. Forty years after, however, this measure was 
adopted to general acceptance in both Massachusetts and Maine. 

6. He opposed the custom of permitting men who held office 
under the United States government to be officials under the 
state government also. Da\id Sewall was a federal judge, and 
while such was chosen a member of the General Court. Mr. 
Gardiner held that the federal government, was in its relation to 
the state government, a foreign goxernment. He was sustained 
in his contention both by the legislature and public opinion. 

7. He repeatedly favored and labored for the separation of 
Maine from Massachusetts. 

8. He early proposed establishing a college in Maine, and Bow- 
doin College was chartered in 1794, a year after his death. 

9. He advocated the granting of land to soldiers of the Revo- 
lutionary- War. 

10. He favored putting a gallery into the House of Representa- 


lives, for the convenience of the public, which might thereby be 
enabled to observe their proceedings. 

11. He repeatedly derided the common application of the prin- 
ciple expressed in the Latin saying: '' De Mortuis nil nisi bonum," 
declaring that if it were obeyed both the pen of the historian and 
the voice of the orator would be stopped. ". ^i j 

12. He introduced and advocated a bill creating a lottery to 
build what is now known as the upper bridge over the Eastern 
River in Dresden. 

For his opinions the papers of that period at times reported him 
approvingly, and at other times criticised, ridiculed and abused 
him. Correspondents wrote about him over fantastic and fictitious 
signatures, at times calling him eloquent and learned and at other 
times referring to him as a fool. But from the character of the 
measures he advocated and opposed, it may be gathered that he 
was from his earliest years, in the uncomfortable but none the 
less commendable position of being far in advance of his genera- 
tion. While, as was natural, he failed in passing most of his 
measures, yet it must be conceded that he was a man of genius 
and marked ability. 

In October, 1793, he started for Boston from Pownalborough on 
the packet Londoner, which carried a heavy deck load of lumber. 
A severe storm came up and the vessel went down off Cape Ann, 
October 15th, 1793, and all on board were lost. Later his chest 
of clothing floated ashore which confirmed his fate. 

He had dreamed of being drowned on the trip; but he laughed 
at such superstitions. Homer would have told him that " dreams 
proceed from Jove." 

Mr. Gardiner was one of six lawyers in Maine raised to the 
degree of barrister, the others being William Gushing, David 
Scwall, Theophilus Bradbury, David Wyer, and William Wet- 
more. The rule for a barrister in England was that this degree 
should not be received unless the candidate had resided three 
years in one of the Inner Courts, if a graduate of Oxford or Cam- 
bridge, and five years provided he was not a graduate of either 
of these colleges. Although Mr. Gardiner was not a college gradu- 
ate, he received his Master's Degree from the University of Glas- 
gow in 1755, and from Harvard University in 1791. In 1791 he 
^ipl^^ears to have been a member of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery of Boston. His nephew, Hon. Robert H. Gardiner, in 
his autobiography, says of him: " He had an astonishing memory, 


was an admirable belles-lettres scholar, and particularly distin- 
guished for his wit and eloquence. He was a ver\' fine classical 
scholar, and could repeat entire books from his favorite Greek 
authors." The same writer records his recollections of ''his short, 
stout person; his hair tied up in a silk bag, and his quick, loud, 
commanding voice." 

His son, Rev. Dr. John Silvester John Gardiner, was a marvel- 
ous scholar in the classics, and was prominent as the rector of 
Trinit}' Church for twenty-five years. Phillips Brooks refers to 
him as the most eloquent and influential clergyman in Boston 
during those years. 

His speech on the theatre constitutes probably the most mas- 
terly defense of theatrical representations ever made in America. 
This speech was never delivered, as he was told that it would be 
wholly above the comprehension of his audience, and he acceded 
to the advice, printing it instead of delivering it in the House of 
Representatives. It fairly bristles with Latin and Greek quota- 
tions, the notes are more copious than the text itself, and it makes 
an octavo volume of some one hundred sixty pages. He finds 
Biblical authority for his contention, stating that " whoever is 
read in the history of the Drama, must know that the ancient 
drama took its rise in religion." He cites St. Paul as borrowing 
whole sentences and quoting several passages from the Greek 
writers of comedy. He supports his argument by the Song of 
Moses, the Psalms of David, the Songs of Solomon and the Reve- 
lations of St. John the Di\ ine. He goes at great length 'into the 
early development of the Greek and Roman theatres and presents 
an elaborate sketch of the early Greek stage. He then comes 
down to more modern times making an exhaustive argument as 
to dramatic representations in Italy, France, Spain, Holland, 
Germany and England. He brings out many specific advantages 
to be deri\ed as to improvement in speech and pronunciation, 
ease and grace in public speaking, and thinks the theatre would 
have a ver\' beneficent effect on young clergymen. Referring to 
Whitefield, he says: " Whitefield, Sir, if I have been rightly in- 
formed, was originalh- a stage player; he carried the oratory and 
the action of the Theatre into the Pulpit, and from the tones of 
his voice, assisted by gestures and action, (although his eye was 
against him) he captivated and carried away the multitude! " 

The writer recently ascertained the fact that there is in the 
possession of Harvard Uni\ersity, a Bible presented by John Gar- 


diner. It is a Latin Bible, perfect in the fine type of 1514. The 
following inscription in the handwriting of Mr. Gardiner is found 
pasted inside the Bible: "This Bible was delivered to John Gar- 
diner upon his return from Great Britain in October, 1755, by his 
father. Dr. Silvester Gardiner, who informed him that in his last 
illness the preceding year, Dr. Charles Brockwell, who was then 
the King's Chaplain at the Chapel in Boston, delivered this to 
him, saying * Doctor, you have been very kind at all times to me 
and my family, and have attended us, and administered medicine 
to us from time to time, without charging or taking anything from 
me, therefore: I have nothing to recompense you with, but to 
show my respect and gratitude as far as I can, permit me to re- 
quest you to take care of this Bible, and in my name to present 
it to your son, John, when he returns from Glasgow. I value it 
ver\' much. It was given to my father by King Charles the First, 
who presented it to him with his own hand, after having taken it 
down from a shelf in his library when my father was there with 
the royal martyr.' " 

Relative to the unknown reasons which actuated Mr. Gardiner 
in removing from Boston to Pownalborough, the writer has re- 
cently disco\ered a letter written by Mrs. Robert Hallowell Gar- 
diner from Oaklands in 1863, to Mrs. Margaret Elton, in which 
she says: *' Distinguished as a scholar, his associates were of the 
aristocratic class, into which he also married, an accomplished 
Welsh lady of famih-. He returned to his own country at the 
close of the Revolution, when wise men were striving to allay 
excitement and promote tranquillity. His position was peculiar, 
and it was probably in disgust of manners to which he would not 
conform that he retired to the estate his children had inherited 
from his father." 

In this letter Mrs. Gardiner seems to convey the impression 
that although an enthusiastic advocate of democratic principles, 
yet Mr. Gardiner by birth, education and environment was essen- 
tially an aristocrat. Upon coming to Boston he found a new 
democracy, where all men were free and equal regardless of birth 
or education. While he firmly believed in the principles of this 
democracy, yet he found it impossible to conform with dignity 
to their manners and customs. This explanation may throw a 
little light upon his reasons for removing to Pownalborough. 

, Y'^^e — The writer wishes to express his indebtedness to the unpublished autobiography 

,1 "."^n. Robert Hallowell Gardiner. Ist, of Oaklands: to an unpublished manu-script written by 

^n^ late Charles Allen. Esq., of Wi^casset: to Footes "Annals of King's Chapel: "Updyke's 

ilistory of the Xarrasanset Church:" and to the Journals of the Massachusetts Legislature 

«rom all of which he has freeh- drawn for information contained in this brief sketch. 

t>anford. Me , Feb. 24, 1921. 





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(By Ethel M. Wood) 

I. Aboriginal Tribes of Mai fie. — The aborigines of the state of 
Maine, comprising something less than one-third of the Indian 
population of New England, belonged to one of the four nations 
of the greatest of the native races of North America, the Algic 
or Algonquin. The Algonquins occupied a large territory-, their 
domain extending along the eastern coast from Newfoundland to 
\*irginia and westward to the Mississippi Ri\-er, and this people 
played a much more important part in the early history of the 
United States than any of the other aboriginal nations. Those 
of the Algonquins who occupied the territor>^ included in the 
present state of Maine separated into two distinct families, although 
they trace their descent from a common ancestr\'. These two 
divisions are the Abenakis' and the Etechemins. The very der- 
ivation of the name Abenakis our ancestors of the East),"* as 
well as their legends and traditions in regard to their creation by 
the Great Spirit, tends to give us the impression that they were 
an original people. They inhabited the land from Mount Aga- 
menticus in the extreme south-western part of Maine, as far east 
as the St. George River. 

Of the Abenakis, there were four tribes: the Sokokis or Sockhl- 
Rones, the .Anasagunticooks, the Canibas or Kennabas,^ and the 
Wawenocks. The Sokokis were a large tribe living along the Saco 
River with two principal villages, one at Peg^vacket, the site of 
^he modern Fr\eburg, and the other about twenty miles below on 
the Great Ossipee River. The powerful and warlike Anasagunti- 
Ojcjks had their habitation along the Androscoggin River, claiming 
jurisdiction over the valley of the Androscoggin from its source 
to the sea. Their favorite meeting place was at Pejepscot situated 
^'V the lower falls of the Androscoggin, later known as Brunswick 
^alls, and here they often held councils with members of other 
tribes. In the Kennebec Valley the Canibas held sway, — a numer- 
<^us people made up of four subordinate tribes, the Sagadahocs, 
the Cussenocks, the Ticonnets, and the Norridgewocks, all under 

I This name is also found in the following forms: Abenakis, Abanaquls. Abamquois, Waba 
**«, "ambanaghi, and Abenaques. 

i Vetromile'3 " History- of the Abenakis." page 26. 
J CaUed also Cannibas and Kanibals. 



^ ■■ ■ ■■ — ■ — — , I — ., - .■■,■■ — .— — ■ ... ,.,,. — —, I , , ..,-—_.■ „ , ,- . .. ^ „ III ., 

the leadership of the great chief, the Bashaba/ as they called him, 
who dwelt upon Swan Island, a small island in the Kennebec be- 
tvs'een the present towns of Richmond and Dresden. The Bashaba 
of the Canibas held a nominal sway over the other Maine tribes, 
and his influence extended even beyond the borders of the prov- 
ince. The most easterly of the great tribal divisions was that of 
the Wawenocks, inhabiting the country from the Sagadahoc to 
the St. George River. These Indians were particularly strong and 
athletic, unsurpassed in braver\% and were faithful allies of their 
neighbors, the Canibas. The principal tribes of the Etechemins 
were the Tarratines, the native inhabitants of the Penobscot 
region, and the Openangos, or Quoddy Indians, to be found about 
Passamaquoddy Bay and the Schoodic River. It has been esti- 
mated that the Abenaki warriors numbered in 1615 about five 
thousand and the Etechemins, six thousand, making a total of 
eleven thousand. From this it may be inferred that the whole 
native population, men, women, and children, numbered not more 
than thirty-six or thirty-seven thousand. 

II. Indian Life. — From a physical standpoint the Algonquins 
were the best of the aborigines. They were of medium height, 
ver>' erect in bearing, and never among them was one found to 
be deformed or ill-proportioned. Their features were finer and 
more regular than the races of the North and West. Their eyes 
were black and brilliant, their teeth ivory-white, and their beard- 
less faces of a reddish copper hue. They were quick, alert, keen, 
and acute of perception. Accustomed to all manner of hardship 
from childhood, they were possessed of great strength and marvel- 
ous powers of physical endurance and were noted for longevity. 

The dress of the Maine Indian consisted mostly of skins, espe- 
cially of deer and sable, being worn with the fur in winter, while 
the skin shorn of the fur Avas the garment for summer. Some 
of these mantles were painted, or elaborately embroidered with 
beads. Others were made by interweaving threads and feathers. 
Both men and women were tond of bright colors. The warriors 
painted their faces and all delighted in ornaments of plumes and 
shells. Their particular admiration was for anything that glit- 
tered, and they adorned themselves with brooches, bracelets, and 
£ar-rings of bright silver. The Indians near the Penobscot and 
Kennebec rivers were even more gaudy in their personal adora- 

4 " Bashaba" is Renerally considered an official title, although some authorities regard it p- 
the name of an Indian chief. This latter view doe? not a«ree with that or Southiiate who spem--- 
of " Madockawando, Sa'^amore of Penobscot, and hasliaba of the Indian Tribes." History o- 
Scarborough, page 102.— [Coll. Me. Hi:Jt. Soc. Vol. Ill, p. 102] 



ment than those further west. Weymouth, the early voyager, 
says of them, — " They painted their faces ver\' deep, some all 
black, some red, with stripes of excellent blue over their upper 
lips, nose and chin, and wore the white-feathered skins of some 
fowl round about their head, jewels in their ears, and bracelets of 
little, white, round bone fastened together upon a leather string."^ 

Their homes were fashioned of boughs and bark. The best 
wig%vams were oblong, from twenty to forty feet in length and one 
stor\' in height. They were supported on crotched posts and 
thatched with bark. A fur rug hung at the entrance in place of 
a door and there were no windows. Inside platforms were built 
around the walls for seats and the floor was strewed wjth fragrant 
hemlock boughs. 

For temporary- habitations they often used conical wig\vams less 
firmly built and smaller, being only about twelve or fifteen feet 
in diameter. The fire was built in the center and the smoke 
escaped through an opening at the top. The Indians were ex- 
tremely hospitable and always glad to welcome strangers to their 
homes where they would share with them their meals, consisting 
of fish or game and such vegetables as they could raise with their 
scanty knowledge of agriculture. An exception should be noted 
in the case of the Etechemins, however, lor they did not till the 
soil,^ but depended for food solely upon what they obtained by 
hunting and fishing. 

Although in a state of barbarism, the industrial life of the Indian 
is worthy of note. The Abenakis were more or less skilled in 
aKriculture and made rude tools for themselves. They ingeniously 
planted' their corn and beans in the same hills in order that the 
corn-stalks might ser^e as poles for the beans. They well knew 
how to boil the sap of the maple tree into sugar and syrup, but 
it was not until after the advent of the white man that the Indian 
learned how to make his maize into bread. The tradition of the 
proverbial indolence of the Indian warrior does not seem to be 
l^>rne out in the life of these tribes. 

Their government was very simple in character, permitting 
Rreat freedom to the individual and exacting little political sub- 
*>rdination. As has been said,^ the Bashaba was the great mon- 
arch of the region. The natives were divided into tribes in accord- 

S ^Vei-mouth's True Relation, p, H6. 

* Parkman, Jesuits in America, page xxii. 

i See page 62. 



ance with the totemic clan system. In other words, the clans 
traced their origin to a common ancestor, the mystical bird or 
animal, and traced descent through the maternal line. Each tribe 
had its sagamore or chief and council of wise men known as sachems. 
It was their business to determine all questions pertaining to war 
and peace. The sagamore was chosen for life and was s;eneraliv 
succeeded by his son or a near relative. Chiefs of the larger 
nations had under them subordinate chiefs who conducted the 
affairs of small tribes, and at stated seasons of the year special 
meetings of all the chiefs were held for the purpose of settling 
questions affecting the whole nation. 

The Abenaki Indian was famous tor his gentleness and docility, 
and indeed he did lack that instinct of cruelty which was so evi- 
dent in the Iroquois and others. He was scrupulously honest 
with his neighbors, and was never given to unfair or treacherous 
dealings. He had a social code emanating from custom which 
was his law. His morals were generally good. His gratitude for 
favors received was deep and lasting, but just as deep and lasting 
was his remembrance of an injury, — for *' an Indian never for- 
gets." He was jealous and revengeful and felt it perfectly right 
to return evil for evil. Cruelty for its own sake he did not prac- 
tice, but only in revenge or retaliation. He was very brave and 
daring, the result of a severe early training and he was wont to 
boast of his valorous deeds. Patience was one of his virtues, 
even in the face of real abuse. Although naturally silent, yet in 
the Indian councils he was often an impassioned orator. He was 
ambitious ot power and would strain every nerve in order to gain 
some coveted position. His thirst for intoxicating liqqors was in- 
tense and the white man's '' fire water " proved a great curse to 

The primitive religious conception of the Maine Indian was 
animistic. He was wont to invest the inanimate things ot nature 
with flesh and blood ; in other words he did indeed 

" See God in clouds and hear Him in the wind."^ 
The Indian was poKthelstic believing in a Great Spirif and many 
lesser spirits, both good and evil. He was very superstitious and 
everything which partook of the nature of the mysterious had for 
him a peculiar fascination. The name " manitou," given to good 

8 Pope; " Essay on Man", Book I, line 100. . . 

9 Some recent authorities are ot the opinion that the idea of a creative or all-po\yerful spint 
was beyond the Indian's conception, and that the Indian's " Great Spirit" was the invention of 
the Englishman and was elaborated by him. 


''v44i'^'':!^^M'^i':i^fi-''i0i- '"' --^i 

in-.y ■ 


spirits, in itself signifies mystery. The Indian's God was hardly 
more than a personification of mystery for the Indian does not 
ascribe to his God an ideal character since he regards him as little 
l)etter than his worshippers. He had his dwelling in a remote 
region somewhere in the West where he received the good Indian 
after death to enjoy immortal life in this blest abode. The un- 
worthy ones were given over to be scalped b\' their enemies. The 
good spirits or tutelar deities were thought to have their abode in 
some tree, rock, or animal, which was venerated accordingly almost 
to the extent of idol worship. There were also many evil spirits, 
the most baleful ot which was a female spirit, who was regarded 
as the dispenser of death. By the performance of many rites and 
sacrifices the Indian sought to appease the wrath ot such enemies 
and to avert their evil influence. Among the Penobscot Indians 
there was a strong beliet in an evil spirit called Pamola who dwelt 
on Mount Katahdin. They feared to approach, this place lest he 
devour them and nothing could induce them to overcome their fear. 
Interesting legends were handed down among them relating the 
experiences of luckless Indians whom he had spirited away to his 
wigwam in the interior of the mountain. Another evidence of the 
superstitious nature of the Indian is the powerful influence exerted 
over him by his Pow-wows, a sort of combination of priest and 
physician. In his eyes these men were vested with marvelous 
and supernatural powers, and were supposed to hold communion 
with spirits and demons. Great was the veneration in which these 
men were held, and this part of their religion seemed to be the 
most firmly grounded, for it was the last to surrender to the teach- 
ings of Christianity. — Such, in brief, was the life of the Maine 
Indian when first the European invaded these shores. 

III. Early English Relations with the Indians. — The British 
government, encouraged by the glowing reports of the pioneer 
voyagers, Gosnold and Pring/° and stirred with jealousy by rumors 
of French expeditions to the New World, sent out George W^eymouth 
in 1605 to explore the region along the coast of Maine and take 
possession in the name of the king. From this voyage dates 
almost the first knowledge we have of intercourse between the 
Maine Indians and the English. The policy followed by Weymouth 
m respect to the natives was unfortunate enough when viewed in 
the light of subsequent history, and his action is to be regretted. 

10 Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring had explored the coast ^of Maine in 1602-3. 



The beginning of the acquaintance of English and Indian, however, 
was most auspicious, for friendUness was manifested on both sides. 
Alter exploring the coast for some distance Weymouth anchored 
in Penobscot Bay and his men hunted, fished, and planted vege- 
tables on the fertile shore. The movements of the strangers soon 
attracted the natives and a party of the Indians encamped on the 
shore nearby, in order that they might better observe the men 
on the vessel. Three of the natives in a canoe approached to 
within a short distance of the ship but no amount of coaxing or 
of bribing with trinkets would induce the timid savages to come 
on board. A few knives and beads were thrown to them in the 
canoe and they departed seemingly much delighted. In the morn- 
ing they returned and this time ventured on board. They were 
kindly received, and the white men told them by means of signs 
that they wished to open trade with them. This evidently pleased 
them, and after being bountifully fed, they paddled away. From 
this time on more Indians were attracted to the strange ship and 
an extensive trade was opened, the natives exchanging skins of 
beaver, otter, and sable for the beads, knives, combs, and hatchets 
of the white men. 

The Indians would remain on deck for hours in the most friendly 
way and often the hospitable captain would invite them to a meal. 
They were particularly fond of peas, and on one occasion asked 
that they might take some to their squaws. The peas were given 
them in a pewter dish. That they were honest is shown by the 
fact that they caretuUy returned the shining pewter dish, which, 
because of their inherent love of glittering things, we know they 
must have co\eted. The white men in turn visited the Indians 
on shore where they were most hospitably entertained. One 
Owen Griffin remained over night with the natives, three of their 
number having been sent on board as hostages. All went well 
for a time and trade flourished, much to the advantage of the 
English, who, for trinkets of the value of five shillings, could obtain 
sometimes as many as forty valuable skins. One day a canoe 
approached the ship and its occupants made known to Weymouth 
that their chief and his men were at a little distance inland, where 
they had many furs for sale. Weymouth, suspecting treachery as 
usual, sent Griffin on shore to reconnoitre. He found two hundred 
and eighty-three men with the chief, and their bows and arrows, 
dogs and trained wolves so terrified him that he was sure of foul 


dealing on the part of the innocent red men. He returned to the 
ship with his tale, and that night three Indians were decoyed on 
board by offers of the peas of which they were so fond, and locked 
into the cabin. Later the captain sent out a boat and two others 
were kidnapped by treachery and deceit. Hardly had they been 
hidden when royal messengers from the Bashaba drew near the 
ship, ignorant as yet of the fate of their friends. They were con- 
veying a very gracious invitation from the great chief, asking the 
strangers to visit him, but the guilty Weymouth, thinking it best to 
depart immediately, did not accept. When the kidnapping of their 
warriors was discovered, friends of the prisoners came piteously 
begging that they be returned, but the captain was inexorable and 
set sail with his prey. 

Nahanada, one of the kidnapped men, was a sagamore while 
his companions, Skitwarroes,'^ Assecomet, Tisquantum, and Deha- 
mida were men of high rank. They were kindly treated, but the 
act of Weymouth had made the name of Englishman a synonym 
for treacherv' and consequently the English settler was hated and 
feared by the native upon the coast of Maine. The captives were 
taken to England where they attracted much attention. Three 
of them were given to Sir Ferdinando Gorges who taught them 
English and learned from them much concerning the land from 
which they had come. By the information thus obtained he 
learned that this must be a goodly land, and, as a result the Plym- 
outh Company was formed for the purpose of colonizing it. Gorges 
himself says of the kidnapping of the Indians, — "This accident 
must be acknowledged to be the means of God of putting on foot 
and giving life to all our plantations.'"^ 

Two years later the Popham colony was sent out and Skitwarroes, 
with them, returned to his native shores. They anchored off Stage 
Island, and the Indians soon began paddling about them in their 
canoes. These nati\-es had probably not heard of the treachery of 
Weymouth, for they gladly began to trade with the Englishmen 
and seemed to rejoice at their coming. As Popham approached 
Pemaquid, howe\'er, the attitude of the natives changed and they 
fied from the white men in terror. It happened by some chance 
that Nahanada had found his way back to his home and he recog- 
nized Skitwarroes who had for so long a time been his companion 

11 Other spellings of the name are Skidwarroes and Shetwarroes. 

12 Drake's Book of the Indians: chap. 2, p. 2. 

•J!;, ■ 

.«■; . 


in captivity. They embraced with great joy, and Popham's wel- 
come was assured. The natives invited them to visit the Bashaba, 
and Gilbert sailed eastward toward his abode until forced by un- 
favorable weather to return. The chief, when he heard of the 
effort which had been made, sent his own son to open negotiations 
with reference to establishing trade. Gilbert received the envoys 
kindly, and on the following day, which was Sunday, they attended 
public worship with the white men, conducting themselves with 
dignity and reverence. 

These Indians farther toward the East were more approachable 
and kindlier in spirit than those on the Sagadahoc and the Popham 
colonists carried on a flourishing trade with them. It is a recog- 
nized fact that this trade was a great stimulus to further coloniza- 
tion. In addition to the other hardships which the little band of 
Englishmen suffered during the following winter, they in some way 
became involved in a quarrel with the Indians. After the death 
of Popham, there was little law and order in the colony and the 
Indians were ill-treated and insulted. There are various stories 
concerning their relations with each other during the winter, but 
the authenticity of these stories is uncertain. At any rate the 
Popham store-house was burned, whether by accident or by in- 
cendiary- Indians, and the discouraged Gilbert with his remaining 
colonists abandoned their fort and returned to England where they 
painted the character of the Maine Indian in the blackest of terms. 

The English still visited the Maine coast for the purpose of 
trade, and two of the captains, Edward Harlow in 1611, and Thomas 
Hunt in 1614, had kidnapped several Indians and were more cruel 
than Weymouth because the\' sold them into slavery. John Smith, 
in 1614, and Thomas Dermer, in 1619, attempted to revive the 
settlements at Sagadahoc, and Hubbard says in his " Narrative:" 
** By Dermer's prudence and care, a lasting peace was efifected 
betwLxt the natives of the place and the English; and mutual 
confidence was restored so that the plantation began to prosper.'"-^ 

By reason of this peace the settlements ot that region had an 
unbroken existence until the outbreak of the First Indian War. 
Traders from the Plymouth colony established a post at Cushe- 
nock, the site of Augusta, in 1628, and a peaceful traffic was carried 
on for thirty-four years. During this whole period of comparative 
friendliness they did nothing to improve the condition of the 

13 Hubbard, Narrative of Indian Wars: p. 289. 


Indians and provided them with neither teachers nor preachers. 
WTien trade ceased to be profitable they lett them. Many of the 
coast settlers were a reckless, almost godless class ot people, who 
dealt in all ways treacherously with the Indians. Suffering from 
the lack of a clergyman in their midst and the habit of Sabbath 
observance they gave themselves over to license and dissipation 
and inspired little respect and much terror in the hearts of their 
red neighbors. 

( To be continued ) 


(Arthur W. Stewart) 

I Hail Thee, Pine Tree State, 

The land that gave me birth; 
There is no fairer spot to me 

On God's green earth. . 

I Hail Thee, Pine Tree State 

And my heart with rapture thrills 

As I look upon thy rivers, lakes 
And pine clad hills. 

I Hail Thee as a state 

Conservative 'tis true, 
But sure to reach success 

In whate'er you tr>- to do. 

I Hail Thee for thy statesmen 

Who have helped to place thy name 

High among thy sister states, 
High in the halls of fame. 

I Hail Thee for thy writers, 

And the good that they have done 

In all the evils we've attacked, 
And the victories we have won. 

I Hail Thee for thy sires and dames, 

Of sturdy stock were they; 
We little know what they endured, 

For this enlightened day. 


I Hail Thee for thy soldiers, 

Foremost in every battle fought 

To uphold the honor of their state 
And bring tyranny to naught. 

I Hail Thee for thy foremost place 
When of champions there is need ; 

As ever may your motto be 
Dirigo — We lead. 

I Hail Thee Pine Tree State, 

I hail thee once again, 
And may your star forever shine, 

Great State of IMaine. 

Augusta J Me., May, 1921. 


(Helen L. Worster) 

With a box of bulbs to an absent friend 

I send a little bit of iVIaine, 
A shallow box can hold, 

To sprout upon your Jersey plain, 
And 'neath warm skies unfold. 

But if the magic power I had 

To make my wish come true, 
The sunset dream that last night clad 

Our hills, I'd send to you. 

The rain wet breeze to you should bear 
The Mayflower's breath, the lark's refrain. 

For your true heart, where'er you fare, 
Is still a bit of Maine. 

Bangor f April, 1921. 


•'<'■•:•'.,■ .1' 




Mr. R. M. Washburn, in a recent issue of the Boston Sunday 
Herald, referring to this family of famous sons of Maine, says in 

Its cradle, now in a private family museum at Livermore, Me., 
in the 11 children of Israel and Martha Benjamin Washburn, has 
rocked more renown, in quality and quantity, together, than any 
other, I believe. Their lives ought to teach the kind of mothers 
we know, however complacent now, in their own fancied triumphs, 
a lesson of humility. These lives are now recorded by me with 
more propriety than apparent, because I have been unable, as 
yet, to establish a kinship with them. 

• «••••• 

These are the facts and figures of the 11 children, in the order 
of their birth, of Israel and Martha Benjamin Washburn, of whom 
I write. 

1 — Israel of Portland, Me. 1813-83. State representative; 
congressman; Governor. 

2 — Algernon Sidney of Hallowell, Me. 1814-79. Banker. 

3 — Elihu Benjamin of Chicago, 111. 1816-87. Congressman; 
Secretary^ of state under Grant; minister to France. 

4 — Cadwalader Golden of Madison, Wis. 1818-82. Congress- 
man; governor; Washburn-Crosby Flour Company. 

5 — Martha Benjamin Washburn Stephenson of Mandon, N. D. 

6 — Charles Ames of Morristown, N. J. 1822-89. Elector from 
California; minister to Paraguay. 

7 — Samuel Benjamin of Avon, N. Y. 1824-90. Sea captain; 
naval officer, ci\il war. 

8 — Mar>' Benjamin Washburn Buffum of Louisiana, Md. 

9 — William Drew of Minneapolis, Minn. 1831-12. Clerk of 
Congress; state representative; congressman; United States 
senator; Washburn-Pillsbury Flour Company. 

10 — Caroline Ann Washburn Holmes of Minneapolis, Minn. 

H — William Allen Drew of Livermore, Me. Died at 1 year. 

To sum up, the average age of these 11 children is 64. The last of 
^hem, a daughter, died In 1920. It is significant that the seven 
l>rothers who lived made their mark in six different states and 


were not borne on by the inertia of family in one state. Thev 
include two great business men. In the public service, where they 
have been best known, they include two state representatives, 
four in Congress at the same time, one being clerk; two governors, 
two foreign ministers, one in France at the time of the Commune; 
one secretar\' of state and one United States senator. The Field 
family was a great family in quality, but yields to this in quantity 
of quality. 

• •••••• 

Maine, to me, has not seemed alive enough to her great sons 
who are now dead. I once asked, in a town library there, tor a 
life of Blaine. The attendant, dazed, inquired what Blaine. I 
-replied that it was my wife who wanted the book, but that I would 
return with the full name, which I had stupidly neglected to get. 
What state has greater names than Hale, Frye, Dingley, Reed and 

A monument should be erected in Portland, where it can be 
easily reached and seen, on the Reed Esplanade, looking toward 
Mt. Washington to the west, by the mothers of Maine, to Martha 
Benjamin Washburn. It should be a shaft with her figure upon 
the top. It should be octagonal, and should bear upon its seven 
sides the names of these seven sons, and upon the eighth the infant 
boy and the three daughters. While fathers often live in history, 
the mothers, who mould the characters of the children, are too 
much forgotten. 

Of such has the great family of Washburn, of Maine, in quantity 
and quality, together, excelled. 


Saint Cloud, Florida, March 21, 192L 
I have been greatK' interested in your articles' on the Bench 
and Bar of Maine, but as a native of Waldo County I feel like 
calHng your attention to the omission of names of men who were 
the peer of any lawyers at any other county bar. You placed 
Joseph Williamson the most prominent, giving E. K. Smart and 
A. G. Jewett casual notice. I do not for an instant suggest by 
design, for I know by experience in a small way the trials of a 

1 The writer refers to an address on a Century of the Bar of Maine, delivered by the editor 
of the Journal, before the Main*; Bar Association in January of the present year, and later pub- 
lished in the Lewiston Journal Magazine. 

? I., 


Jonathan G. Dickerson, who died a Judge, Nemiah Abbott, 
niember of Congress in 1860, \V. G. Crosby, formerly Governor, 
Enoch K. Boyle, County Attorney, W. H. Folger, Colonel in Army, 
later judge, Frank O. Xickerson, a general in the army, who died 
in Roslindale, Mass., four years since, at age of 91, a strong law\er 
and persuasive advocate. A. G. Jewett was a classic scholar and 
fine gentleman, well read in the law, away back in 1840, when he 
cx)ntested with Hannibal Hamlin for the Congressional nomination 
and nearly defeated him, afterwards minister to Peru. In later 
years Belfast was his home. During the last twenty years of his 
life he lived on a farm, gave but little attention to law books, 
but appeared in court in a short faded jacket, the terror of all 
lawyers; most courteous to the trial judge but a bulldozer to his 
opponent. He went to Rockland and tried cases against Gould, 
to Houlton, and went right to the marrow in the Powers case, 
to Portland against Judge Webb in a railroad damage suit, terribly 
embarrassing Webb by his personal attacks. Abbott was a great 
lawyer and advocate. \\'hen Jewett was lambasting him on one 
occasion the judge interfered. Abbott replied: " Don't stop him, 
Judge, for we shall never have one like him again." Dickerson 
was a leader of the wild cat faction of democracy and E. K. Smart 
of the Wool Head. Dickerson de\eloped in law later. Smart 
never was great in the law, but one of the strongest and sturdiest 
fx)liticians Maine ever had. Had he been with the majority party, 
his career the last twent\' years of his life, would have left a 
name to be remembered. Enoch K. Boyle was a waif, an orphan 
from the poor farm, an orator and advocate. He lived on his 
will for years, having hemorrhage of the lungs at intervals, and 
could be tracked from his office to his home by blood. A fellow 
of fine preserve. Most genial in his association, most courteous 
lo all. He had about ten years of successful practice, and then 
was taken away, less than 40. 

Col. N. H. Hubbard of Winterport would take fair rank with 
Joseph Williamson. Learned in the law, but not an advocate. 
They both prepared cases for some more brilliant fellow to present 
to the jur>'. Folger was a fine fellow, a good lawyer and fair 

I know you will pardon me for this letter, written from an im- 
pulse after returning from Tampa, after an absence of some weeks 
to find an accumulation of Lewiston Journals, that paper that has 
prevented me for 39 years from obtaining a divorce from the 


State of Maine. I, too, was a Statesman of Maine. As a follower 
of old Solon, and Senator from Waldo County in 1879. My 
room-mate being Chase of Sebec, with whom I corresponded to 
the day of his death. A good practical, solid, sensible gentleman. 
I now notice that his son has also represented the County in the 

W. W. Thomas and (I think) Judge Morrison of Franklin County 
and myself, are the only survivors of that Senate of 79, the last 
of the Mohicans. Moody of the Council is back as representative 
from York. Nor must I forget Wm. H. McLellan of Belfast, 
Attorney General. Cool, learned in the law, an ingenious builder 
of all sorts of arguments in his master\- address to juries. Waldo 
County regarded him as one of her best. When A. P. Gould ad- 
vised that the Court had business to be referred to the Supreme 
Court, he said to the Conference they cannot revise their opinion 
in the jVIadigan Case. McLellan who opposed strenuously such 
reference exclaimed Mr. Gould, they will revise and find the law 
to do it. 

Well I will bring this incoherent epistle to a close. I was 76 
March 5, and have fully recovered my health in Florida, where 
I came a paralytic and physical wreck three years ago. 

I resided in Boston from 81 to S3y and in Chicago for 33 years 
where I edited the Chicago Opinion for 14 years. Have written 
some on old timers for Belfast Journal, occasionally for Lewiston 

Yours truly, 

Cassuss Clay Roberts. 


Mr. Freeman F. Burr of Augusta, Maine, geologist, employed 
by the Central Maine Power Company, contributes the following 
letter from the late John Burroughs, the great American geologist. 

In a note accompanying it he says: 

Enclosed is a copy of a letter from John Burroughs, and is one 
of several letters received from the great naturalist, all equally 
cordial and sincere, and all testifying to the simple, unassuming 
humanity of the man. In the date, I find that the year is omit- 
ted: it would not be a serious error to say that it was written 
in 1911. 

The son, Julian, was a college mate of mine at Harvard. The 
alphabetical arrangement in classes placed us side by side in the 


philosophy course referred to in the letter, and it was through this 
accident that I first came in personal contact with Mr. Burroughs 
himselt. This must have been in 1899. 

It may be worth while to recall another incident. It was on 
the occasion of a reception to M. Henri Bergson, the distinguished 
French philisopher given in one of the halls of Columbia Uni- 
versity. Entering the hall, I looked for the lion of the occasion, 
and discovered him standing in the midst of a small group of 
earnest men and women. On the other side of the room was a 
much larger group, gathered about some person whom I could 
not at first identify: in a moment this person turned, and I found 
that the center of attraction was John Burroughs. 

West Park, N. Y., June 2d. 
Dear Mr. Burr: 

Yes, my son remembers you in Phil, 1 a at Harvard, & I recall 
being with him at one of the lectures. He is the Julian Burroughs 
to whom you refer. He is married & has two charming little 
girls. He lives here & runs the fruit farm. 

I do not think the gray & red squirrels ever cross. Last summer 
I heard of two gray red squirrels such as you describe not tar 
from here. I tried to see them but only caught a glimpse of the 
tail of one of them as it ran into a hole under the eaves of a house. 
Its tail was decidedly gray. The nest of oak leaves to which you 
reter is more like the work of the gray squirrel. I think you 
might shoot one of those squirrels for purposes of identification. 
Maybe a new species has suddenly appeared. 

Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) John Burroughs. 

(From Prof William Otis Sawtelle, at Haverford College.) 

Haverford, Pa., March 2L 192L 
My dear Mr. Sprague: — 

Realizing that all the nice things that can honestly be said about 
your Journal and the work that you are doing for Maine doesn't 
really help much, unless your subscription list is thereby increased 
I am enclosing check for four dollars and am asking you to send 
nie two copies of the Journal. 

There are noc many people in this part of the world who are 
interested in Maine histor\' so I am unable to add any new names 
to your list of subscribers; but I am most anxious to show you 



in some tangible form, how much I appreciate what you have 
•done and what you are doing for the State and what your Journal 
means to me personally. 

. Sincerely yours, 

Wm. Otis Sawtelle. 

(Ernest L. McLean, Augusta.) 

I am certainly glad to do my bit towards the support of a peri- 
odical of the merits of Sprague's Journal. 

(From Honorable Henrj- E. Dunnack, State Librarian, Augusta, Maine.) 

Flagg's *' Alphabetical Index of Revolutionary Pensioners Living 
in Maine," is one of the finest pieces of work that has been carried 
out under your direction. I hope you will soon start some other 


IN 1847 

The Patten Libran,- Association in Bath was started by George 
F. and John Patten with 132 citizens, who, on October 9, 1847, 
■signed a paper of agreement to become subscribers to a stock 
joint library and organized in the office of Israel Putnam, Bath's 
*' war mayor," the doctor presiding, and the late E. S. J. Nealley, 
collector of customs for this port for many years, acting as secretary. 

The meeting in Dr. Putnam's office was November 8, 1847. Mr. 
Nealley continued as secretary until 1876 when he was followed 
by C. B. Lemont until his removal to Boston, when James S. 
Lowell became the secretary* and has held the office since. George 
F- Patten was elected first president, holding the office until 1857. 
Caleb S. Jenks presided up to 1862; Amos Nourse, a leading 
physician of Bath and for a term U. S. senator from Lincoln 
<:ounty, to 1865; Rev. S. F. Dike, D. D., to 1870; Israel Putnam 
to 1876; E. S. J. Nealley to 1882; John Patten to 1887; Galen 
-C. Morse until his death; Hon. Harold M. Sewall became presi- 
dent and is still the executive head. 

August 6, 1852, George F. and John Patten purchased at auction 
-sale for vS300 the King library, all the books, cases, maps, globes 
that had been collected and used by Maine's first governor, Wil- 
liam King, and presented the property to the Library' association 
on condition that " the same revert to the donors in event the 




association should ever be dissolved and also on condition that a 
suitable room be obtained for the whole library." 

It was May 6, 1878, that John Patten, one of Bath's grand 
old citizens executed a deed of trust to the association, giving to 
it a house and lot on Center street and providing that whenever 
the city established a public library and appropriated not less than 
S300 yearly for its maintenance, the property should be trans- 
ferred to the city. The following week the trust was accepted and 
the books were transferred from the hall in the top story of the 
building in which the Johnson bakery is located on Front street 
in January, 1880, to the Center street building where the library 
had its home until the present structure on the park was pre- 
sented by Galen C. Moses in 1887. 

This gift of Mr. Moses was on condition that a site be provided^ 
he agreeing to pay 810,000 for the construction ot a suitable build- 
ing thereon. Time went on and the city government took no 
action toward providing a site, nor did it ever thank the generous 
donor for his gift. Finally, when it seemed that the offer would 
lapse, ladies and gentlemen came to the Bath Independent and 
requested that it woujd aid in obtaining, by one of its popular 
subscription efforts, money for the site. Even then, nothing was 
done for several months when those interested returned and again 
begged the Independent to act, saying that unless it did, " no one 
else would and that the offer of Mr. Moses would lapse." The 
Independent acted and a subscription movement was started like 
one of the recent war drives; the Torrey mansion on the present 
Mte of the library was purchased; then the Snow building on the 
extreme point ot the park was bought with its land adjoining the 
Torrey grounds, thus making a complete square of the park; 
^Jeorge Edward Harding, for his part of the enterprise, had his 
firm of architects in New York city provide the plans of the 
I'uilding, which he presented the association. Roughly estimated, 
^he total cost of the purchase of the properties on that corner of 
'«e park and the grading amounted to $8500. Then Mr. Moses 
f^de good his offer and laid out more than $10,000 in the con- 
struction of the library structure. December 29, 1890, he trans- 
^t^rred the property to the city and Januar\^ 1, 1891, the library 
*as opened to the citizens of Bath, free for all time. 

t,JJ^ above is a clipping from a newspaper If any of the statements are inaccurate, or im 
tT**"*" '^^ ^ve been omitted, will the Patten Library kindly furnish them to the Journal ? 

I t,:uor.; 



(By the Editor) 

A brilliant human light was extinguished, when, on Sundav, 
May 8, 1921, at his home in Portland, occurred the death of James 
Phinney Baxter, father of Governor Percival P. Baxter. It is 
only the truth to say that he was one of the greatest of Maine's 
eminent men of the present generation. He was born in Gorham, 
Maine, March 22>, 1831, the son of Dr. Elihu and Sarah (Cone) 
Baxter. When nine years of age his parents moved to Portland 
which was ever after his home. At that time there was in Port- 
land a far famed school for boys known as '^ Master Jackson's 
School." He was a scholar there until thirteen years ot age when 
he attended the Lynn Academy four years. At first his parents 
were desirous of his becoming a lawyer and he entered the office 
of Rufus Choate in Boston for this purpose, but failing health 
compelled him to return to Portland, and his legal studies thus 
interrupted were ne\er resumed. He entered into the business of 
importing dry goods with the late William G. Davis who was later 
prominent in the affairs of the Alaine Central Railroad. Baxter 
and Davis were pioneers in the canning and packing business and 
Maine owes them much for successfully developing this great 
industry in our State. 

Possibly his experience as a boy in the Portland schools con- 
vinced him that the opportunities for improving educational con- 
ditions there were vast. But from whatever source his inspira- 
tion may have come he was for a lifetime a consistent and per- 
sistent advocate of whatever would advance the cause of educa- 
tion in his city and his State. 

Successful in all of his undertakings he acquired a large fortune, 
but wealth did not narrow his vision, shrivel his manhood, or dry 
up his milk of human kindness. His benevolence and philanthropy 
as a private citizen and his activities in organized charities are 
known to all men. 

To his native town and his adopted city he has donated public 
libraries, and has made other munificent gifts in other directions 
of a public nature. The city of Portland and the State of Maine 
have in innumerable ways been benefited by his life efforts. 

A publicist of strong convictions, fearless in his positions when 
believing that he was right, he was long an important factor and 
a moulder of thought in political and public affairs. And yet 
political management as such never appealed to him. He never 

W •■\: 

r^^^i^' ■:.<xi.- 



held but one important office, so far as we are aware, which was 
when the people of his city demanded his services as mayor which 
position he held for six years. 

He was at the time of his death president of the Portland Public 
Library, the Baxter Libran.^ of Gorham, the Benevolent Society 
and since 1890 of the Maine Historical Society, also an overseer 
of Bowdoin College. He was connected with the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Society, the American Antiquarian 
Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society and the Old Colony Historical Society. 
He also held the office of secretary- of foreign correspondence of 
the American Antiquarian Society. 

But this many sided man will be best known in the field Df 
literature and historical research, and as an authority on New 
England history, especially that portion of it pertaining to Maine's 
colonial period. In this regard he has left monuments for him- 
self which will last through the ages. 

His intellectual acti\ities for the past century have amazed 
those of his friends who fully realized what a busy life he led along 
other and diverse lines. In his younger days Mr. Baxter con- 
tributed poetry to literary journals like The Home Journal, Shil- 
lal)er's Carpet Bag, Godey's Lad\''s Book, the Portland Tran- 
script, etc. We have not the necessar>- data at hand to enumerate 
all of his labors as an author. Williamson's Bibliography of 
Maine, published in 1896, has a list of twenty-seven at that time. 
Among his most important works are The Trelawney Papers, 
<^»eorge Cleve and His Times, The British Invasion from the 
North, Sir Ferdinando Gorges and His Province of Maine, The 
Pioneers of New France in New England, The Voyages ot Jacques 
Cartier, Journal of Lieut. William Digby, 1776-1777. Only six 
years ago (1915), he contributed to the literature of the world 
«in important and learned study of the Bacon-Shakespeare con- 
troversy. This was published under the title of *' The Greatest 
^>* Literary- Problems " and elicited much discussion among re- 
viewers and men of letters. 

Twenty-four volumes of the Documentary History of Maine, 
have been published all of them part of the Collections of the 
Maine Historical Society. The first two volumes were edited by 
^\illiam Willis, and Charles Deane, and the two volumes of the 
^^rnham Papers, were edited by Mar\- Frances Farnham. The 
*>lher twenty volumes which include the Trelawney Papers, were 


edited by Mr. Baxter. The nineteen volumes of the Baxter Manu- 
scripts represent one of the greatest feats of historical research 
ever performed by any one person that we have knowledge of. 
Mr. Baxter, at his own expense visited and personally examined 
all of the records, letters, deeds, or writings of any description 
pertaining to the histor\' of Maine, in the archives of Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia, Montreal, Quebec, London, and Paris, 
and procured copies ot them. These are what constitute the 
'^Baxter Manuscripts." They are invaluable to all students of 
Elaine history-. Xo accurate story of Maine's Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary- periods, or of any parts thereof, can ever in all the fulness 
of time, be written or compiled without reference to them. 

It is truly a large footprint on the sands of time. It is the 
record of a great and worthy achievement. 


It has been the custom of the Maine Federation of Agricultural 
Associations, which comprise most of the agricultural organizations 
in Maine, to erect, every alternate year, in the Maine College of 
Agriculture a bronze tablet in memory of someone who has dis- 
tinguished himself promoting agriculture in this state. Recently 
in connection with the Farmers' week activities at the college, a 
tablet was erected and dedicated in memory of Samuel Lane 
Boardman, who died in 1914, and who was well known as an 
agricultural editor and writer. * 

Mr. Boardman was born in Bloomfield, now the town of Skow- 
hegan, in 1836. He was assistant editor of the Country Gentleman, 
Albany, N. Y., in 1859; editor of the Maine Farmer from 1861 to 
1878; editor of the American Cultivator, Boston, in 1873; editor 
and publisher of the Home Farm, Augusta from 1880 to 1886; 
agricultural editor of the Kennebec Journal from 1889 to 1892; 
secretary of the Maine State Agricultural Society, 1855 to 1874; 
member of the Maine Board of Agriculture from 1872 to 1874; 
trustee of the Maine State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts, 1874 to 1879; member of the board of managers of the 
Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, 1885 to 1887. 

The dedicator>' exercises were followed by a meeting of the 
Maine Federation of Agricultural Associations. 

... -; ■ ■■-, 'V ■ '. -■ -- 





(By Florence Whittlesey Thompson) 

Prior to the Revolutionary War there were but two churches 
in that part of Falmouth which is now Portland. One was the 
old First Parish, a rough log house on India Street near Middle 
Street, in which Parson Smith began his noted pastorate in 1727, 
and which was replaced in 1740 by a new wooden structure on 
the site of the present First Parish Church on Congress Street. 
The other was Old St. Paul's, an Episcopal Church on Middle 
Street at the corner of Church Street. This, also a wooden struc- 
ture, was built in 1765. Old St. Paul's was an off-shoot of the 
First Parish, but not its first one, for there were others in neigh- 
boring villages, but St. Paul's was the first that was not trinitarian 

There were many reasons why certain of Parson Smith's parish- 
ioners sought another church. Some did not like his preaching. 
Some objected to paying the salaries of two ministers, those of 
Parson Smith and his new colleague Rev. Mr. Deane, but many 
were of English birth and had been brought up in the Church of 
England and had only been attending the First Parish Church 
l»ccause there was no other church. In 1763 the break came. 
Forty men, many of whom were men of affairs and position in 
the town, organized themselves into a parish and asked the Rev. 
Mr. Wiswell of the Congregational Church of New Casco to be 
their minister. He accepted their call, went to England for Epis- 
copal ordination, and returned to be the first minister of Old St. 
F^aul's where he remained until the church and Portland were 
turned in 1775 by the British. 

Those members of the new parish who had been members of 
the First Parish continued to be taxed for the support of the 
mother church, but after 1772 the First Parish returned to Mr. 
V\iswell the money that had been collected from St. Paul's and 
two years later joined St. Paul's in a petition to the General Court 
»n Boston to abolish the tax. In the meantime, the English 
^xriety for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts con- 
tributed twenty pounds a year towards the support of the minis- 
»«^T of St. Paul's. 

The Revolutionary War had a most disastrous effect upon both 
^he First Parish and the Episcopal Church, but especially upon 
*he latter. As most of its members were royalists, many, including 




(Courtesy of J. P. Grenier, Supt. State Printing) 

the minister, left the country. Parson Smith's house being burned, 
he mo\ed to Windham to Hve with his son. His colleague, ]Mr. 
Deane, moved to Gorham and there were only occasional services 
held by them in Portland. 

The First Parish Church, because of its location (then considered 
far up town) escaped the ravages of the fire that destroyed the 
lower town. Although it was badly shattered by the enemy's 
firing it was not beyond repair and remained the meeting place 
for Congregationalists until the present beautiful stone church 
was built in 1826. 

?i !~: 


There were no Episcopal ser\'ices during the war and it was 
not until 1783 that the remnant of the Episcopal Church met to 
reorganize. In 1787 a second edifice was erected which was of 
wood like the first and on the site of the old church. Owing to 
the distressing effects of the war, the church was in a struggling 
condition for fifteen years or more. 

In 1803 a splendid group of men whose names are still known 
in Portland history took the church in hand. They sold the 
church and lot at public auction, and bought another lot a block 
further up the street where they built a new church on Middle 
Street facing Pearl Street. This was a brick church with a mas- 
sive tower and an open belfry in which hung a deep toned bell. 
This church continued to be known as St. Paul's until 1839 when 
the parish was again reorganized under the name of St. Stephen's, 
by which name it was known until it was burned in the great 
Portland fire of 1866. 

In 1820 during the ministry of the Rev. Air. Ten Broeck, while 
this organization was still called St. Paul's, the Diocese was 
formed — the same }"ear in which the State of Maine was admitted 
to the Union — so that in 1920 both the Diocese and the State 
celebrate their Centenarv. 


(By Robert H. Gardiner. ) 

Few localities along the Kennebec River offer more interesting 
history- than the present town of Dresden. It was a part of what 
was known as the Frankfort Plantation which includes the present 
towns of Dresden, Wiscasset, Alna and Perkins. Later on in 1760 
these towns were incorporated under the name of Pownalboro in 
honor of the Massachusetts governor of that date. Pownalboro 
(Dresden) became the shire town and so remained for 34: years. 
In 1794 Dresden, Perkins and Alna were set off, while the name of. 
Pownalboro was retained for that section now known as Wiscasset 
This latter name was adopted in 1802 and the good old name of 
the original incorporation was lost to that section. 

Pioneer life always included protection against the Indians, so 
*t* find records of a block house where all could take refuge in the 
time of attack. This house no longer exists, but close to it in point 
of space was built in 1761 a large Court House which still remains. 


Many a conflict between the Gardiners, Bayards and Quincys 
took place within these walls and here rang the eloquence of Presi- 
dent John Adams, Judge Gushing and the Sewalls. In 1760 the 
famous Boston ^lassacre case was tried here and John Adams the 
lawyer for the defence of Gaptain Preston, travelled from Boston 
to Pownalboro on horseback following a blazed trail, a far cry to 
our present speed by automobile, but was the journey less pleas- 
urable? This old court house is now the residence of direct de- 
scendants of Samuel Goodwin, the first owner, who had his grant 
directly from the builders, The Plymouth Gompany. The Good- 
win family preserve as nearly as possible the old furnishings which 
include valuable portraits of Thomas Johnson, whose mother was 
a daughter of Samuel Goodwin, and of Rebecca Prescott, grand- 
daughter of Samuel Goodwin. The upper story of the house re- 
mains with one exception as in the old court days. The old court 
room has been partitioned off into bedrooms. 

Battles of tongues were not the only kind that waged in Pow- 
nalboro. During the Revolutionary War, Mr. Jones, familiarly 
known as " Mahogany Jones " on account of his dark complexion, 
prompted by patriotism headed a small party who went to the 
house of Brigadier Gushing, took him out of bed, carried him over 
to the Penobscot and delivered him to the British. 

Any sketch of Pownalboro or Dresden would be far from com- 
plete which does not include the story of St. John's Ghurch and 
the Rev. Jacob Bailey, the first rector and missionary to these 
parts. Through the influence of Dr. Sylvester Gardiner, a glebe 
lot of one hundred acres was granted by the proprietors of the 
Kennebec Purchase and by Xov^ember 1770 the church was erected 
and sufficiently completed for the first service. Near by it was 
built the parsonage, long promised to Mr. Bailey. He gave most 
unselfish devotion to his scattered flock, but during the Revolution 
showed such loyalty to the Royal cause that in 1778 persecution 
was so great that he was obliged to flee the country. The loss of 
the shepherd was followed by the desertion of the flock and both 
church and parsonage fell down. Thus the lot was forfeited, but 
the Company by suit regained possession and the property was 
granted to Trustees, (Samuel Summer Wilde, then of Hallowell, 
a justice of the Supreme Gourt of Massachusetts who removed to 
Massachusetts on the separation of Maine; James Bridge of 
Augusta; and Robert Hallowell Gardiner), for the benefit of the 
minister of the Congregational Society in Dresden, so long as no 



Episcopal Society shall exist in said town, but when an Episcopal 
Society shall be established and a minister settled over it in said 
town then for the use and benefit 01 said Episcopal minister. Said 
society was established, but only fragments of its records remain 
and the fund is still held by succeeding Trustees for the benefit 
of the Episcopal Church. 


A valuable and interesting historical document has been given 
10 the Bangor Historical Society, in the form of a letter written 
by Peter Edes, who came to Bangor over 100 years ago and estab- 
lished the first newspaper to be published there, to Sam Dutton, 
Ex:]., one of the city's prominent early residents. The letter 
inquires of Mr. Dutton of the outlook in Bangor for the estab- 
lishment of a newspaper, Mr. Edes. who had been conducting a 
newspaper in Augusta, ha\ing been obliged to give up his busi- 
ness there because of a falling oft of his business due to the entry 
in the field of a third newspaper in Hallowell. Mr. Dutton's 
reply must have been favorable as Peter Edes came to Bangor 
''hortly alter and set up his plant. The historical society came 
into possession of the letter thru the kindness of William J. Dut- 
^>n, of San Francisco, Cal., grandson of Sam Dutton. 

The letter follows: 

Augusta, March 29, 1814. 
^»m Dutton, Esq. 

Snce Mr. Goodale has established a News Paper in Hallowell, 
''^V customers are falling off. I therefore think it my duty to 
**^k a place where I can procure a living for my family, as I am 
^■■nfidcnt three papers cannot be published here to any profit; 
•*'»d tlie Hallowell people will do any thing to prevent their paper 
"••m l>eing discontinued — I wish I could say the same of Augusta. 
A printer is wanted at Bath, and I have received a letter from 
* Kentleman there on the subject; I have mentioned the business 
** ^mie of my friends here, and they advise me in case I should 
*'<ve Augusta, to prefer Bangor. 

" »t be the wish of the people at Bangor and the neighboring 
*'*ns, to have a printer, be so good as to draft a subscription 



paper with a prospectus and forward it to me, and I will strike 
some off and send them to you for circulation. Tho the paper 
would be published at Bangor I think some general title would 
be more taking with the people, such as The Hancock, or Hancock 
& Washington. A few gentlemen might get together and agree 
upon some title. If seven or eight hundred good subscribers 
could be obtained I would make arrangements to be with them. 
In which case I should depend upon some gentlemen to assist 
in the editorial department. 

I shall rely solely on your opinion with respect to the eligibility 
of the place for a printer confident you would not advise me to 
a measure that you thought would be injurious to me. 

Your friendship and assistance in this undertaking will confer 
an obligation upon me, which I would endeavor to cancel when 
I become an inhabitant of Bangor. 

Your with respect and esteem, 

, Peter Edes. 

A line from you as soon as convenient will be received with 
pleasure, and I hope satisfaction. 


No less a personage than General Benjamin F. Butler taught 
two or more terms in the little schoolhouse in Cornville, Maine. 
Butler was a nati\-e of New Hampshire but studied for a time at 
Colby College. Being poor he worked his way thru college by 
teaching school. That is how he came to be a resident of Corn- 
ville. Ben was a picturesque character even in his youth with 
the same lop-eye he carried in older life, which gave an uncertain, 
quizzical expression in his facial landscape, and kept the college 
from being dull. Calvinism held full sway at Colby when he was 
a student, and absence from prayers or sermons was a heinous 
offence. The faculty consisted of nine doctors of divinity and with 
the student body numbered about 100. The president one Sun- 
day in preaching about the elect calculated that only about six 
of. 100 souls could enter the kingdom of heaven, wherefore Butler 
petitioned to be excused from further attendance on divine ser- 
vice, because he said with the nine doctors of divinity in his 100 
he stood no chance. Only the audacious sarcasm for which he 
was alwa\'s noted saved him from expulsion for such sacrilege- 

— Lewiston Journal. 



This Department is open to Conducted by Augustus O. 




(By Augustus O. Thomas.) 

No Study is more enticing than the achievements of men and 
the study becomes doubly interesting when it has to do with the 
!:)eginnings of things with which we are now perfectly famiUar. 
Many of the schools of our state, from the little country school 
on the hillside to the girls in our state normal schools, are doing 
research work in local history and are producing some very fine 
stories of the beginnings of their towns. Miss Nellie Jordan, with 
her class in the Aroostook State Normal School, produced some 
wonderful books, each student taking for her own work her local 
town. In some instances, the book compiled is a community 
affair, each child contributing some fact or some paragraph or 
s'ime source material from which the paragraph is written. I hope 
the work may be carried on in future years. Teachers who have 
not begun it will find explicit directions in our little booklet, '' One 
Hundred Years of Statehood and One Hundred Leading Facts of 

I am giving herewith some of the paragraphs culled from the 
'•'joks sent in to the office by schools throughout the state. It 
*>n \)e noted that these paragraphs are finished exercises in Eng- 
u>n and show a ver\' nice discrimination of leading facts. It is 
rcilly worth something to the child or even to a high school stu- 
^^'nt to make some original investigation from the sources of 
^^iiormation, collect that data around a central idea and write it 
^? definitely and purposefully. I am pleased to call the atten- 
***^n of the teachers of the state to the following very fine para- 
S^'^phs or extracts from Maine books. 




(By Charlotte F. Doe.) 

" One of the important events in the history of Caribou was the 
building of the dam across the Aroostook River in 1889 by the 
Caribou Water Company. In 1887, the first Electric Light Com- 
pany was organized and a plant was installed and run by steam 
on the banks of the Caribou Stream. In 1892, the Water Com- 
pany installed the power house at the dam." 


(By Viola M. Hughes.) 

*' Growth of Sherman Mills. There are now sixty-five residences 
in town, one modern flour mill, a starch factor\-, four grocery 
stores, three blacksmith shops, two dry goods stores, a grange 
store, a harness shop, a well equipped garage and a few other 
stores which deal in miscellaneous goods. The grange store does 
from S80,000 to S90,000 of business each year. The census this 
year gave the population of the town a little over eleven hundred. 
The town is steadily increasing in size and wealth." 


(By Minnie O. Peterson) 

" In 1873, the colony had increased to six hundred. Fifteen 
hundred acres of land had been cleared, four hundred of which 
were laid down to grass. There were 22 horses, 14 oxen, 100 
cows, 40 calves, 33 sheep and 125 swine owned by the colony. 
The commissioner recommended that all special state aid to New 
Sweden should cease as the colony could very well take care ot 


(By Elsie Chassie.) 

*' One of the first attentions of the Maine governor was to make 
known to his new subjects the constitution under which they 
were henceforth to live. It was for this purpose that an Irish- 
Catholic of good education and well acquainted with the French 




language, James Madigan, was sent to them as a civil missionary. 
Madigan went over tiie country giving lectures and teaching the 
people about the U. S. constitution, the administration and the 
civil government. He was for a time postmaster, instructor, col- 
lector of taxes and magistrate for the whole region. But as soon 
as one locality* was ready to take up the administration of its own 
affairs, he would pass his functions to the citizens." 


(By Gertrude Davis.) 

" Perhaps one of the most important and interesting of the 
early settlers was William Moore. He erected a log house not 
far from where the offices of the American Woolen Co. stand at 
present. Mr. Moore built a saw mill which soon became a very 
busy place, as there was no other for several miles from there. 
It is related that the original mill was built entirely of wood, 
ever>'thing being made from wood but the saw. The first dam 
he built of logs and it was not far from the dam owned b\' the 
American Woolen Co. at present. It is said that so little dis- 
turbed was the wilderness by the encroachments of the settlers, 
that at times Mr. Moore allowed the machinery in his mill to 
run all night in order that it might frighten away the bears and 
other forest prowlers." 


** General Peleg Wadsworth, a graduate of Harvard College, 
was Hiram's great educator in the early days. When eighty years 
of age he rode through the town on horse back, announcing that 
he had provided a private school at the Town House and wanted 
•ill the good little boys to attend free of expense." 


(By Frieda W. Hatch.) 

" Its history dates back to the year 1779 when Great Britain 
^•^s at war with her colonies. The Americans were mostly de- 
I •indent on the Maine seacoast for their supplies of lumber, fish, 
^^^', and to prevent them from getting these, the English deter- 
"»»ned to establish a military' post there. Castine, or Bagaduce 
♦^"^ »t was then called, was chosen for the site of this and late in the 


spring of the year 1779, British soldiers, about seven hundred in 
number, landed and began clearing the land." 

" Castine has had many experiences. It has been held by the 
Indians, Dutch and English. After the Revolution, Castine be- 
came rapidly settled and for a long time it was the most impor- 
tant mart of business in the eastern part of Maine. Ship building 
was formerly the leading industry-." 


(By Eva M. McShea.) 

" Another important change in 1881 was the purchase of text- 
books by the town. We may picture the hard times of the early 
students when we consider the condition of the countr\', how hard 
it was for most of the people to make both ends meet. We can 
picture the sacrifices, and what a joy it must have been to many 
boys and girls when they were told that their books were to be 


(By Alda E. Haines.) 

" The first school in the village was held in a room above the 
saw and grist mill of Dennis Fairbanks who was the founder of 
the town. This school was taught by the daughter of Air. Fair- 
banks who had what was then considered a good education. She 
must certainly have had patience, enthusiasm and courage or the 
inconveniences of such a room and the lack of equipment would 
have made the school a failure. That it was not a failure we 
are sure, since the boys and girls who attended it became Presque 
Isle's most honored citizens." 


(By Winifred Duplisea.) 

" In 1915 there began a new era in the history of Houlton High 
School with the completion of the new building. This building 
was erected just beyond the old Central Building at a cost of 
$50,000. It is a large brick building, one of the best in Maine, 
containing in addition to its many recitation, study and lecture 



rooms, well stocked physical and chemical laboratories, domestic 
art and science rooms, typewriting rooms, manual training 
rooms, g\-mnasium and auditorium. It is furnished throughout 
with hard wood, and has a steam heating system, and is well 
lighted with electric lights, while its ventilating system is exceed- 
ingly good." 


(By Mercie Ruth Wilson.) 

" The schools should be given great credit in the ways that they 
have helped themselves. Nearly every rural school has its own 
treasury- with a goodly sum in it. This year the Whittaker school 
raised through community entertainments one hundred and eighty 
dollars. Practically every school has good pictures, a small library, 
a bubbler drinking fountain, oil stove for warm lunch, organs or 
victrola with cabinet. The Reach school is the only one to have 
a piano. Sash curtains have been made by the children and hung 
at the windows. The money is usually raised by means of the 
old-fashioned box social, many schools raising one hundred dollars 
at one social." 


* (By Chrystal E. Waddell.) 

" During the first two years, the students were required to- 
board in private families. This made the work much more diffi- 
cult on account of distance. In 1905, a beautiful dormitory was 
erected for the girls. At that time, it was the best in the state." 

i :; 



Ill I 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. - 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, S2.00. Single copies of current and previous vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 



Preserve this issue of the Journal. Yon will then always have 
what will be of exceeding interest and worth to yourself and family. 
Hand it along to future generations ! It will be of priceless value 
to them. < 


The National Geographic Magazine in an article on " The 
Origin of American State Names " (Aug. 1920, p. Ill) says: 

The generally accepted version of the origin of the name of 
Maine is that it was so called by some early French explorers 
alter the French province of that name, wherein was located the 
private estate of Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I. of England. 

There Is another meaning ascribed to the name, fairly well 
supported by authorities. According to this version, the fisher- 
men on the islands along the coast of Maine always referred to 
that region as the " Mayn land," and in support of this theor\' 
we find that the colony referred to in a grant of Charles I. to Sir 
Fernando Gorges in 1639 as " the province or county of Mayne." 






Is the name of the latest jNIaine periodical to appear upon our 
table. Two numbers on April 1 and October 1 of each year are 
to be issued at 61.00 per year. It is published by the Knox 
Academy of Arts and Sciences at Thomaston, Maine. Norman 
Wallace Lermond, a well known student of natural history, biol- 
ogy*, etc., is its managing editor. Its " department editors" are 
all experienced research writers along these lines as follows : 
Arthur H. Norton, Portland; Prof. Alfred O. Gross, Brunswick; 
Alton H. Pope, Waterville; Edith ^I. Patch, Orono; Prof. C. H. 
Batchelder, Orono; Edwin W. Gould, M. D., Rockland; Louise 
H. Coburn, Skowhegan; Prof. John M. Briscoe, Orono; Prof. 
Edward H. Perkins, Waterville; Prof. Wm. L. Powers, Machias. 
It has several fine engravings of beautiful specimens of Maine 
botany, birds, etc., and a photograph likeness of Dr. Dana W. 
Fellows, President of the Josselyn Botanical Society of Maine. 
There is certainly an immeasurable need for a Maine publication 
devoted to this work of such value to science and to Maine. 
The Journal extends its congratulations, cordial welcome and 
bestows its blessing, sincerely hoping that the people of our State 
will give it their generous support to which it is entitled. 

The editor invites all who are interested in this phase of Maine 
history- in the following note: 

"We want even,- scientist, naturalist, nature lover, student and 
teacher in Maine, young and old, to become a member of our 
Knox Academy family, and to make free use of the Naturalist in 
recording their observations, their ' finds,' telling about their trips 
to the woods, fields, lakes and seaside. Tell the rest of us some- 
thing of the habits, songs or actions of the birds, mammals, in- 
^*cts, flowers, etc., seen on these trips. Work out the life history 
*jf some insect — there are thousands of insects whose life his- 
tories are unknown, or only partly known — note the kinds of 
»nsects visiting the different kinds of flowers. There is much still 
to be learned of the habits of birds and animals (all kinds of ani- 
"i^ls, from the amoeba to man). Send in photographs. We shall 
«^^ard prizes to young nature students making the best ones." 

The fountain head of organized effort in historical research and 
lilory teaching in the schools, in this country, is the American 



■^■l : 


Historical Association. It was organized at Saratoga, N. Y., 
Sept. 10, 1884, and incorporated by Congress, Jan. 4, 1889. 

It is obliged by its act of incorporation to report annually to 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, concerning its pro- 
ceedings and the condition of historical study in America. These 
reports are printed by the government. Its 33d report for the 
year 1917, has just been issued at Washington. The meeting for 
that year was held in Philadelphia, Dec. 27-29. 

Since 1904, a conference of delegates of historical societies has 
been held in connection with its annual meetings. 

The above mentioned report (page 26) says: "At these con- 
ferences, are considered the problems of historical societies — for 
example, the arousing of local interest in history, the marking 
ot historic sites, the collection and publication of historical mater- 
ial, the maintenance of historical museums, etc." 

Since 1911, it has assumed a guiding interest in that invaluable 
periodical the History Teachers Magazine. It co-operates with all 
State and local historical societies. 

In JVIaine there are onl\- four societies allied with it. These are: 

The Maine Historical Society, Portland; the Bangor Historical 
Society, Bangor; the Piscataquis Historical Society, Dover, and 
the Elaine Genealogical Society, Portland. The states altogether 
have a total of 350 of these societies. Massachusetts leads the 
nation with 75; other New England States are as follows: 

Maine 4, New Hampshire 3, Vermont 1, Rhode Island 5. x\mong 
other States, Pennsylvania has 45, New York 43, Illinois 36 and 
Indiana 27. 


On May 3, 1921, when the U. S. Senate were debating the ques- 
tion of restricting immigration to America, that giant debator. 
Senator Reed, of Missouri, made reference to American ancestr}' 
in a general way. The Senator's pungent remarks are historlcalh' 
true and apph' to the origin of the people ot Maine, the same as 
they do to those of all the New England States and all other por- 
tions of the country as well. 

We append the following brief excerpts from his speech: 
But where did you come from? I question whether there is a 
man in this room whose ancestors have been here four genera- 
tions who can say that he comes from any one blood. In your 

[■■ '!!• 

Ni 'i;; 





veins meet and mingle the bloods of many peoples. Do you call 
yourself an Englishman? Then what are you? English blood 
is a polyglot, if such a thing be upon all this earth — the original 
Celtic stock conquered by a German tribe, overrun by the Ital- 
ians, who were called Romans then; partially conquered by the 
Danes and their blood left there; and then another German tribe, 
which gave to Britain the name of England, because that tribe 
was the tribe of Angles; then a mixed breed of Xorsemen and 
French, who had established themselves in part of France and 
who had named it Xormandy because the Xorsemen had overrun 
it. This breed of English is therefore a breed of many breeds, 
and I have no question it was the meeting and the mingling of 
these different strains of blood which made the Englishman what 
he is to-day, the most dominant character in all the world, the 
most determined in his policies, the most deathless in his deter- 
mination, the great conquering race, that with but 38,000,000 
Britishers in the British Isles floats the flag of England over one- 
third of the world's surface and over one-third of its population. 
So, if you are English, you are pretty well crossed up. 

But why spend time oxer there? Let us come home. At the 
time of the Revolution, 26 different languages were spoken in 
the city of Xew York. We had the Pennsylvania Dutch with 
us then, so provincial, so attached to their old customs, that in 
parts of Pennsylvania to-day they still speak their original tongue, 
although the ancestors ot some of them came here 175 years ago. 

Then there were the French Huguenots. Somebody proposed 
here a moment ago to close the door on account of religion. There 
IS not the descendant of a French Huguenot in the L'nited States 
^hose ancestor did not come here to escape religious persecution. 
They were the outcasts of their country. They were driven away 
I'^'cause they did not worship God according to the forms and 
<"^Temonies which had been laid down for them by others. So 
niey came in great numbers, and to-day every man I know of 
^ho has a drop of that blood in his veins is proud to boast of it. 

How did your ancestors get here, anyway? Do you think that 

^^ Almighty went around and picked out a few select indi- 

^^'luals ot the highest character and morals and respectability 

•^nd brought them here, and \'ou have descended from that par- 

*>cular stock? You are descended from people who came here 




not one whit better than the men and women who are coming 
now. A lot of your ancestors worked their passage over here 
as bondsmen and sold themselves into temporary slavery in order 
to get here. Some of you may find, if you will go back far enough, 
that your great-great-great-grandmother was sold on the auction 
block and paid for in long, green tobacco by the enterprising gentle- 
man over here who wanted a wife. Some of you may easily now 
trace your ancestors back to the fellow who came over here with- 
out a dollar in his pocket, clattering wooden shoes upon the docks, 
with a wife following him, with an old shawl over her head and a 
pack of kitchen tools upon her back. 

You Can't Go Wrong 

In Boosting Maine Strong 

The first real action in the state-wide industrial development for 
Maine was started by The Lincoln Worsted Company, where a fine 
brick factory is now beinir erected, and you can not only make a 
sound, profitable investment, but, help boom Maine by purchasing at 
this time for what vou can afford cf the 8^r accumulative, preferred 
stock, of THE LINCOLX WORSTED COMPANY, and receive what 
generally goes to bankers, — a fifty per cent, of bonus, in common 
stock. Par value of both classes of stock $10.00 per share. 

For further particulars address THE LINCOLN WORSTED 
COMPANY, LINCOLN, MAINE, L. J. Co burn, Vice President. 

Coin and Stamp Collectors 


Prices I Pay — of every U. S. Coin 
TFOrtli over face — 15 cts. 

WANTED What are your wants? Perhaps 

Rare Coins, Stamps and Curios I can supply them 

Stamp Catalogues and other Philatelic and Numismatic 
literature at publishers' prices 


292 Hammond St. Bangor, Maine 


* N 

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St fi ^ 

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^ Courtesy of B. & A. R. R. 



A liare Honor, Judge Spear 99 

-Mount Desert 301 

Maine Indians 120 

A Home Rule for Ireland Meeting in Bangor. Maine, in 1.S.S6 126 

Making History in the Maine Woods 126 

I -iptain Steven Smith 130 

Hon. James Phinney Baxter ISl 

*on Halifax 132 

! "'^^icial Postal Regulations in the Maine Woods 135 

'♦•Jepscot 1:j5 

^'"lock Marriage' ...'.'.'.['.'.'.'.'.'/.['.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'/.'.'.['.'.'.'.'.[[[[['.[[ 137 

J.»-^>ecca Weston Chapter 13.S 

^♦-suncook School House 140 

Uinn History in the Schools 141 

^-•"^orial 14^ 

CT C' YEARS the Insurance Manof Somerset Co. 

"^ ^^^ .\fver a Failure — Never a La>v Suit — "What more do you ivant? 

^^ %->r (Member Soc. Col. Wars: Sons Am. Rev.; Past A. A. G., G. A. R.) 

'^ave positive evidence of the reliability of advertisers on these pages 

ji! ''.il 

-KK . Xi&r;J i S« ' -/ '^1S 

' .=*5^' ; '^•' ■-'^^■^*^*tV™''-''T^*""*^-^-^S?*"^»8Ssy=1S^r*?*'': 





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Associate Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine 


Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

\'oL. IX July, August, September, 192 i No. 



A decision of the highest English court sustaining one by the 
Maine Supreme Judicial Court which overruled an English decision 
is worthy of record in the history of Elaine. This occurred in 
1920. - 

The following, relative to this matter, recently appearing in an 
American law periodical, is an accurate account of the same : 

The House of Lords has overruled former English decisions and 
considered and approved a decision of the Supreme Judicial Court 
of Maine, which dissented from the English cases. The decision 
in the Maine case, one from W^aldo county, was drawn by x\sso- 
ciate Justice Albert M. Spear of Gardiner. 

The Maine case becomes interesting as only two courts of last 
resort in the world have passed upon the question at issue and only 
three decisions have been promulgated, two in England and one 
in this state. 

The first English opinion in re Tootal's Trusts is found in Law 
Ivcport, Chancery Division, page 532. This case, in an elaborate 
''['inion, held that an European or American could not gain a 
domicile of testacy or intestacy in pagan countries like China, India 
r>r Eg\'pt, assigning as an insurmountable reason the incompati- 
^'Jlity of character between the European and the Asiatic, namely: 
* The difference between the laws, manners and customs of Chinese 
•-'id Englishmen is so great as to raise every presumption against 
^•ich a domicile." 

In the year 1909 the Elaine case, blather vs. Cunningham, 105 
.'icine, 326, arose, involving the identical question discussed in 
'•^e English case. Justice Albert :M. Spear of Gardiner (Maine) 
*ircw the opinion. Cunningham had a domicile of origin in Bel- 
^^>t, Waldo County, :Maine. He had lived at the time of his death 

■. 'i' 

\ 'I 



'■■: I 



about 40 years in Shanghai. He died leaving a will, attested by 
two witnesses, valid if probated in Shanghai but invalid if pro- 
bated in Elaine where three witnesses are required. Upon this 
statement of facts administration was granted upon his estate by 
the probate court of Waldo county and the case came on appeal 
to the law court for decision. The only question was whether 
an American could gain a domicile of choice in Shanghai, China. 

Justice Spear considered the English case at length, rejected the 
doctrine therein announced and held that Cunningham could and 
did gain a domicile in Shanghai where his will could be probated 
and his estate settled. . | 

During the year 1918 the same question again came up before | 
the House of Lords in Gasdagli vs. Gasdagli, Law Reports, x\ppeal 
Cases, February, 1919, A. C, in re Tootal's Trusts, the I^laine ; 
case considered, the English case overruled and. the Elaine case | 
approved. The House of Lords say in announcing the doctrine 
of the i\Iaine case : "Opinion of Chitty, J., in re Tootal's Trusts 
XX and decision of Lord Watson in Abd-ul-Messih XX over- | 
ruled." The Lord Chancellor in discussing the ]^Iaine case gives f 
an analysis of the reasoning and quotes the conclusion in full. In 
speaking of the opinion he says : ''The Supreme Court made an ^ 
elaborate examination of the case in re Tootal's Trusts and of manv 
criticisms and comments which had been made on that decision, 
and arrived at the conclusion that its doctrine could not be sup- 

Lord Haldane in expressing his approval of the ]\Iaine case said: 
"I think the American court in Mather's case was right upon the 
facts to refuse to follow what would seemingly have been Judge 
Chitty's opinion." 

Lord Atkinson, referring to the ]\Iaine case, in his opinion, said 
of it: "These decisions f English cases) or at any rate the prin- 
ciples supposed to be extracted from them, have been commented 
upon and dissented from in an important decision of the Supreme 
Court of Maine, IMather vs. Cunningham." 


;. ■ I 


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i, 'The tPxt of Dp :Nront5:' Pat<=-nt from Henrv lA' is to be found in Church- 
i^il ^i^Voyas-er, 2: 796: burdock's Nova Scotia, i: 21: Purchase, 18: 226: Hazard. 
V *•■'• It is dated Nov. 8. 1603, and revoked in 1607. thus permitting- the 
Janif-istown Grant of 1606 to take precedence of all other g-rants in America, 
i'lard's Huguenot Emigration to America, 1: 341. 



The Story of Saixt Sao'Eur 

(By 'William Otis Sawtelle of Haverford. Penn.) 
(Read before the Bangor Historical Society, April 5, 1921.) 

Saixt Sau\-eur 
''The place is a beautiful hill risiiig gently from the sea, its sides 
bathed by tzvo springs; the land is cleared for twenty or thirty-five 
acres, and in some places is covered zcnth grass almost as high as 
a man. It faces the south and east, and is near the mouth of the 
Pcntegoet, zi'Iiere several broad and pleasant rivers, which abound 
in fish, discharge their waters; its soil is dark, rich and fertile; 
the port and Jiarbor ore as fine as can be seen, and are in a position 
favorable to command the entire coast; the harbor especially is as 
safe as a pond." — Front Father Biard's account of Saint Sauveur, 

The Story of Saixt Saua'Eur ^ 
"Ad majorem Dei gloriam." 

The story of Saint Sauveur had its beginnings in the court of 
Henry IV of France and its termination in the admiraky courts 
of England. As early as 1604 Pierre du Gast, Sieur de ^lonts,- 
was on the coast of !Maine and in the court of Henry lY schemes 
were forming for the conversion of the natives in that far-away 
country. To Father Coton, the king's spiritual adviser, had been 
intrusted the details of a plan which resulted in the appointment 
as a7>ostles to New France of Father Pierre Biard, professor of 
Hebrew and theolog}- at the University of Lyons, and of Father 
Enemond Masse, socius of Father Coton. 

The two missionaries accordingly in 1608, went to Bordeaux 
expecting to embark at once for Port Royal; but no vessel was 
available. Antagonism towards their order was manifested and 
Lescarbot, though a good Catholic, has recorded that he could see 
'no need of these Docteurs sublimes who would be more usefully 
t-mployed fighting heresy and vice at home." ||| 






'John Dawson Gilmarv Shea's Charlevoix. Book HI, pp. 241-286 
•'*-suit Relations: Thuintr. Vols. Ill and IV. 

■^*-v. T. J. Campbell. Three Hi.storic Events in :vraine. i l: 

"• ^. V,\'rr:*f^f'. Thp P.f-irjnninus of Pnlonial Maine, pp. l*^tn-117 



Finally, in 1610, a vessel belonging to Poutrincourt who had 
obtained from the Huguenot De IMonts, a patent for Port Royal, 
was about ready to sail. It was arranged that Fathers Biard and 
Masse should be of her ship's company, but when two of her 
owners who were Huguenots, learned that they were giving passage 
to members of the hated order, they refused absoluteh to allow 
them on board, adding that nothing short of a direct command 
from the Queen ^lother could secure a place for them, and even 
then, only upon condition tliat every other Jesuit in the kingdom 
should accompany them. 

The expedition was on the verge of a collapse as far as the 
Jesuits were concerned and Fathers Biard and ]^Iasse retired to 
the college of Eu to await developments. They were not kept long 
in suspense, for the ^larquise de Guercheville " who had declared 
herself protectress of the American missions, learning of their 
plight, hastened to relieve the situation by buying out the shares 
of the refractory merchants and making the two Jesuits together 
with herself, partners in trade with Poutrincourt. For pemiitting 
this transaction, which laid the fathers open to criticism as sharers 
in a commercial enterprise. Father Coton was censured and ^Madame 
de Guercheville did not escape rebuke. But Champlain justified 
the deal which permitted the missionaries to sail without further 

It was in midwinter, January 26, 161 1, at Dieppe, that the Jesuits 
embarked. "We were," says Biard,"^ "36 persons in a ship called 
the Grace de Dieu of about sixty tons. We had only two days 
favorable wind ; on the third we found ourselves suddenly by con- 
trary winds and tides driven within one or two hundred yards of 
the cliffs of the Isle of Wight in England, and it was well for us 
that we found good anchorage ; without which all would have 
been decidedly over with us. Having escaped from there we landed 
at Hyrmice and afterwards at Newport where we spent 18 days.'* 

'Madame de Guercheville is mentionr-d bv some writers as the 'wife of 
the ' ' , . ^- . . ., . . ^, . . -- ^.--. ^--. ,-...- 





logical referf-ncf-.*! see: Collected Works of La Rochefoucauld^ '" ^^f^ sp-ries 

of Led Grands Ecrivains de la France, Paris, 1868, l:xcv. 

* Biard to Halthazer, letter from Jesuit archives at Rome: R. P. 
Aug^uste Carayon S. J., Paris, 1864. 
Translation in Brown's Genesis of the United States, 1: 475. 




': I "■ 




An ill wind it was that blew the Grace de DIeu to the Isle of 
Wight and a harsh fate that kept her in the harbor of Newport 
for nearly three weeks, for from this chance visit there was to 
result a sequence of events, replete with tragedy and suffering, 
not destined to end, even with the failure of Aladame de Guerche- 
\-ilIe's foreign missionary projects. 

"On the 1 6th of February," continues Biard, "the first day of 
Lent, a favorable northwest wind sprang up, enabled us to leave, 
a'^.d accompanied us until we left the channel behind." But some- 
thing of which Father Biard made no note was also left behind, 
for information with reference to the destination and purpose of 
the Grace de Dieu soon reached the authorities in London and 
they were not slow tp act. 

■' In 1612, Captain Samuel Argall was appointed admiral of 
\'irginia and "commissioned to remain in Virginia and to drive 
out foreign intruders from the country granted to Englishmen by 
the three patents of James I." 

Another record reads that he was "dispatched with commission 
to displace the French, who had taken the opportunity to settle 
themselves within our limits." Thus plans were made by the 
English to destroy Saint Sauveur a year before its founders knew 
where it was to be located. 

The Jesuit Fathers braved the February storms of the North 
Atlantic and in the little craft, no larger than some of the fishing 
h<3ats that now frequent Southwest Harbor, the dreary days length- 
ened until four months passed before a landfall was made; and 
then it was to be greeted by a bleak and desolate wilderness. Diffi- 
culties soon arose between them and Poutrincourt, the younger, 
known as Biencourt, which need not here be described, but which 
caused Gilbert du Thet, sent in charge of supplies for the colony, 
?ome time later, to report to ^^ladame de Guercheville upon his 
rc-turn to France, that impossible conditions existed at the Port 
*^oyal mission. This decided the ^larquise to found a mission 
lor the Indians at Kedesquit, where the city of Bangor now stands, 
saving doubtless been informed by Biard of this location, which 
'»e himself had visited in 161 1. 

'Brown. First Republic in America. 178. 
Brown. Genesis of the United States, 815. 

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Against the Kedesquit district as a colony site, Champlain ^ 
advised strongly, since the English had but a short time before 
taken French fishing vessels near Mount Desert," and he begged 
that the new mission might be established somewhere in the St. Law- 
rence region, preferably at Quebec, where energ}^ and money could 

be expended to far better 
advantage beyond the reach 
of the rapacious English. 
But Madame de Guerche- 
ville would not listen to the 
sage advice of Champlain 
and on ^larch I2th, 1613, 
there cleared from Hon- 
fleur, France, for Kedes- 
quit, the Jonas, of one 
hundred and twenty tons, 
a ship purchased from De 
j\Ionts by the marquise and 
equipped by her with the 
aid of subscriptions and 
donations from the Queen 
Mother, the ^Marquise de 
Verneuil, ^I a d a m e de 
Sourdis and manv other 
ladies of the French court. 
Soldiers, sailors, artisans, 
colonists, and the two Jesu- 
its, Father Jacques Quen- 
tin and Lay Brother Gil- 
bert du Thet, comprised 
the ship's company, while 
horses, cattle, agricultural 
implements, munitions of war and all sorts of necessary supplies 
made up the cargo. 

Started for Kedesquit 
After two months at sea the Jonas, on ^lay i6th, reached Cape 
de la Have in Acadia, where a landing was made, mass celebrated 

"Shea's Charlevoix, 1:274. 

Champlain'.s Voyajjes, Ed. 1632, 112. 
■^Biard's Relations. 

^E^^ nENRU.TlL Di-,, 

V '— ^ J/.// ./"''''''■'' l-i-nc.ti Jl.'rfv ill !/•■-'}•'' 

• •■ ' L-tt trU ,^^^/'iilij. _ _ 

^i^i^ ^?.rv 

The Marqui.<?e de "^'erneuil. who was a 
famous beauty of the court of Henry IV. 
in Madame de Guercheville's time. She 
supplied the utensils for the mass which 
were used by Father Eiard and his asso- 
ciates at Saint Sauveur. 


.' 1,1! 



I' ij 


iind a cross erected, bearing the de Guercheville arms. Possession 
of the coast from the St. Lawrence to Florida, with the exception 
of Port Royal, was declared in the name of the Marquise de 
Guercheville, under letters patent from Louis XIII, ignoring en- 
tirely the English claims to a large part of the same territory. 
Leaving La Have, a call was made at Port Royal, where Fathers 
Biard and Masse joined the ship, which soon cleared, ostensibly 
for Kedesquit, a place she was never destined to reach. In the 
words of Biard, ''God ordained otherwise." Even the will of 
Antoinette de Pons could not prevail against an eastern Elaine fog 
and as the Grace de Dieu had been forced by the elements, to seek 
shelter in the harbor of Newport, so the Jonas was compelled to 
tarr}' in proximity to ]Mount Desert, anxiously awaiting clear 
weather that she might proceed to her destination. 

For two da}'s and two nights in their pitiful plight, fearful of 
l)oing dashed to bits upon forbidding shores, tacking first one way 
ihen another when light breezes sprang up, or drifting helplessly 
in a slatting calm, the little company remained enveloped in fog. 

"Our tribulation," says Biard, ''led us to pray to God to deliver 
u> from danger, and send us to som.e place where we might con- 
tribute to His glory. He heard us, in His mercy, for on the same 
evening we began to discover the stars, and in the morning the fog 
had cleared awav." 

A fair sight that was that rose before their vision on that !May 
morning of long ago. There in all the glory that spring imparts 
to hillside and valley, lay the Island of the Desert ^Mountains, ifs 
tall pines and pointed firs, mingling with birches, whose lighter 
shades made marked contrast with darker evergreen ; while barren 
"vimmits, catching the rays of the long hidden sun, gleamed like 
hammered brass.^ 

Arrr'Ed at Bar Harbor * 

Captivated by the beauty of the scene before them, what wonder 

^nat thoughts of Kedesquit gave place to joyous contemplation of 

tile ever changing shadows that played upon the mountain slopes, 

rassmg m quick succession, as the brisk northwest wind dissipated 

,y^,, "_'•'' peculiar metaHic lustre is well shown by Sarg^ent's ^Mountain on 
^ '_.*'*'st of Jordan's pond, wh^-n viewed at some little distance off shore. 

I'r-'^'^ the older fishermen, Sargent's is still known by its old name, 

'•/a.'j.y Mountain." 

*l'afi** K^^" places the first anchoratre of the .Jonas "not far from Schooner 
but the lack of a harbor in that vicinity precludes that location as 




\\ is J 
■ -is \ 


the low-hanging clouds. So inviting was the prospect that all ideas 
of continuing the voyage, for the present at least, were abandoned 
and the Jonas came to anchor at Bar Harbor. 'AVe returned 
thanks to God," wrote Biard, "elevating the Cross, and singing 
praises with the holy Sacrifice of the ^lass. We named the place 
and Harbor Saint Sauveur." 

Hardly had the songs of praise and thanksgiving ceased when 
a violent dispute arose between the colonists and sailors, over an 
agreement made before the expedition left Honfleur. 

The sailors had shipped with the understanding that they were 
to remain three months at any port in Acadia that Father Biard 
might select, it being implied that Kedesquit would be that port. 
The crew now maintained that their time should date from their 
arrival at Mount Desert, but to this demand the Jesuit Fathers 
refused to submit. 

The Clever Indian 

The argument was brought to a close only by the appearance 
of an Indian signal fire which had been kindled on a hilltop to 
attract attention. Upon receiving an answer from the ship a canoe 
soon put out from the shore bearing messengers who asked if they 
could be of service to those on shipboard. Learning that Father 
Biard was of the company the Indians were at once interested 
since they had chanced to make his acquaintance two years before 
when he lodged with them at Pentagoet while on his trip to the 
Penobscot and the Kennebec in 1611. In answer to queries as to 
the best route to Kedesquit the Indians made reply: "Why go to 
Kedesquit? This is a better place here at Pemetic, where it is so 
pleasant and healthy that when the natives are ill anywhere else, l:|| 
they are brought here to be cured." 

But Biard, who was strong in his determination to carry out 
the instructions of Father Coton and Madame de Guercheville. 
remained deaf to this plea for Pemetic and took no interest in 
Mount Desert as a colony site. But the Indians had another argu- 
ment which no Jesuit missionarv could resist. "But vou mu.-t 

the site of the first landing- of the Jesuits. Bar Harbor is 13 statute mil'" 
from Fernald's Point, while Cromwell Harbor is 12. Roughly speakin--. 
the distance from Cromwell Harbor to ^fanche-ster's Point is slightly oy* r 
three leagues, whilr- to Fernald's Point it is about 3.4 leagues. Allowin- 
for Biard's approximations, it seems more than likely that Madame t'* 
Guercheville's colonists first landed on the point now occupied by tn-- 
Kennedy cottage. Bar Harbor. 







stay," they insisted, "for our Sagamore Asticou ^^ is very ill and 
if you do not come wilh us to his wigwam he will die without 
Itaptism. He will go to hell and you will be the cause of it. He 
wishes to be baptized." 

Without further parley and without loss of time, Father Biard, 
Lieutenant La Mothe ^^ and Simon, the interpreter, found them- 
selves in the canoes of the Indians, whose musclar arms bent 
unceasingly to the paddles until the "three leagues'' to Northeast 
Harbor were covered and the encampment of Asticou on !Man- 
chester's Point came into view. 

Hastening to the side of the great chief reputed to be dying, 
Biard was chagrined to find that he had been duped by his Indian 
guides, for Asticou was in no immediate danger of giving up the !| 

ghost. A heavy cold with a touch of rheumatism had been some- || 

what enlarged upon by his faithful subjects and when Biard de- || 

nianded of those who had brought him thither some explanation 
of the situation, they adroitly changed the subject by pointing to 
Femald's Point directly opposite, with the recommendation that 
it be utilized as the site of .the proposed mission. 

Decided ox Fernald's Point ^- 

This ocular demonstration appealed so strongly to Biard, who 
has recorded "that the savages had in reality reasonable grounds 
for their eulogies," that upon his return to the Jonas he advocated 
warmly the establishment of their mission at the mouth of the 
Sound. x\ll thoughts of proceeding to Kedesquit were abandoned 
and "it was unanimously agreed that we should remain there and 
not seek further, seeing that God Himself seem"ed to intend it, by 
the train of happy incidents that had occurred." Shortly after, 
the Jonas made the trip around the hills from Bar Harbor to 
N'ortheast, the name of Saint Sauveur was transferred to Fernald's 

^The name is now given to a summer colony and postoffice at the head 
"«^ Northeast Harbor. 

-All attempts to connect La Clothe with the family of Sieur Antoine 
. 1 . ^''^the Cadillac who received a grant of IMount Desert and adjacent 

n di*'?^^*^^^ of Tobias and Comfort are numerous: several of them have, 
*^»«tant parts, won distinction in the educational and scientific world. 




Point and the first French Jesuit mission upon what is now terri- 
tory' of the United States was estabHshed. A rustic chapel, the 
furnishings for which the Marquise de \'erneuip3 j.^^^ provided, 

protected a rude ahar upon 
which the Hnen suppHed bv 
Madame de Sourdis ^"^ found 
place. The several tents do- 
nated to the expedition bv 
Queen Marie de Medicis dotted 
the greensward and afforded 
temporary shelter to the colo- 
nists while the Jonas, her long 
voyage terminated, rode quietly 
at anchor, not far from the 

From Manchester's Point,^' 
the ancient camping ground of 
those Children of the Rising 
Sun, the Abenaki ^^ gazed with 
friendlv interest across the blue 
waters of Somes Sound upon 
their new neighbors, who 
through their instrumentalitv. 


Fernald's Point, the ^ite of Saint 
Sauveur, the first French Jesuit 
settlement in North America. 1613. 
with the farm building's of Tobias 
Fernaid. This as it appeared to 
Francis Parkman -nhen he visited 
the place with Elijah Hamlin. The 
date of this visit is not certain, 
but it was before his first book, 
the Pioneers of New France, was 

forsook the idea of a Christian mission upon the banks of the 
Kenduskeag and elected to labor among the natives of Pemetic. 
But amid these beautiful surroundings all did not go well, for, 
says Biard : "When we had landed in this place, and planted the 
Cross, we began to work, and with the work began our disputes, the 
omen and origin of our misfortunes. The cause of these disputes 

"Henriette de Balsac d'Entraigrues. ^Marquise de Verneuil. b. 1579, d 1633: 
a famous beauty of the French Court, daughter of Marie Touchet. 

^*Isabelle Babou de la Eourdaisiere. dau. of Jean de la Bourdaisiere and 
his wife Francoise Kobertet. dau. of Florimond Robertet, Seigrneur d'Alluye. 
Secretary of State under Louis XII and Francis I. Tsabelle m. Franc<'i = 
d'Escoubleau, Marquis de Sourdis. The Cardinal de Sourdis was her ■'^'-'n 
and Gabrielle d'Estrees her niece. 

^ Named for John ^Manchester, orig^inally from Scarboro, who went to 
Machias with the first colonists, 1762, to that region, removed later to 
Mount Desert and settled on the point which still bears his name. A son. 
John Jr., m. Mary Hadlock. dau. of Samuel Hadlock, for whom upper and 
lo\ver Hadlock Ponds wer»- named. The Hadlock farm was just north "| 
Manchester's holding's and was part of Asticou's encampment. Samu« i 
Hadlock. Jr.. m. Sarah, dau. of John ^Manchester, and removed to Little- 
Cranberry Isle, becoming- founders of the Cranberry Isle branch of thf 

"A more or less fanciful derivation of the word Abenaki. See R^^' 
Eug^ene Vetromile S. J., Me. Hist. Society Coll., 6:203. Also same publi- 
cation, Frederick Kidder, 2: 228. 



I'- 'hi 



was that our captain. La Saussaye, wished to attend to agriculture, 
and our other leaders besought him not to occupy the workmen in 
that manner, and so delay the erections of dwellings and fortifica- 
tions. He would not comply with their request, and from these 
disputes arose others, which lasted until the English obliged us to 
make peace. ..." 

How long these quarrels lasted it is impossible to determine since 
Biard's "Relation" contains but few definite dates ; but from the 
fact that Argall ^' sent a letter to England, addressed to one 
Nicholas Hawes, in June, 1613, in which veiled reference is made 
to his hostile expedition to the northward, the result of the inad- 
vertent visit of the Grace de Dieu two years before in the harbor 
of Newport, it is probable that the English captain was off the 
coast of Maine about the middle of July. 

Threatened by Spain on the south and by France on the north, 
\*irginia seemed likely to be encroached upon and on July 11, 1612, 
.'\rgall "was appointed admiral of Virginia and commissioned to 
remain in Virginia and to drive out foreign intruders from the 
country' granted to Englishmen." ^^ 

li, ! 

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1 1. 


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Destruction of the Mission ;''| 

And thus it chanced that Argall while on his way to Port Royal 
to execute the orders received from Sir Thomas Dale, marshall of 
\'irginia, fell in with an Indian off the Blount Desert shore, who, 
mistaking him and his crew for French, by signs, gestures and a 
few words told of the nearby settlement. 

In a twinkling all was activity on board the Treasurer. Her 
fourteen guns were shotted and primed, her course was changed 
and her crew of ^5o men eagerly prepared for an attack. The 
astonished Indian, realizing too late his fatal error, was loud in 
'•is lamentations, while the Treasurer, with the wind fair astern, 
^|»ed in the Western Way, past Great Cranberry Isle, and leaving 
Greening's Island to starboard, made straight for the doomed settle- 
ment on Fernald's Point. 

The shrill cries of the seabirds were soon drowned in a cannon- 

" Purchase. MacLahose ed.. 19:90. "I returned aprain to my ship," wrote 

j^r^'all. "the twelfth of INIay. and hastened forward my businesse left in 

"and at my departure: and titted up my ship, and built my fishing- Boate. 

•."•I made readie to take the first opportunitie of the wind for my fishing- 

"Vaj^^e, of which I beseech God of His mercy to blesse us." Alexander 

V^^'u" <^*^rsely remarks: "He was f?oins fishing for Frenchmen." (Genesis 

ur.*^ tTnited States. 2:044.) 

^rown. First Republic in America, p. 178. 


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ade ^® that rent the hull and tore the rigging of the Jonas, left to 

her fate by La Saussaye, who at the first sign of trouble discreetly 

took to the woods. La Flory, La Clothe and the Jesuit Gilbert 

du Thet with a few* brave fellows succeeded in gaining the deck 

of their vessel but they could do little. Even the sails had been 

unlaced that they might serve as awnings, so the ship could not 

be manoeuvred but lay at the mercy of the attacking party. Du Thet 

had loaded and fired the cannon, but in the excitement had neglected 

to take aim, so no damage- was inflicted upon the enemy. Soon he 

fell shot through the body by a musket ball, while shortly after 

La Flory received a wound and Le ^loine of Dieppe and Xeven !} 

of Beauvais, "two very promising young companions," were either |i 

shot or drowned while trying to escape, and Argall was an easy ' 

victor in this \er\ uneven conflict. i jll 

"The victorious English," says Biard, "came on shore, where 
we had our tents and our houses just begrm, and sent out in all 
directions in search of our Captain, saying that they wanted to 
see our commissions ; that this land belonged to them, wherefor 
they had fallen upon us, when they found us here; but that if we 
should be able to show that we had acted in good faith, and that we jl | 

had come under authority of our sovereign, they would respect • ^' ;l 
that, as they wished in no way to imperil the good understanding 
between our two kings. The misfortune was that La Saussaye :i|| 

could not be found, whereupon the shrewd and cunning English- If! 

men seized our trunks, broke them open industriously and having ji' 

found in them commissions and Royal Patents, seized them; and 
putting everything else back in its place, just as they found it, they 
nicely locked the boxes again." 

On the day following, La Saussaye driven by hunger from his 
woods retreat, gave himself up. He was at first treated kindly 
by Argall, who asked to see his commissions. 

When these important papers could not be produced, for the 
very good reason that they were in Argall's pocket, the English |||| 
captain stormed and ranted, called the French outlaws and pirate?. 

'■ i 

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"Brief Intellisrance from Virsjinia. Purchase, MacLahose ed.. 19:214. Vl; 

states that Arti^all made no use of his cannon, that "he approached so =;'; j 

neere to a Ship that lay before their Fort, that he beate them all that 
were therein with Musket shot from making- any use of their Ordnance. ! 

save one of the two Jesuits, who was killed in trivin;? fire to a Peece ..." 
This account differs from Biard. There was no fort erected at Saint Sau- ;; 

veur and the brief time that intervened between the arrival of the French 
at Fernald's Point and Argall's attack, was spent by La Saussaye in 
farmingr. i'; 


tlreatened them and told them they all deserved death. ''And 
thereupon," says Biard, **he divided the booty among his soldiers, 
consuming the whole afternoon in this business." 

Of Saint Sauveur little remains to relate. Lay Brother Gilbert 
du Thet who had received his death wound in the futile defense 
of the Jonas, expired the next day in the arms of Father Biard 
snd was buried at the foot of a large cross which had been erected 
on the arrival of the settlers. Nine days later, the bodies of 
Le ^loine and Neven having been recovered, they too were interred 
near the same spot; all three the first victims of the initial conflict 
ujK)n American soil, between French and English, which was to 
result in a horrible warfare destined to continue almost unceasingly 
until the victorious General Amherst received the formal submis- 
sion of the ^larquis de Vaudreuil in the Place d'Armes at Mont- 
real, almost a century and a half later. 

Of the remaining 45 colonists, thirteen including Father Masse 
and La Saussaye were turned adrift in a small boat, well supplied 
however with provisions, trusting that some French fishing vessel 
would pick them up and convey them to France. This party was 
>oon joined by Bailleul, the pilot of the Jonas, 'who, upon the 
a[>proach of Argall, had gone to reconnoitre and learning his in- 
tentions had taken shelter on Greening's Island or one of the Cran- 
t^rry Isles. Off the Nova Scotian coast two vessels were sighted 
which rescued them, and after some further suffering and priva- 
tion, landed all safely at St. Malo. 

Fathers Biard and Quentin together with Captain La Flory, 
lieutenant La Clothe and the rest of the company were taken to 
> >rgmia in the Jonas, where they all narrowly escaped hanging 
*>y order of Sir Thomas Dale. Argall, who had guaranteed their 
*''»tety, was brought to a realizing sense of the injustice that his 
''•eft of La Saussaye's commission had wrought, confessed his base 
^ct, produced the stolen papers and no further talk of the gallows 
^•a^ heard. 

The Mission but a ^Memory 

'♦^ter in the autumn, upon command of Dale to obliterate every 

*-icc of the French from IMount Desert, St. Croix, and Port Royal, 

•Argall, forcing Fathers Biard and Quentin to accompany him, 

^'Mied Saint Sauveur and completed the destruction begun in July. 

»hen his vessels the Treasurer and Jonas, captor and captive. 


" IS'; 


. Ill 

1 ;,, 


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spread their sails and shaped their course out the Eastern Way 
for St. Croix, they left astern at Fernald's Point nothing but a 
blackened pile of smouldering embers ; and at the close of that 
autumnal day, as the sun set behind the peaks of Western Aloun- 
tain, painting the sky a lurid red, from the funeral pyre of Saint 
Sauveur there came one last answering flare and ^ladame de 
Guercheville's mission was but a memorv\ 

The Documents in the Case 
The two French fishing vessels which picked up Father Masse, 
Commandant La Saussaye and the pilot of the Jonas off the coast 
of Nova Scotia, arrived at St. Malo, at about the same time, and 
there the castaways received a warm reception from the bishop, 
governor, magistrates and the people in general. Needless to say, 
the story of the English attack aroused bitter resentment and the 
recital of the capture of Saint Sauveur, coupled with the tale of 
hardship and suffering, which the settlers had been obliged to 
undergo, brought public sentiment to a high pitch of indignation, 
especially since, both nations were at peace; and it was not long 
before King James received a letter -^ from the British ambassador 
at Paris, from which the following extract is made. Sir Thomas 
Edmondes, the ambassador, writing on October 13, 1613, after 
calling attention to English interference with the French whale 
fishing at Greenland, "which discontentment is also further aggra- 
vated by another advertisement which is come hither that the 
English shippes at \'irginia tooke a French shippe, which was 
going to make a plantation in those partes, and killed divers of 
the men ; but as they here say, used greatest crueltie against cer- 
taine Jesuittes which were in said Shippe." 

Not many days after the receipt of Edmondes' letter. King James 
received a communication from Louis XIII, asking for an ex- 
planation of the Saint Sauveur incident. L'nfortunately this letter 
of the French king -^ is not on record, but one from Admiral Henri 
de Montmorency, which accompanied it, has been preserved and 
is as follows : 

» Brown, Genesis of the United States, 2:662. 

'iBrown. Genesis of the I.'nited States. 2:664. :Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. 
21: 186. This letter was discussed at a meeting- of the ^Nlaine Hist. Soc. 
and was first published in the Boston Dally Advertiser of Aug". 31, 1870. 

Williamson, Bibliot^raphy of ^Maine, 2: 131. 



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H. de Montmorency, xVdmiral of France, to King James : 

"I thought it was my duty to accompany the letters which the 
king, my master, wrote you with some of my own, in order to have 
the honor to offer to your majesty, my very humble service and 
to entreat you to be favorable (since as admiral tmder the author- 
ity of the king, I have charge of the marine affairs of this king- 
dom), that I represent to you the just complaint and the injury 
which the French have received from some of your subjects, who 
being in an English ship called the 'Treasurer,' whereof Samuel 
d'Argail is captain, went to that country of Canada called New 
France to the harbor of Pentagoet, where they found a small settle- 
ment which was begvm by permission of the king, with our leave, 
and at the expense of ]^Iadame la Alarquise de Guercheville, lady 
of honor to the queen, through a good and holy zeal to lead the 
poor savages of the said country to a civil conversation and to 
preach to them the doctrine of Jesus Christ, and for that purpose 
a number of Jesuit fathers were there. 

"But your said subjects have ruined this plan; they have attacked 

the colony; they have slain many men, and among others, two of 

the said Jesuits ; and besides, they carried away two others with 

[ them into Virginia, (by vrhat people say) ; and have abandoned 

i the rest of the people to the mercy of the waters, in a small skiff. 

[ We know well enough, Sire, the goodness, and the unusual clem- 

I ency with which you are filled, and that you are so far removed 

from such inhumanity that you will assuredly do justice in the 

[ matter, when you are informed of it. Therefore in the name of 

France, and of the private parties interested in these Countries, 

I beg your Majesty for three things : — 

"One, that you will command the two Jesuit fathers to be re- 
turned in safety with the other prisoners ; the other, that restitution 
^hall be made for so remarkable a robber}', which cost the said 
dame Marquise more than a hundred thousand livres of loss. And 
Ihe third, that your Council or the Company of Virginia may be 
' <"''>liged to declare and explain as far as where they understood 
; t^ be carried, the boundaries and confines of that said country of 
^ Jrginia, inasmuch as we thought the difficulty might have come 
I ^'n account of the neighborhood of the two colonies. But your 
^•">*ijesty knows that for more than 80 vears, the French have been 

; 1 i 

; El 





■ % 








!' '1 


in possession of it, and have given to it the name of New France. ' 

The hope that your majesty will be . . . how prudently to remedy 
this, and find it good, if it please you, that ^lons. de Buisseaux, 
ambassador, may be interested more particularly with it, to give 
us an answer to it as favorable as the complaint of it is reasonable, 
and full of justice. 

"Nevertheless, I pray God, Sire, that he may give your majesty 
a very long and very happy life. | j 

"Your very humble servant, |! 

"H. De Moxtmorexcy. I| 

"At Fontainebleau, the XXVIII of October, 1613." 

Indorsed : To the King of Great Britain : "A letter from the 
Admiral of France to his majestic concerning Samuel Argall," etc. 

The English Privy Council at once began an investigation of | 

the charges of ^lontmorency and dispatched this letter -- to Sir 
Thomas Smythe of London, treasurer of the Virginia Company: 

"We have latelie received divers Complaints exhibited by the 
French Ambassador on the behalfe of certaine Frenchmen of 
Rochelle, St. John de Luz, and others, some of them concerninge 
outrages committed upon them (as is alleged) on the coast ot || 

Canada by Captain Argall employed for Virginia ... as appear- f :;li 

eth by the memorialls presented by the French Ambassador, which |i 

we send you here withal. 

"Forasmuche as it will be expected that His Majesty should 
forthwith give some satisfaction to the said Ambassador, . . . 
we have thought good first to require you to acquainte some of 
the Councell of Virginia herewithal . . . and to returne us their 
several and particular answers . . . with all expedition, that the 
Ambassador may receive his answer from his ^Majestie or his 
Boord ..." I , ; 

To this order in Council the Treasurer and Council of Virginia "^ ^ '^ 
made reply that no news had been received from Virginia since 
the preceding June, the order having been passed in January, but 
when news were received they felt sure that they could give the 
"Lord Embassador of France" satisfaction. 

A letter from Sir Thomas Edmondes -* to King James, written 
from Paris on Januar}^ 2, 1614, relative to the numerous interviews 

5 I 


f- il:: 
it' P 

^ ''i.ii' 

<; if!!: 


«, i 

« Brown, Genesis of the United States, 2: fi77. See also Documents relat- |ji:| 

inp: to the colonial history of the state of New York, 3: 1. |;| i 

=»Brown, Genesis of the United States, 2:679. | ; ^ 

"Brown, Genesis of the United States. 2:677. l3| 


which the British ambassador had held with the French Secretary 
of State on the subject of the French at Mount Desert has an 
important bearing upon the French official attitude on the question. 
Edmondes writes : ^ 


"... Finding ]\Ionsr. de Villeroy, that tyme, in a better moode, 
than when I formerly debated these matters with him, I made it 
appear unto him by manie instances, that the interest which they 
(the French) pretended to- have in the discoveries which we had 
made with great perill and charge (concerning the which he had 
before spoken to me much out of square) was contrarie to the 
received custome and practise of all nations, wherewith he was so 
well satisfied, as he said, that he would no more dispute the matter 
with me. ..." 

It is of passing interest to note that Edmondes,-^ later in the 
year, reports to Ralph Winwood, the English Secretary of State, 
that he had an interview with the King and Queen in regard to 
the French complaint against his English Majesty's subjects for 
what was done at Saint Sauveur, and speaking of Marie de ^ledicis, 
Edmondes adds : ''Whereunto she made me no other answers then 
that the complaints were great which she received of the spoyles 
which were committed upon the French by his ]\Iajesties subjects, 
as she was forced to make an extraordinary instance for the re- 
dresse of the same." (English State Paper Office.) 

Argall's Authority 

The "Treasurer," Captain Argall, sailed from Virginia about the 
i8th of June, 1614, and arrived in England in July bringing passen- 
gers and letters. Among the documents were depositions of the 
French in Virginia, while the passengers included Captain Flory 
and two other Frenchmen of the Saint Sauveur colony. Soon after 
Argall's return, the Council of Virginia sent a reply to a letter 
from the Privy Council, certain portions of which refer to Saint 

"That it is true that Captain Argall did take a French ship 
^vithin the limits of our Colony, who went about to plant, contrary 
to the extent and privilege of his ^Majesty's letters patent to us 
granted. That he did it by command of the governor of our 







"Brown, Genesis of the United States. 2:757. 
"Brown, Genesis of the United States, 2:731. 


Colony by his commission to him given under the seal of the I 

colony, and by virtue of such authority as is to him derived from 
his Majesty's great seal of England. 

"That whereas, it is said, it was 200 leagues from our plantation, 
intimating thereby that it was out of our limits, we say the coast 
lying next E. N. E. and W. S. W. many more hundred leagues will 
not deliver them without our borders, we have granted unto us iii 

from 34 to 45 degrees of north latitude, and from E. to W. from 
one sea to another, with a certain clause that if any other nations j| 

should get land to the north of 45 degrees, and by any river or if 

lake, or by land travel should come to the southwards, to plant | 

behind our backs, that it should be lawful for our governor to i| 

resist, displant, and take by force any that make such attempt. 


''This seems improbable, owing- to the well-known defenseless condition 
of the Jonas. It is. however, not surprising- that the English and the 
French accounts of Saint Sauveur would vary somewhat in detail. 

And we do further avow that the said ship was taken between |i 

43 and 44 degrees, which in express limitation is within his Ma- | 

jesty's grant and is annexed to the royal crown. And that this is 
proved by the several confessions of divers of the French examined 
by Sir Thomas Dale and certified accordingly unto us by him. 

"And that the said Captain Argall, besides his several commis- 
sions for his justification to us showed, hath further produced 
imto (us) a testimonial or certificate under the seal of our Colony, 
that he hath in his voyages no way exceeded the commission to him 
given . . . that upon cross-examination . . . certified the said 
ship and other . . . Letters Patents, and that therefore we sup- 
pose (he should) be wholly for the fact excusable. 

"Concerning the aggravation of circumstances. We (reply) 
Argall had not above 60 men in his ship. That the (French) first 
shot -'^ at him; besides the ship and her app(urtenances), which 
was redelivered at the request of the French A(mbassador), was 
not to the value of 200 pounds sterling, as we are (able to) prove 
by the several inventories delivered by the F(rench) to the Mar- 
shall of Virginia, and together with their (examinations) unto us 

"Secondly, to the imputation of inhumanity used by him (to his) 
prisoners, we say it is wholly false. That neither ^Monsieur Saus- 
saye nor any other were detained a? prisoners, but that he went 
and returned from ship to .shore at pleasure. That Captain Argall 
did propound to them three offers : 



^ m 
! • ■li 



i .1 
i -1 



"i. First, to give them a small pinnace, with sufficient victuals 
(to) carry them all to France. :| 

"2. Secondly, to give tliem passage from thence to the bank, | 

120 leagues from Cape Brittayne, there to meet certayne French 
shipping. I 

"3. Thirdly, to give Monsieur Saussy their Captain, a shallop, | 

and as (many) of his men as he would choose, with sufficient pro- || 

vision to their own wasre, and to carrv the residue (with him) to I 

Virginia. (And) that condition was chosen by the Captain, and | 

accordingly performed. | 

"These offers are proved by the confession of ^Monsieur Saussay, | 

his two Jesuits, the blaster, and at least ten other of the company, 
which are ready to be shown, with many attestations of great 
humanity and . . . courtesy shown to them ... 

"And that these our reasonable answers considered, the King of 
France is neither in his Hon's (Honours?) nor title anyway injured 
by the just defense of our own, and maintainance of those limits }p 

and extent of territory given unto us by his Majesty's Letters !| 

Patents many years before the French had any footing to the south | 

of Canada. . Il 

"Neither hath Madame de Guercheville anv reason to expect fe 

reparation, having entered without our leave, within our limits and 
dominion, by force to plant or trade, contrary to the good corre- 
spondence and league of these two most royal Kings. And if any 
particular be hereof doubted or replied unto, we will be ready to 
give testimony and further answer thereunto." 

After receiving the communication just quoted, the Privy Coun- 
cil made the following reply -* to the French complaints. This 
reply was indorsed: "D(elivered) ye Fr(ench) Amb(assador by) 
Mons. Edmo(ndes). 1614. Answer to the French Complayntes." 

"Reply to the complaints presented to the King by Sieur Bis- 
seaux, resident Ambassador to the King. From the most Christian 
King. ;.. 11 

"Reply to the fourth complaint concerning Virginia. 

"Captain Argol admits that he has taken the French ship in 
<^iuestion, within the limits of our Colony on account of this, that 
ccmtrary to the privileges granted the said Company by Letters 
Patent from the King, it attempted to intrude and establish itself 

"Brown. Genesis of the United States. 2:733. 



* Brown, First Republic in America, p. 219. 
*> Shea's Charlevoix, 1:285. 



by force, and that what he has done in this matter has been done 
by virtue of the commission, which had been granted to him under 
the seal of the said Company, for that very purpose, which author- 
ity is derived from the special powers granted by His Majesty to 
said Colony under his Great Seal, and that nevertheless the said 
vessel has been returned at the request of the Ambassador. Not- 
withstanding which reply, His Alajesty wishing to show the Ambas- 
sador the wish he cherishes to give all the contentment and satis- 
faction possible, has caused orders to be issued, that the said 
Captain Argol shall be produced to account for what he has done, 
at any time and whenever the Ambassador shall desire it. And 
that Turner, his Lieutenant, shall in like manner be produced as 
soon as he can be apprehended." 

The Reply to the eighth complaint was touching the ^Marchioness |[ 

of Guercheville : — ■ lli 

"As to Aladame the Marchioness of Guercheville, she has no 
reason to complain ; nor to hope for any reparation ; seeing that |j 

her ship entered by force the territory of the said Colony to settle : 
there, and to trade without their permission to the prejudice of ' 
our treaties and of the good understanding there is between our [| 

kings. |j 

Madame de Guercheville's Replies | 

It would seem that the claims of ^ladame de Guercheville re- | 

ceived a fair consideration in the courts, for on October 21, 1614. || 

she wrote a personal letter -^ to the Secretary of State, Sir Ralph 
Win wood : . 

"I have learnt the obligation I am under to you, before having 
the happiness of knowing you, which makes me doubly thank you, 
and entreat a continuation of your courtesy for the reparation of 
the great wrong which has been done m.e, and for the recovery of 
the Frenchmen who remain in Virginia. I promise that I shall 
be infinitely obliged for what shall be returned in so just a resti- §| 

tution and even more will ever be your most obliged and affection- t 

ate to serve you." i|-': 

It seems curious that ]\Iadame de Guercheville should have per- 
mitted Champlain's advice to go unheeded and that she allowed 
her settlement to be established within the limits of disputed terri- 
tory. Charlevoix,"'** the Jesuit historian, criticizes her commandant, 





i: !l! 







La Saussaye, severely for not staying at Port La Have, (Lunenburg 
county, N. S.), where a landing was made before coming to ]^Iount 
Desert. *'He should have gone no further," says Charlevoix, "he 
would never have been attacked by the English there, for the English 
intended only to carry on the fishery at Blount Desert Island, and 
were not in force to get involved in Acadia, where they must have 
supposed the French on their guard ; moreover, they did not know 
Port de la Have, the entrance of which is easily defended. ^ladame 
de Guercheville, on her side, erred in not intrusting her enterprise 
to someone already acquainted with the country ; and it is incon- 
ceivable how two missionaries, who had already spent two. years 

I /, 



^^^j^-^g^.-^--^ ^^^^^^^ 



Photogroi)li By Courtesy of W. H. Blacar, Banjfor, Me. 






there, did not suggest all this to La Saussaye, who was disposed, 
^nd doubtless had orders to follow their advice." 

The excitement which broke out in France when news of the 
so-called Argall outrage reached that country, soon subsided when 
It became tmderstood that the affair concerned only private indi- 
viduals. The Jones was sent back to Madame de Guercheville, the 
f^rench prisoners were all released, and although the ^larquise had 
«sked for compensation for her losses, she was obliged to content 
"trself with the return of the vessel, realizing when it was too late, 
the grave error she had made in not listening to Samuel de Cham- 
plain. Father Coton is blamed by Champlain, since it was by 






his advice that ^ladame de Guercheville undertook the establish- 
ment of her mission. Coton, because of his high official position 
in the Society of Jesus, could easily influence the Patroness of the 
Jesuits and it is little wonder that his counsels, rather than those 
of Champlain, prevailed. 

To Charlevoix's comment, John Gilmary Shea adds a note in 
which he calls attention to the fact that the English had, to Biard's 
knowledge, captured French fishing vessels in the vicinity of Mount 
Desert but a few years before, and concludes with a statement in 
regard to Fernald's Point as a colony site for a French mission, 
that "the choice of the spot for a settlement seems mad." 

Even so, it is of more than antiquarian interest that this ancient 
Jesuit mission of Saint Sauveur, whose name is perpetuated in the 
little mountain rising abruptly on the north and west of Valley |j 

Cove, found place upon Blount Desert Island. Shortlived though 
it was, this Fernald's Point settlement has left an indelible stamp || 

upon the early annals of the Island of the Desert Mountains, and i 

Mount Saint Sauveur, symbolic in its rugged majesty, well serves 
as a memorial to those intrepid blackrobed followers of Loyola. 
who, forgetful of self, braved ocean's peril and hostile attack to 
labor for the greater glory of God among primitive peoples of 
primeval tribes. 



(By Ethel M. Wood.) 

(Continued from page 69.) 

IV. Early Frexch Relations with the Indians 
Turning now from the English to the French and their acquaint- 
ance with the aborigines, we find that from their first appearance 
here, from the earliest expeditions of Champlain and De ]\Ionts. 
the most amicable relations existed between the two races. These 
early French settlers used every means in their power to make 
allies of the natives, the most potent of which were, without doubt, Jl 
trade, intermarriage, and religion. ! il 

The French in Canada and the upper part of Maine established It 
an extensive fur trade with the Indians which the latter found 
more satisfactory than that carried on with the English. The more ■ | j 
conscientious French endeavored not to cheat the Indians. There lil 







^Smith's History of Virerinia, etc.; page 213. 
Abbott; History of :Haine. p. 337. 


were, of course, some dishonest traders among them, but generally 
they gave value for value in so far as they were able, quite the 
reverse of the English who seemed to glory in the fact that they 
were getting something for almost nothing. For example, Capt. ' 

John Smith, in his account of his experiences on the Alaine coast, 
says, "We got for trifles eleven thousand one hundred martens, m 

and as many otters." ^ It seems that as he neared the Penobscot, | p 

his "trifles" were not so well received, for the Indians of that region 11 

had learned of the liberal prices to be obtained from the French. i|l 

The French also secured an advantage over the English in the fact |i 

that they furnished the Indians with guns and ammunition, teach- I 

ing them their use. The English, fearing to trust the savages, had, 
as a matter of precaution, w^ithheld firearms from them, but the 
French saw that they could make better allies of them by furnish- 
ing them with implements of war. 

In establishing friendly relations with the Indians, the French 
were greatly aided by their marriage alliances with the various 
tribes; very many of the French settlers took Indian wives, and 
prospective colonists were even advised to bring no women with 
them in their expeditions, in order that they might contract matri- 
monial alliances with the natives. Baron Castine is said to have 
had five Indian wives, and was a man of great influence in the 
Penobscot tribe. The English with their pride of birth had stood 
aloof and had kept their blood unsullied from alliance with a savage 
people. The French lived among them almost on terms of equality 
and therefore were in a position to win their intimate and lasting 

In no way, probably, did the French gain a greater influence 
over the aborigines of Elaine than by the dissemination of their 
religion among them. To the superstitious Indian nature, Cathol- 
icism made a strong appeal. Its elaborate rites and ceremonies 
embodied sufficient of that mysticism, which was so essential to 
his religious nature. An old chief when asked why the Indians 
\^'ere so much more attached to the French than to the English 
replied, "Because the French have taught us to pray unto God, 
which the English never did." - This is the Indian's condemnation 
of the Englishman and he administers a further rebuke in the fol- 
lowing terms : "You have returned us evil for good. You put the 






r; .' 

i' '• 



flaming cup to our lips ; it filled our veins with poison ; it wasted ' 

the pride of our strength. Ay, and when the fit was on us, you 

took advantage — you made gain of us . . . The earth is for the l 

life and range of man. We are now told that the country spread- 
ing far from the sea is passed away to you forever, — perhaps for f 
nothing — because of the names and seals of our sagamores. They ^. 
never turned their children, from their homes to suffer. Their |: 
hearts were too full of kindness, their souls too great." ^ The | 
French from the first assumed toward them a brotherly attitude Ij 
and were honest in their dealings with them. Is it to be wondered I 
at, therefore, that their religion should seem a reality to this simple j| 
people ? 

From the very beginning of the French settlements, Jesuit mis- 
sionaries came from France for the purpose of conveying the | 
Gospel to the natives. In 1609, Biencourt, the son of Poutrin- 
court, the early explorer, embarked to the new world for the pur- 
pose of establishing a settlement at Port Royal in Acadia. Through |;j 
the efforts of Antoinette de Pons, ^larchioness de Guercheville, 
there accompanied him upon this voyage two Jesuit priests. Fathers 
Pierre Biard and Enemond Masse. Father Biard thus states the 
twofold purpose of their mission, first, "to act as spiritual adviser 
to Sieur de Biencourt, and, second, to become acquainted with and 
learn the disposition of the native to receive the gospel." ^ In 161 1, 
Biard, with Biencourt and party, sailed to the Sheepscot River in 
search of food. At night some Indians encamped on the nearby 
shore and spent the evening in singing and dancing. The French- 
men on deck began to mimic them, doing it so cleverly that the 
Indians themselves paused to look and listen. In the morning the 
two parties held conversation through the medium of an interpreter, 
a captive Indian, whom the French had brought from St. John. 
Biencourt was conducted up the river a little distance and then 
through Pleasant Cove to their chief, who, they said, would give 
them corn. He had none to spare, however, but was very- willing 
tc trade in furs. Father Biard, distinguished by his priestly garb, 
and because of the fact that he carried no weapons, was treated 
with especial courtesy. Through the interpreter, he held a little 
religious service in their midst, which seemed to make some im- 

« Williamson: Vol. 2. p. 112-113. 

«See History of Kennebec County, Maine, Chap. 2. Nash's Indians of the 
Kennebec, p. 13. 



} hi? 



1: "{ 



pression upon them. He later wrote that he found them "a teach- 
able people who listened with respect and who seemed to be not 
far from the kingdom of God." ^ 

Soon after the return to Port Royal a serious quarrel arose 
between the hot-headed Biencourt and his spiritual advisers, with 
the attending result that their labors were much interfered with. j. 

The ^larchioness de Guercheville, in the meantime, hearing of the || 

''' i 
dissension, determined to send out a colony which should not be li 

„ . . . . il\ 

disturbed in its missionary enterprise. With this expedition which ||: 

followed two years after, she sent out two more Jesuits, Fathers 
Ouentin and Lalemand, and Gilbert du Thet, a lay brother. Stop- 
ping at Port Royal for Fathers Biard and ]\Iasse, they continued 
their voyage, intending to sail up the river and settle at Kadesquit 
or Kenduskeag, the present site of Bangor. Unfavorable weather 
drove them from their course and they came ashore at Mount 
Desert. They intended, after the storm had abated, to continue 
en their way, but the Indians would not listen to such a proposal. 
They pointed out the beauties and attractions of the place, and 
when these inducements failed, they appealed to the humanity of 
the Jesuit fathers by a woeful tale of the illness of their chief and 
his need of Christian baptism before his death. This appeal did 
indeed touch the hearts of the priests, and even when they found 
that the sagamore was suffering only from an attack of rheuma- 
tism and was not in a serious condition at all, they decided to make 
this their abiding place. A settlement was made on the island and 
named St. Sauveur. Owing to the success attending their minis- 
trations to a sick child, the missionaries came to be regarded as 
almost superhuman beings. .V lasting impression was made upon 
the Indians which resulted in many conversions to the Catholic || 

faith. The Jesuits remained until the settlement was destroyed 
by Samuel Argall of Virginia and they themselves were taken away 
as captives. Later some Capuchin friars took up their abode on 
the shores of the Penobscot where thev labored zealouslv for the 
conversion of the natives. 

Some of the Indians of the Canibas tribe in their journeyings 
to and from Canada had come under the influence of the Jesuits \ 

at the French town of Sillery ^' and had become greatly interested 







■ ; 1 

•See Palfrey's History of New Enjrland: Vol. 4. p. .31. 

•Sillery was on th^- site of the modern St. Joseph, situated on the Chau- 
ui^re River some miles south of Quebec. 

S- 1; 




in their teaching. They had been converted through their inter- 
course with these missionaries and. with the Christian Indians of 
that place, and on their return to their home in the fertile valley 
of the Kennebec, they endeavored to preach the gospel to their 
own people. Finally they sent a request for a missionary to the 
civil governor and religious superior of Quebec, and on Aug. 29, 
1646, in response to this request Father Gabriel Dreuillettes came 
to dwell among them. He built a chapel at Old Point in Norridge- 
wock; and in the Abenaki villages he nursed the sick, baptized 
the dying, and tliough handicapped by his meagre knowledge of 
the language, he gave them as much instruction as he could. From 
Norridgewock, the northernmost Abenaki settlement on the Ken- 
nebec, he went down the river to the English post at Cushenock 
(Augusta) and thence to the mouth of the Kennebec and along 
the coast to the Penobscot, where he found several Capuchins |f 

under Father Ignace. These received him very kindly. He spent 
the winter at an Indian village three miles above the present site of 
Augusta, where the natives erected a rude chapel for him. This 
station was known as the ^lission of the Assumption on the Ken- 
nebec. Father Dreuillettes required three things of his converts : 
that they abstain from intoxicating liquors, that they live at peace 
with their neighbors, and that they give up their medicine men with 
their mysterious charms. This last, the problem of the medicine 
men, was the most difficult, but the missionary finally won. In 
the spring the red men started out on their great annual hunt and 
with them went their missionarx*. The strenuousness of this hunt- jl 

ing life was almost beyond his strength but he made no complaint, J 

patiently enduring every hardship that he might the better win the 'i;'^ 

confidence and respect of the Indians. The next year Father |i| 

Dreuillettes left them and returned to Canada, but they expressed |;| 

so much sorrow at his departure and begged so persistently for ::| 

his return that he later spent another winter with them. Again 
he appears in 1650 at Plymouth in the capacity of agent of the 
Abenakis, soliciting from this province, under whose jurisdiction 
they lived, some protection from the hostile Mohawks. He after- j |: 

ward continued his work among the Indians until his station was j !| 

destroyed by the British in 1674. 'yj 

Dreuillettes was followed in 168^ bv two brothers. Fathers Vin- j; 
cent and Jacques Bigots who took up the work at Norridgewock. \.\ 

s if 




! I 




By this time the teachings of the former missionary had faded out 
and the brothers had to begin with the very simplest of rehgious 
truths. They exercised great control over the Indians, and were 
particularly active in urging them on against the English. Their 
successor was the famous Father Sebastian Rale," a man of much 
education and culture. He was sent from Quebec in 1693 to the 
Abenaki village where he had an unbroken ministry until his 
tragic death in 1724. It would be impossible to measure the sac- 
rifice which it required of him to give up the comforts of civiliza- 
tion to live among the savages. No luxuries did he have, and all 
too few of the ordinary comforts of life. 

Father Rale took pains to adorn his church and to provide it 
with all the furnishings necessary to the performance of its rites 
and ceremonies, thinking that in this way he could more easily 
interest the savages in the worship. The squaws vied with one 
another in adorning the shrine of the Virgin Alary. Father Rale 
even trained a "clerg}-" of forty young men to assist him in the 
service. Great multitudes of Indians were wont to come from j ' 
far and near to attend the church services, and Rale, in a letter | 
to his nephew, said : *'You would be edified with the fine order | 
they observe and with the piety they evince." ^ In his mission of \ 
"instructing them and forming them to Christian virtues" ® he 
found few idle moments. The mass was celebrated in the early 
morning, after which the priest instructed the children and young 
people in the catechism. From then until noon he gave himself 
up to hearing and answering the questions of his people on any 
and every concern of their lives. The afternoons were spent in 
visiting the sick and all who were in special need of his minis- 
trations. At sunset, evening prayers were held in the church. 
Aside from the sermons on the Sabbath and on feast days. Father 
Tvale passed "few working days without making them a short ex- 
hortation for the purpose of inspiring a horror of the vices toward 
which their tendency is strongest, or for strengthening them in the 
practice of some virtue." ^^ The evenings were the only time 
which the good man had to himself, and then he was busily engaged 
m making a dictionary of the Abenaki language, in the hope of 
reducing the dialects to writing 

(To be continued.) 

^The name i? variously spelled Rale. Ralle. Rahle, Rasle and Rasles. 

Cummingrs, ^lission of Father Rasles; p. 12. 
•CumminpTs, :Mission of Father Rasles; p. 11. 
^"Cummingrs; p. 13. 



I. B 

lit » 




MAIXE, IX 1886 

On the evening of ^londay, June 7, 1886, the citizens of Bangor 
held a mass meeting in the old X^'orumbega hall, to indorse the 
Gladstone-Parnell bill for home rule in Ireland, then pending in 
the British Parliament. 

The report of this meeting in the ^^ hig and Courier says : "It 
was one of the grandest demonstrations ever held within its his- 
toric walls." 

The meeting was called to order by the JMayor, Edward B. 
N^alley. Chief Justice John A. Peters presided, with the follow- 
ing vice-presidents : Hannibal Hamlin, John Appleton, Samuel H. 
Blake, Albert G. Wakefield, Charles Hay ward, William B. Hay- 
ford, AX'illiam H. ^IcCrillis, Lewis Barker, George W. Ladd, Joseph 
P. Bass, Samuel F. Humphrey, Eben S. Coe, Rev. George W. Field, j; 

D. D., Rev. Edward ^IcSweeney of the St. John's Catholic Church, 
Rev. IM. C. O'Brien of the St. Clary's Catholic Church, Xathan C. 
Ayer, General George \'arney, Llewellyn J. i\Iorse, John Varney, 
Charles V. Lord, Greenleaf J. Clark, Dr. Thomas X. Coe. Dr. Isaac 
Strickland and Philo A. Strickland. Its secretaries were F. H. 
Getchell and E. P. Boutelle. Speeches were made by Franklin A. 
Wilson, General Charles Hamlin, Lewis Barker, Daniel F. Davis, 
W. H. McCrillis, Patrick H. Gillin, Rev. H. Barnard Carpenter 
of Boston, Rev. George W. Field, D. D., Rev. Fathers McSweeney 
and O'Brien and Dr. D. A. Robinson. Resolutions strongly favor- 
ing home rule for Ireland were passed. ''Joseph P. Bass moved 
that a dispatch be cabled to Mr. Gladstone carrying to him the 
sentiments of the meeting,'' which was "unanimously carried." 
Letters were read from John P. Donworth of Houlton, John B. 
Redman, Ellsworth, Governor Robie and James G. Blaine, Augusta, 
and Congressman Charles A. Boutelle, who, at the time, was in 
Washington, D. C. 

So far as we know, Philo xV. Strickland, E. P. Boutelle and 
Patrick H. Gillin are the only ones now living whose names ap- ||i| 

peared in the report of this meeting. - S| 




(By the Editor.) i; | 

When the writer was a lad and for years thereafter there were j j 

no "lumberjacks" in the vast and dense forests of northern !Maine. H 








... J 








They were all 'Svoodsmen/' whether choppers, swampers, ox or 
horse teamsters, river drivers, cooks or cookees. The old-time 
woodsman was ever known by his outer garment which invariably 
was a bright red woolen shirt. AMien he went into the woods he 
carried on his back an old meal bag stuffed with a few supplies 
from his home that the good wife thought he might need during 
an eight months' sojourn in the heart of the great wilderness fifty 
or a hundred miles beyond the head of Aloosehead Lake. These 
crews of woodsmen started on foot from Bangor, and walked a 
distance of sixty miles to Greenville at the foot of Aloosehead Lake, 
where they embarked on the lake by steamboat; usually receiving 
reinforcements from the farms in every town and hamlet along 
the way. 

It should be understood that in those days — fifty to sixty years 
ago — there were very few foreign-born Maine woodsmen, except 
some from New Brunswick, then called "bluenoses."' The latter 
class would work summers in the lumber mills at Bangor and other 
points along the Penobscot river, and for the lumber operators in 
the woods for the winter, and drive the logs on the rivers and 
streams in the springtime. The much larger portion of these woods 
crews were, however, pure-blooded sons of Maine, whose fathers 
came here from ^Massachusetts and Xew Hampshire, and who had 
descended straight from the old Pilgrim and Puritan stock. 

Thoreau when he wrote "Maine W^oods" had never heard of 
lumberjacks. When Fanny Hardy Eckstorm wrote her charming 
tpic story of the "Penobscot Man" as late as 1904, she at least 
ignored this appellation. 

As the old-time saw mills began to give place to the great pulp 
^ind paper industry and Bangor on the Penobscot was no longer 
"the largest lumber market in the world," the red shirts gradually 
clropped out of the ranks to be filled by a rapidly increasing army 
of a distinctly different type of man. They came in droves from 
Boston and other seaport cities, ordered by mail from labor agen- 
cies. The new crowd was wholly cosmopolitan. They hailed from 
t'very nook and corner of the earth and from all the ports of men 
in western and eastern Europe. The first view of the lumberjack 
^vas beheld when this influx strange to the deep, dark shadows of 
the woods of Maine, began. He was first discovered and this name 
bestowed upon him by that wizard in the portraiture of Maine 
country and backwoods life, Holman Day, not more than a quarter 











of the employer and the employee are wisely adjusted, equalized 
and harmonized. 

Its latest venture in this social and welfare work among the 

i -i 


of a century ago, Theodore Roosevelt or W'oodrow Wilson were 
never more successful in the coinage of words than was Day in 
this one, for it has since been universally adopted. 

One of the largest employers of these lumberjacks, is the Great 
Xorthem Paper Company. Its policy of dealing with the public 
has from the first been a broad and generous one. This fact is 
well illustrated by its having constructed and maintained in this 
wilderness practically at its own expense, about 135 miles of good 
graveled turnpike roads, and by its acts saying to the public : 
"Come on and use these roads for pleasure or business as you may 
desire. They are free for all." 

There are about seven thousand of this new type of woodsman 
working in its Spruce Woods Department. 

The passing of the old conditions and the time-worn customs 
and methods of the fathers of the Maine lumbering was, several 
years ago, perfectly apparent to its manager and his lieutenants. 
Gradually and quietly they have revolutionized their entire woods || 

system, upon an entirely new basis, designed to meet the swiftly 
changing conditions. A "welfare department," with its moving 
pictures, its libraries, victrolas, night schools and reading rooms 
for the use of rough-neck swampers, choppers, etc., would today 
surely astound the Babbs, the Stricklands, the ^Morrisons or the 
John Ross' of the past generation, though they were all great and 
wonderful men for their times. And yet as startling as it may 
seem, it is exactly what is now being accomplished in the wild 
timberland districts, in the counties of Aroostook and Piscataquis. 
The plan is amazingly progressive. It is in absolute harmony with 
the most advanced thought on the problems of immigration and 

Thus, far removed from the lure and temptations of the crowded 
cities, where Maine's wild life exists, where the bear and the moose 
have their homes ; where the loon laughs and the beaver builds his 
castle; where the pine and the hemlock murmur their weird re- 
frains, and the roar of windy blasts from mountain tops, and the 
scream of the eagle is heard, new Americans are being made. 
They have been started on the road to refinement and good citizen- 





:.l i 



li 1 
I I 

ship, without noise or fuss. And by the same token, the relations ll li 



lumberjacks, is the founding of an illustrated monthly magazine, 
entitled "The Xorthern," with Harry B. Coe, late of Portland, 
for its editor, who is well known for his experience and ability 
as a writer and publisher. Its sole purpose is to furnish its thou- 
sands of employees with a publication of their own, devoted wholly 
to their own interests and welfare. It announces that it is "A 
^lagazine of Contact, Between the ^lanagement and the Men of 
the Great Xorthern Paper Co. — Spruce Woods Department." It 
is unique. Culture and the woods life of the lumberjacks are 
delightfully intermingled in its columns. It is breezy, attractive, 
and full of excellent matter, appropriate for its reading constitu- 
ency. It will be a bright addition to Elaine literature. The first 
number appeared in April, of the present year. In this issue the 
editor says : "The Social Service Division of the Spruce Wood 
Department of the Great Xorthern Paper Company is the develop- 
ment of an idea which had its inception in the active brain of 
Manager F. A. Gilbert in his desire to bring to the people of the 
Spruce Wood Department more of the pleasures of hfe and to 
afford them opportunities for diversion which they could not other- 
wise get. 

"That is the reason for its existence and its excuse for func- 

"^Ir. M. S. Hill was appointed superintendent about a year ago, 
since which time his plans were developed to their present stage, |:|i 
of bringing to the wilderness those pleasures of city life which we 
all enjoy having, in entertaining and instructive reading, in music 
and in moving pictures. 

"Reading is provided through traveling libraries which are rented 
from the State through the office of the State Librarian, these 
libraries being placed at the company's headquarters at Pittston, 
Seboomook, Grant Farm, Rice Farm, Dyer Brook and Monticello. || 
A librarian is in charge and books can be had at any time. From 
these headquarters places, the books, under certain necessary re- 
strictions, can be used by the men in the outlying camps and oper- 
ations of their several natures. 

"Besides the libraries, current event and fiction reading is oifered 
through weekly and monthly magazines, forty of which go each 
issue to these headquarters places and during the woods operation 
season to the principal depot camps as v/ell, and from those places. 

if I 


I' ! 

' v'l 





after being read, they are forwarded to the smaller camps located 

farther back in the woods. [1 

"Victrolas have been placed at the same places and sets of records 
arranged in programs of about twenty-five selections each, and the 
aim has been to make them sufficiently varied to cater to all tastes. 
so that there is included a variety from the latest fox trot to the 
big Red Seal records of grand opera by the greatest singers. These 
concert programs are sent in rotation to these several places to give 
them a new set of records at stated intervals." 

S li': 

; I'' 

t I' 




1 \\ 



\ v. 




(, I,; 


(By Mark A. Barwise.) 

John Smith came to Barnstable, ]\Iassachusetts, from England, ]| 

about 1630, was betrothed to Susanna Hinckley, daughter of 
Samuel Hinckley and brother of Thomas Hinckley, afterward gov- 
ernor, in 1642, and married in 1643. I" 1663 he succeeded Rev. 
William Sargent as pastor of the Barnstable church. Subsequently 
he went to Long Island and New Jersey and in 1675 removed to 
Sandwich and in 1676 became pastor of the Sandwich church, 
continuing as such until 16S8, when his pastorate was terminated 
at his own request, he being 74 years of age. The record of his 
death is obscure as to the year but the probability is it occurred 
October 2, 1710, at the extreme age of 96 years. Ijl 

Stephen Smith was a descendant in the fourth generation of 
John and Susanna (Hinckley) Smith and the son of Samuel and fi 

Bethia Smith. He was born in Sandwich, Massachusetts, and [[ili 

married in 1762, Deborah, daughter of Johnathan and Patience III 

Ellis, of Plymouth. In 1772 Stephen Smith removed from Sand- |i| 

wich to Machias, in the District of ^Maine, where, but nine years 
before, a settlement had been made. In 1776 he was appointed 
Truck-master to the Indians, by the Provincial Congress. The 
duties of this office were to supply the Indians with provisions, Ji 

and to keep them from taking an active part against the Colonists j j 

in the Revolutionary A\'ar. The next year he was spoken of as 
Captain Smith, of the militia, and he was associated with Col. 
Allan, Col. Eddy and Maj. Stillman, in the defense of the settle- 
ments in Eastern !Maine. He showed himself, in the numerous 



i: H: 


Great men of renown have lived before thee, 

And thy life has drank anew 

From the fountain head of knowledge 

From the sweetest, pure and true ; 

Now thy soul will e'er be feasting 

In that better land above 

Where no sorrow, pain or anguish 

Enters the sacred realm of love. 

Victoria Aurora Magxusson. 
Librarian, Baxter Memorial Library, Gorham, Maine. 
June 2, 1921. 

skirmishes, to be a good commander, and one whom the Indians 
respected and obeyed. That he was a generous man and one who 
contributed to the support of the church, is shown by the fact that, 
in the subscription, ''that the Rev. James Lyon tarry here this pres- 
ent year (1778) and preach the Gospel among us," Stephen Smith 
is recorded as giving ''four thousand boards, or £12," which is 
the largest subscription on the list. Perhaps it may be inferred 
that he owned a saw mill from the above. 

Four of the ancestors of Capt. Stephen Smith, on his mother's 
side, came over in the ^laytlower, viz : John Tilley and his wife 
Elizabeth, their daughter Elizabeth Tilley and John Howland. 
John Howland married Elizabeth Tilley soon after their arrival 
at Plymouth. Hope Howland, daughter of John and Elizabeth, || 
and Elder John Chipman were married in 1646, and their grand- || 
daughter, Bethia, daughter of Hon. John Chipman, married Samuel | 
Smith and was the mother of Stephen Smith. 

Captain Smith died in ^lachias, September 29, 1806. _ . 


In Memoriam ;| 

In memory of one whose life has been a benediction, ■{! 

We gaze upon thy silent face, | 

In reverence to one who was truly great, li 

Reflecting upon thy long life of usefulness; |j 

As Poet, Historian and Philanthropist ji 

Thv name will e'er be remembered I 

Throughout the State, in every age. !| 




i- ■;; 


»- -»- ^- 


Drawn by C. Marshall Stewart. Senior Illustrator in 
the Division of Publications, Department of Ag-ricul- 
ture, Washington, D. C, great-great-grandson of 
. Phineas Stewart, one of the carpenters employed in 
its erection, from records filed in the Library of 


(By Arthur AV. Stewart.) 

In the early part of 1754 Governor Shirley gave orders "For 
the building of Fort Halifax on an eminence near a fork of land 
at Taconick Falls, and that a strong blockhouse be built on the 
same fork of land * * * and also that a road be cut through 
the woods on the mainland between Fort Hah fax and the store- 
house at Cushnock." 

This location was at the confluence of Kennebec and Sebasticook 
rivers, and probably was chosen as it was the only known way of 
communication between the X^orridgewock and Penobscot Indians, 
and was the route travelled by the Penobscots in their journeyings 
to Quebec, and also because it was on the northern boundary of 
the Plymouth Company's grant, which document says : "It lyith 
within, or between, and extendeth itself from ye utmost limits of 
Comaseconty which joineth ye river Kennebeck towards the west- 
ern ocean, and a place, ye falls of X'equamkick, and ye space of 



3 ', I 


FORT HALIFAX, 1754 133 

fifteen English miles on either side of said river, and all of ye said 
river Kennebeck that Iveth within said limits." 

Captain William Lithgow, who commanded Fort Halifax, stated, 
"Xequamke Falls are five or six miles below Ticonic Falls." 

Five hundred soldiers were detailed for guard duty during the 
building of the fort. Governor Shirley gave the command of the 
troops and mechanics of the expedition to Captain John Winslow, 
Avho was made General of the Province. He was a great-grand- 
son of Edward Winslow who came over in the IMayflower, and 
commanded a trading expedition to the Kennebec one hundred and 
sixty years before. 

General Winslow's plan of the fort was as follows : In the center 
a blockhouse of two stories, twenty feet square on the ground and 
the second story twenty-seven feet square. Around this and front- 
ing each of its corners were four one-story buildings to be used 
as barracks ; these buildings were enclosed by palisades built of 
hewed timber and forming a square of one hundred and twenty 
feet, and the whole enclosed by eight himdred feet of palisades 
placed in the form of a star. 

This plan, however, was changed, at the suggestion of Captain 
Lithgow, who succeeded General Winslow, September 2, 1754. 
Captain Lithgow moved the four one-story buildings used as bar- 
racks and joined them in a line south of the blockhouse built by 
\\'inslow, which formed the northeast corner of the fort. In the 
opposite or southwest corner was another blockhouse built by 
Captain Lithgow, and of similar formation and dimensions as the 

In the northwest corner he erected a two-story building forty 
feet by eighty feet, uhich was used as officers' quarters, storehouse 
and armory. South of the barracks was an entrance coNered by 
a small house to be used by the guard. The whole was surrounded 
by a palisade joining the blockhouses in such a way that the occu- 
pants could command a view of all sides of the fort. 

A small redoubt was also built by Winslow on the top of the 
hill back of the fort and similarly enclosed ; this was equipped with 
a swivel and two cannon. Captain Lithgow built a second block- 
house on the hill to command a view of the falls where consider- 
able fishing was done, and where a fishing party was attacked by 
the Indians. 











The cannon and ironwork for the arming of Fort HaUfax were 
carried up the river on two gundalows, or scows, which drew about 
tSvo feet of water, and were towed on their journey by the assist- 
ance of the soldiers who guarded them. 

The workmen employed in building the fort were Gershom Flaggy 
of Boston, who acted as foreman. He was a housewright and 
glazier, and was employed on Fort Richmond on the Kennebec, 
and Fort Pownall on the Penobscot. He was a member of the 
Plymouth Company, and was the ancestor of the Flaggs, Bridges, 
Norths, and Fullers, of Augusta; James Cocks, who was a captain 
in the Revolutionary army. He married a sister of Gershom Flagg 
and settled in Hallo well in 1762, where he became prominent in 
town affairs; Phineas Stewart, the great-grandfather of the writer 
of this sketch, who was born in Rowley, Massachusetts, in 1732, 
and was a soldier in the Crown Point Expedition, in 1756. He 
removed to Howardstown, which is now a part of Skowhegan, 
Maine, in 1776; Stephen Gulliver, who settled in the vicinity of 
Waterville ; Henry Hascoll, Thomas Clemons, Benjamin Easty, 
Jonathan Gibbs, Ralph Hemmingway, Edmund Savage, Nathaniel 
Sullivan and Uriah Tucker as carpenters ; John Edwards, William 
Parks and Robert Williams as masons ; Abram W'yman as team- 
ster, and Jonathan Howland as cook. 

The compensation received by these men, when compared with 
the artisans' wages of the present, seems rather meager. The fore- 
man received six shillings and eight pence, and the journeyman 
carpenters four shillings per day; the masons received sixty-six 
shillings and eight pence per month ; the teamster two shillings and 
two pence, and the cook one shilling per day. 

The fort was not completed until 1775, and as we glance at the 
blockhouse built by General Winslow which is all that is left of 
Fort Halifax, few realize that it is less than one-tenth the size of 
the original, which was the strongest and most extensive fortress 
in the state in the seventeenth century. 


; t 





iV^-.,'.,f: S' 






(Contributed by "William F. Atwood, Jr., of Bansror.) 

Fifty years ago the hotel, store 
and buildings at Chesuncook 
Lake were owned by the late 
John H. Eveleth of Greenville. 
During the summer and the 
autumn hunting seasons, many 
tourists had camps and lodges 
on the shores of the lake and 
at other points in the vicinity. 
The late Leonard Hilton of 
^g: Kingsbury was for several years 
subsequent to 1869, manager at 
Chesuncook for Mr. Eveleth. 

These tourists desired their 
mail carried b}' canoe and horse- 
back riders from the Chesun- 
cook postoffice to their respec- 
tive abiding places. 
Mr. Hilton conceived of a unique plan which he called a "tourist 
dispatch," by which he sold stamps to the campers, the receipts 
from the sales being used to pay these private mail carriers. 
The above cut represents these stamps. - 

il^IIH^PO IMtf^M^ 


All alone and unmolested, 

Dwelt a tribe of the Anasagunticooks, 

By the Androscoggin River, 

Dwelt this tribe of the Pejepscots. 

Up and down the mighty river 
In canoes they paddled daily; 
Through the forests roamed for hunting 
All young braves of the tribe so dusky. 

Then the white man came among them, 
Built his cabin near their lodges, 
By the Androscoggin River, 
River of the mighty waters. 


Time went on, one day at evening 
By the Androscoggin River, 
Sat a hunter with his peace pipe, 
Of the tribe of the Pejepscots. 

Long he sat there thinking, dreaming 
Of the people come among them, 
Of the many pale-faced people 
Who had settled there among them. 

Then the smoke from out the peace pipe 
Curled and wreathed and wandered skyward, 
Till at last this dusky dreamer 
Saw therein a mighty vision. 

Saw beside that mighty river 
Flickers of the lights and firesides, 
That no longer came from camp-fires. 
But from homes pale-faces builded. 

Then he saw beside the river ' 

Mighty wheels by water turning; 
Heard the roar of bridled water 
^_ As it tumbled down the courses. 

Then he rose, this dark-hued hunter. 
Paddled back to tribe and kindred. 
Told them of his dream and vision, 
As the western sun was setting. 

Years have gone, as have the red men. 
From among the pale-faced people. 
And we see no longer visions. 
Visions, as he saw at sunset. 

Mighty wheels are there in motion, 
Run by water where he paddled ; 
Logs are fallen by the river. 
Where he sat and smoked the peace pipe. 

He no longer sits there dreaming, 
But the kindly, pale-faced people, 
Ever mindful of the tribe so dusky. 
Call the land for the Pejepscots. 

Nei^IvIE Ricker, Winthrop, Me. 

lis : 


i' i' 




(By Sam E- Conner.) 

Under the old laws if, upon marriage, a woman came to her 
husband without any of this world's goods, clothes or money, he 
was not liable for her debts. The records of the State show that 
at least one smock marriage occurred in Alaine, so called because 
the bride wore only a smock when she took the nuptial vow. 

It was also the law that persons desiring to enter the state of 
matrimony, but who lived in a community where there was neither 
a minister nor magistrate, could by appearing before witnesses, 
reading to each other the marriage ceremony and signing a mar- 
riage agreement, become lawfully wedded. The smock marriage 
to which reference is made took place in the Knox county town 
of Friendship in 1772 and the old record on the town's books was 
as follows : 

"Certificate — This may certify all whom it may concern that 
W. Elwell of ^leduncook hath been duly published to Hannah 
Thomas of Meduncook. Si'd, Sedate Wadsworth, Clerk, Medun- 
cook, April ye i8th, 1772. 

"Meduncook, ^lay 12th, 1772. Whereas the Subscribers, Wm. 
Elwell & Hannah Thomas, being lawfully published «Sc desirous 
of entering into the holy state of ^larriage & being confined in a 
place where there is neither a minister or magistrate, do by these 
presents & in the presence of Almighty God & before these wit- 
nesses that may sign this instrument, engage & do take each other 
as man & wife & do promise to behave to each other in a tenderly 
^ affectionate manner as man & wife, according to the laws of 
God & man, according to the best of our capacities & as tho we 
were married by a magistrate or minister. In witness whereof, 
we have hereunto set our hands. 

"WiUiam Elwell. 

"Hannah Thomas, her X mark. 

"Signed in the presence of we the subscribers, & that the man 
took her as it were naked & gave her clothes to put on. — Wm. S. 
^*rost, Samuel Condon, Cornelius Morton, Mary Condon, her X 
mark, Otis Pinkham, Hannah Pinkham, :Mercy W. Larry, her X 





of Armistice Day, 1920, by unveiling a boulder to mark the site 
of the town. The Edward J. Poulliot Post of the American Legion 
and the members of the D. A. R., led by the Fay and Scott Band, 
marched to the lot, which is now owned by J. Willis Crosby, the 
members of Rebecca W'eston Chapter marching up the hillside and 
forming a semicircle back of the tablet. After the music and 
invocation, Mrs. J. Willis Crosby, Regent of the Chapter, delivered 
the following address : 

"This year of 1920 is a notable one. The tercentenary anni- 
versary of the landing of the Pilgrims on our shores is being cele- 
brated throughout New England. This year also marks the cen- 
tennial of the independence of our beloved State of Maine. So it 
seems most fitting that we observe at this time some historic facts 
of our own town of Dexter. 

"Because of our many patriotic sons who offered their services 

i. i 

"N. B. — Wm. Elwell & Hannah Thomas took the common prayer 
book after they had signed the above instrument & read the church 
ceremony of marriage to each other in a serious manner before 
the witnesses to the above instrument before me — Wm. S. Frost. 

"The aforesaid AMlliam Elwell & Hannah Thomas were married 
in the above manner, ^lay 12th, 1772 — their first child, a daughter, tl^ 

named Hannah, was born June ye 21st, 1772; their second, a son, lil 

named Elias, born April ye 5th, 1776." ||| 

There is one other authentic smock marriage on record where j| 

the bride appeared unclothed during the ceremony. This took place flj 

' ■ i 
in England in 1797. While there probably were others, the general | 

record shows that in all such marriages the bride stood concealed, 
€xcept for her hand and face behind a curtain, or else in an adjoin- 
ing room, with her hand extended through and holding that of the | 
bridegroom. Later, it appears, that it was the custom for the 
bride to appear clothed only in a chemise and then with a smock, 
which was a baglike arrangement of cotton cloth. |'| 


(From D. A. R. :Magazine, :May, 1921.) ji 

Rebecca Weston Chapter (Dexter, ]Me.) aided in the celebration 







to their country in the Civil War, later in the Spanish-American 
War, and more recently the World War, it seems eminently fitting- 
that we, the Daughters of tlie American Revolution, should unite 
with the boys of the American Legion in the observance of Armis- 
tice Day. 

"We are to unveil a tablet marking the site of the first dwelling 
in Dexter, and there is a bit of most interesting history connected . 
with it. In 1794, James Bridge, of Augusta, purchased from the 
Commonwealth of ^lassachusetts the present township of Dexter. 
Ho soon sold it to Charles A^aughn, who was acting for a company 
in Massachusetts. \'aughn was tmable to meet the conditions in- 
volved in the purchase of this land, and Dexter passed through 
several hands before Andrew Cragie, of Cambridge, ^lass., pur- 
chased and induced settlements upon it. 

"During the year 1800, Cragie sent Samuel Elkins from Corn- 
ville to locate a suitable site for a mill. He chose the outlet of 
the body of water which was later named Lake Wassookeag, and jji 

began at once to hew timber for the structure. The mill proved 
an attraction, for the same year Ebenezer Small and John Tuckler 
came here to secure locations for future homes. ^Iv. Small made 
a clearing, put up a log cabin, and raised a crop of corn. The 
next spring he returned to Xew Hampshire for his wife. There 
was no road further than Harmony, so with necessary household 
goods loaded on a handsled and with Mrs. Small seated on top, 
they continued their journey. There was not even a footpath to 
guide them through the forest, and it was with great difficulty that 
they found their way, by means of blazed trees, and at last reached 
their destination. 

"The hardships endured by these early settlers seem almost in- 
credible. At one time food was so scarce that people travelled 
torty miles, on horseback, to Xorridgewock, and bought corn for 
$2 per bushel, and a certain young- man went to Athens to work 
in a hay field for a peck of corn a day. 

"The contrast between those early days and the present is great. 
Today the town of Dexter is beautiful, with its picturesque scenery 
of hill and dale, lake and stream, wooded hills, shady streets, its 
niany churches and educational institutions, varied business enter- 
prises, and fine residences, with their well-kept lawns and shrub- 
t'Cry, and fine farms, of which we are justly proud. And here in 


the shadow of these venerable and stately elms, we, the members 
of Rebecca Weston Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, take pleasure in unveiling this boulder with inscribed tablet, 
marking the site of the first dwelling in Dexter, and we dedicate 
it to the memory of Mr. and 'Sirs. Small, who so bravely faced the 
dangers and hardships of pioneer life." 

(Mrs.) Annie M. Briry, Historian. 

V ^ 


' -■*J'- '1 ■ '1» ' '--, .f '•oil .MMi^' I '- ' 

*^''- — n^ err'*" 

■ li 


The State of ]\Iaine cares for and educates many children whose 
homes are scattered along the borders of its 14,000 to 15,000 
square miles of forestry and upon 146 islands along its seacoast. 

This is known as "The Unorganized Territory School System 
of Maine." It is unique and differs from any other scheme of 
school teaching in the country that we are aware of. All the 
children under this system receive educational privileges, both 
elementary and secondary. There are now in the unorganized 
townships from 40 to 60 schools, each school having from 2 to 50 

The above is a picture of one of these schoolhouses located at 
Chesuncook Dam in Piscataquis County. 



This Department is open to con- Conducted by Augustus O. 
tributions from all teachers and Thomas, State Superintendent of 
pupils. Schools, x\ugusta. Me. 


Under the laws of the State of ^klaine the state superintendent 
of public schools is authorized to direct and call a conference for 
superintendents of schools for one week. This conference has 
met for a dozen vears at Castine on the Penobscot Bay and has 
become an institution in the educational affairs of the state. It 
is the plan of the state superintendent of schools to discuss with 
his co-workers intimately the vital problems of school management 
and school administration. It is customary also to invite to ad- 
dress the conference distinguished and eminent educators and 
others who have a message to deliver. 

So much importance is attached to this conference and to the 
week's study of educational affairs in the state and to the develop- 
ment of a program for school improvement that the state author- 
izes the payment of the traveling expenses of the superintendents 
who attend. In fact all superintendents are directed by law to 
attend unless excused by the state superintendent of schools. 

Unusual interest attached to the program of the Castine Con- 
ference, July II to 15, 1921. It was a great pleasure to meet again 
our old friend John H. Finley of the Xew York Times, formerly 
Commissioner of Education of Xew York and President of the 
Lniversity of Xew York. Dr. Finley had recently returned from 
several months abroad, during which time he studied intimately 
European affairs. Dr. Finley has a wonderful touch with world 
affairs and the most intimate relation v/ith educational situations. 
His talk on the situation in Europe was intensely interesting, while 
"IS educational lecture was provocative of thought of the most 
progressive type. Dr. Finley was accompanied by ^Irs. Finley 
and our great regret is that they could not have stayed longer. 

^^r. MacGregor Jenkins of the Atlantic ]\Ionthly proved to be 
all that his friends said of him when he was selected for two 
addresses. His lecture, "The Reading Public," was an intimate 






discussion of ourselves, while his "Fellow Travelers" intensified 
the same theme. The ripe experience of Mr. Jenkins as a pub- \ 

lisher and molder of thought authenticated what he said and made ! i 

it extremely interesting. 1 1 

Dr. \\\ Carson Ryan, Jr., of the Xew York Evening Post was fl 

present during the whole of the week and came into close touch 
with the superintendents and their programs. His lecture on 
Thursday was of an extremely high order. It showed a complete 
understanding of modern educational movements and a progres- 
sive attitude toward standardizing ideals. Dr. Ryan was formerly 
connected with the Bureau of Education at Washington. He takes 
up his post as head of the Department of Education at Swarth- 
more College this autumn. He will continue his relations with 
the Xevv' York Post. The Post was one of the first great daily 
newspapers to recognize the necessity of advertising the best in 
education, and secured Dr. Ryan because of his knowledge of 
educational affairs and his intimate touch with leading educators. I 

Mrs. Katherine Cook of the Bureau of Education at Washing- 
ton brought a message from the federal government. The pro- 
gram was crowded, which made it impossible to allot a full period 
to her address. Our regret is that she could not have spent a 
longer time at the conference. The states need a closer touch 
with the people in the federal bureau of education who are largely 
our official unifying agents. 

Senator John Francis Sprague, one of our own Elaine men, gave 
a delightful and instructive lecture on ''Some Famous Men and I 

Women of ^Maine." Senator Sprague is the owner and editor of 
Sprague's Journal of Maine History. He sees almost more clearly 
than anyone else in ]\Iaine the necessity of conserving the wealth 
of historical material of the Dirigo State for the edification and 
profit of future citizens. He is deeply in sympathy with our move- 
ment to teach the children of the schools the lessons of history and 
the price our forefathers paid for present-time civilization and the 
opportunities afforded them. The Senator spent the whole of the 
week at Castine, which gave him something of an idea of the 
struggle of the IMaine superintendents to improve themselves in 
the art of managing schools and improving the teaching staff. 

Dr. Phillip Davis, v/ho exemplifies staunch Americanism, elec- 
trified the conference with his rich phrasing and fluent description 





of the foreign in America. Dr. Davis came up somewhere in 
Russia. He left that country at the age of about fourteen and 
landed somewhere in America. While he claims Boston and Mas- 
sachusetts as his home, he is mostly of America and all for 
Americans. As a worker he is one of the foremost Americans 
of foreign birth and in sympathy with American ideals he may be 
classed with Jacob Riis and ^lary Antin. 

Miss Emma Serl of Kansas City, ^lo., was popular with the con- 
ference. Her philosophy of method was highly appreciated. Her 
quiet, dignified, but positive manner of address not only interested 
but carried conviction. She opened up the technical situation as 
applied to education and emphasized the fact that teaching is a 
technical and skilled profession. 

The chief criticism of the conference may be found in the fact 
that the program was possibly too much crowded, and that there 
was not enough time to discuss our own intimate problems, but 
it is very difficult to arrange an even balance between the inspira- 
tional, instructive lectures and the round tables. At times those 
we engage fail to appear, and at other times everyone appears 
who is named on the program. There seems to be no way to know 
definitely how much time will be left for our conferences. On 
the whole the gathering was an enjoyable occasion, an inspiration 
and a high light with which to begin the new year. 


There is a mistaken notion among the teachers in regard to 
carrying on the project work in local history. Some think the 
plan was simply for the centennial year, while in reality it should 
continue for all time. The books which have been made by the 
schools and pupils are splendid specimens of the history project. 
Teachers are understanding better than ever how to proceed, how 
to develop interest in local history on the part of their pupils. 
Two books of unusual merit are just received. • 

One of these books is from South Bristol, by Laura M. Bridges. 
It is dedicated to the progressive citizens who are making the 
town the best town. This dedication is significant and has a tend- 
^"cy to develop local boosters. The book contains short historical 
sketches and descriptions of the town, together with a brief account 

1 1 
. Ill 


of its development as a summer resort. The map of South Bristol 
is ver>- difficult to draw, as anyone will readily see by reference 
to the map, and ^liss Bridges has done a fine piece of work. The 
book is tastefully and efi:ectively illustrated. 

The other book is by Anna Hodgkins and is a history of New- 
castle. It is beautifully written and effectively illustrated. It 
gives many interesting and valuable paragraphs in regard to the 
early history of Newcastle. Some of the pictures would be an 
inspiration to an artist. They show how very beautiful may be 
our lands adjoining the sea. There are two pictures in particular 
which art could not portray, one is the view along the Damaris- 
cotta and the other the Ox Bow in the Sheepscot River. This 
ox bow bend in the Sheepscot River is like unto the great ox bows 
in the alluvial plains of the ^lississippi, but even more picturesque. 
I hope the teachers will continue the local history project with 
increased efficiency and interest on the part of the children. I am 
pleased to set up again the outline of study which may be found 
in "One Hundred Years of Statehood and One Hundred Leading 
Facts of ]\Iaine," which I wrote last vear : 

Outline of Study for the Town 

1. When organized. 

2. When settled. 

3. Changes in boundaries. 

4. Make map of state and town, showing rivers, highways, rail- 

ways, trolley lines, boat lines, etc. 

5. List public officials and names, offices held, also important 


6. Historic places, if any, within the town; old landmarks should 

be located on map and written up, also photographed. 

7. Important events which have taken place in the town listed 

chronologically and brief narratives written. 

8. Brief account of the development of education, high schools 

and academies. Events which distinguish the schools in 
any way and mark their advancement. 

9. Persons who were born in the town and have achieved dis- 

10. Collect pictures of persons, places and buildings. 


; 1 11 

■i.K i ■■ 


11. Names of persons and first events; settlers, families, births, 

death, marriage, school, church, Sunday school, priests 
and ministers, teachers, store, bank, post office, railroad, 
boat or trolley, etc. 

12. Wherever possible secure old newspapers, letters and diaries. 

13. Write up whatever facts are collected in narrative form, put- 

ting in names, dates, etc., illustrate when advisable by 
maps and pictures. 

14. Do not forget to take a forward look at the opportunities 

there are for young people in Elaine and what the state 
under the coming generation is to become. Have more 
advanced pupils list items which if observed will make • 

Maine a greater state. I 

15. At the close of the narrative or photograph add a note telling ; 

how you got your material or information, from whom, j 

etc. ! 

The books in which this original investigation is recorded may 1 

be made of ordinary paper, covered with wrapping paper nicely • 
ironed out and tied or pinned together. The books ma}- be made 
up by individuals, or it may be a school enterprise with all of the 
children contributing. Teachers who desire copies of the booklet 
"One Hundred Years of Statehood and One Hundred Leading 
Facts of Maine," may secure the same by addressing the state 
superintendent of schools at Augusta. 





Entered as second class matter at the post ofRce, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including" an index 
and all special issues, S2.00. Single copies of current and pre\'ious vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, S2.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 



Preserve this issue of the Journal. Y'ou will then always have 
what will be of exceeding interest and worth to yourself and family. 
Hand it along to future generations ! It will be of priceless value 
to them. , , .. ' 


The city of Augusta, and the State of Elaine, lost one of its very 
test citizens when Alelvin Smith Holway died at his home in that 
■city, May 21, 192 1. He was a good man in every sense of the 
word and a splendid type of the noblest citizenry of our State. 
He was born ^lay 26, 1861, in Augusta, eldest son of Oscar and 
Olive A. (Fowler) Holway. He fitted for college in the Augusta 
■schools, entered Bowdoin College in his 17th year, graduating witii 
lienors in 1882. He graduated from the Harvard Law School in 
1884, studied law for a time in the office of \V. L. Putnam at 
Portland and was admitted to the Kennebec Bar in 1885 and has 
•since that time practised law in Augusta. 

He had been city solicitor and served in both branches of the 
city government and had been a member of the school board. He 
Avas not only an able lawyer but an able and successful business 
-man as well. 

He was president of the Oscar Holway Company, of which his 
father was the founder; a director in the Old Town Woolen Mills; 
president of one of the woolen mills at Guilford; one of the oldest 
•directors of the First National Bank, of Augusta, and a director 



of the Fuller-Holway Company. He was a leader in the Y. !M. 
C. A.; a trustee of the Lithgow PubHc Library; a deacon of the 
Congregational Church; overseer of Bowdoin College, and was a 
member of the ^lasonic bodies. 

His long-time friend, Arthur G. Staples, had a most beautiful 
appreciation of him in the Lewiston Journal. From this we take 
the following excerpts : 

*'It would be difficult to eulogize the life and character of ^Ir. 
Holway. The plain truth is sufficient. There seemed no fault 
in him. He was gentle, patient, sacrificial, generous, thoughtful, 
learned, full of laughter and of joy. Never obtruding; yet plain 
enough when it came to any issue of right or wrong, was his 
religious life. He was one of those of whom Paul spoke, 'stead- 
fast, immovable, abounding in the work of the Lord.' He had 
absolutely not one showy attainment. 

**He was not a forceful or aggressive public speaker. He was 
not a good story teller. He talked but little except in the company 
of a few. But he had bed-rock character. I never knew anv such 
absolutely time-defying, deep-laid, bed-rock foundations of man- 
hood in a man of my age and association as he had. ... 

"He was never a stoic. He was somewhat of an epicurean. He 
loved the good things, but so temperately, so sensibly, so reservedly, 
that his society was an education. He knew how to get the best 
out of books. He knew how to write wonderfully and should have 
been a great essayist and authority on literature rather than a 
lawyer. He had the qualifications for such work as that of Wil- 
liam Lyon Phelps. ... 

"I have been personal in this writing; because I wished to be. 
I want to lay my wreath on the grave of the best of men. His 
nome-town newspaper contained tributes from others who have 
known Mr. Holway. I saw a brother attorney of Mr. Holway's 
Sunday at the sea-shore hurrying home as though it were his own 
brother. I too have lost one — a brother of the sunny days, a 
brother of the old Fraternity; a brother of the hedge-rows, of 
friendly roads, of adventures in contentment — when earth was 
young and when there were no clouds anywhere in the blue. 

* ihat this should happen on the eve of the greatest of reunions, 
^t commencement-time, gives it a touch of extra bitterness. But 
'I we shall imitate his life; follow his word, so gently and so sweetly 




said so many times of yore — we shall make the best of it. For I 
am very sure that ^Ir. Holway's Hfe is an exceeding great lesson 
r»nd that his beneficent influence must go on through many years, 
and that he has made the best of a life of tremendous value to 
society, a scholar, a gentleman, a soldier of the cross." 

Mr. Holway was also deeply interested in the history of the 
State of ]\Iaine, and had from the first been a subscriber to and 
an enthusiastic supporter of the Journal. 


The editor desires to call especial attention to the "Alaine His- 
tory in the Schools" department in the Journal, ably and interest- 
ingly edited by Dr. Thomas, the State Superintendent of Public 
Schools. We gladly give the schools this space. It is designed 
as a medium for an interchange of views by superintendents and 
teachers relative to the teaching of local history. It can be made 
just as interesting and as valuable to the schools of Maine as you 
yourselves may make it. Its success is up to you. We are in 
hearty accord with the move and believe it will be useful and 


Letter of Hex. Sa:ml. Adams to Same. Freeman, Esqr., 1777 

My dear Sir: 

I have had the Pleasure of receiving several letters from you, 
and I thank you for the Intelligence therein communicated to me. 
I beg you to continue your favors, although it may not be in my 
Power to balance the Account. 

Our Affairs are now in a very critical Situation. There is strong 
Reason however to promise ourselves a favorable Issue. Men of 
virtue throughout Europe heartily wish well for our Cause. They 
look upon it as indeed it is the Cause of mankind. Liberty seems 
to be driven from every other Part of the Globe. The Prospect 
of our affording for its Friends an x\sylum in this new World, 
giving them universal joy. France & Spain are in Reality, though 
not yet openly yielding us Aid. XeverthelcsSy it is my opinion 
that it would be more for the future Safety, as well as the Honor 

i I: 


of the united States of America if they could establish their Liberty 
and Independence, zvitJi as little foreign Aid as possible. If we can 
struggle thro our Difficulties alone and establish ourselves, we 
shall value our Liberties as dearly bought the more, and be less 
obliged, and consequently the more independent on others. Much 
depends on the Efforts of this year. Let us therefore lay aside the 
consideration of every Subject which may tend to a Disunion. 
The Reasons of the late Conduct of our General officers at Tycon- 
daroga must endure a strict Scrutiny. Congress have ordered an 
Inquir}', and for this Purpose Genl. Schuyler & St. Clair are or- 
dered to Head Quarters. Gates immediately takes the Command 
of the Northern Army. 

He gains the Esteem of the Soldiers, and his Success in restoring 
the Army there the last year, from a state of Confusion & Sickness 
to Health and good order affords a flattering Prospect. In my 
opinion he is an honest and able officer. Bad as our Affairs in 
that Quarter appear to be, they are not ruinous. Reinforcements 
of regular Troops are already gone, & I hope the brave X. England 
niclitia will joyn in sufficient Numbers to damp the Spirits of 
Rurgoyn. One grand Effort now may put an end to the Conflict. 
I am 

Your affectionate Friend 

Samuei^ Adams. 
To Samuel Freeman, 

Postmaster at Falmouth, ^le. . ' 

The Alaine Writers' Research Club, now five years old, held its 
spring meeting at the Y. W. C. A. rooms, Lewiston, Saturday, 
^lay 21, 192 1, with eighteen present, including nearly all the Lew- 
>>ton and Auburn members. Luncheon was served at 1.30. Those 
-•^eated at the attractively arranged tables in the Y. W. C. A. dining 
room were: Mabel G. Hall, Hallowell ; Jessica J. Haskell, Hallo- 
^y^'H ; Rose D. Nealley, Lewiston ; Anna L. Dingley, Auburn ; Mrs. 
<-.corge F. French, Portland; Florence W^augh Danforth, Skow- 
'•cgan; Sarah B. Field Seymour, Auburn; Ella ^latthews Bangs, 
f'ortland; Mary Louise Stetson, Auburn; Mabel S. Merrill, Lew- 
'"^ton; Annie Lawrence Pratt, x\uburn.; Ethel C. Pierce, Lewiston; 
Alice Frost Lord, Lewiston; Theda C. Dingley, Auburn; Mrs. 


A. L. Talbot, Lewiston; Frances Wright Turner, South Paris; 
Mrs. E. C. Carll, Augusta ; Emmie Bailey Whitney, Lewiston. 

The meeting was called to order by the president, Jessica J. 
Haskell, and as this was the bi-annual election of officers, a nom- 
inating committee was appointed by her, consisting of Mrs. Carll, 
Mrs. French and ^liss Dingley. They reported the following, who 
were unanimously elected : Pres., Mrs. Florence W. Danforth, 
Skowhegan ; vice-pres., !Miss Ella ^I. Bangs, Portland; sec.-treas., 
Theda C. Dingley, Auburn ; board of review, Mrs. E. C. Carll, 
Mrs. George F. French, ]\Irs. Emmie Whitney, IMiss Jessica Has- 
kell, Mrs. S. L. White of Houlton. 

In the absence of the secretary-treasurer, ]\Iiss Louise H. Coburn, 
owing to illness, only a partial report was given. The club now 
has on hand in the treasury $742.61. Miss Dingley reported on 
the arrangements and progress toward the publication of a com- 
panion book to "^vlaine, ^ly State," which the club proposes to 
get out, as their next undertaking of importance. The first of the 
stories have already been received by the committee which is the 
same as served in the publication of the former book. Mrs. Boyd 
Bartlett of Castine and ]\Iiss Dingley was chosen to present the 
matter of the publication of the book to the school superintendents 
at their annual meeting in Castine this summer. 

The possible publication in book form of the Fairfield letters, 
which are running in the Lewiston Journal magazine and in which 
the club is deeply interested, was discussed and it was voted to 
assist as much as possible in bringing out the book. 

A letter was read from ^Irs. Eva L. Bean of Biddeford, report- 
ing the critical illness at Trull hospital of Cora Bickford, the fir<t 
president of the club. It was voted to send Miss Bickford a gift, 
with flowers and a letter of sympathy. 

The afternoon's entertainment was furnished by Miss Mabel L. 
Merrill, who read a delightful little story, "Mary, Queen of Cus- 
tards," of which she is the author. 

At the invitation of Mrs. Beulah Sylvester Oxton, the summer 
meeting will be held in Thomaston. 

Farmington, in its early history, was closely identified with 
Hallowell ; in fact that town was the source from which it derivea 
most of its supplies, says the Franklin Journal. The first explor- 


ing party came to Farmington from Topsham in 1776, proceeding 
up the Kennebec in canoes as far as Hallowell, which at that time 
contained three or four houses and some hsh-stores. From that 
place they proceeded by land over a bad road for a short distance 
and for the remainder of the way through a wilderness by aid of 
the compass. Early in 1777 another party came from the vicinity 
of Hallowell and finally with the first company formed an associ- 
ation in Hallowell, Dec. 17, 1777, known as The Proprietors of a 
township on Sandy River, later known as Reuben Colburn and his 
.\5s0ciates. ^Meetings of this Association were generally held at 
.'\mos Pollard's, in that part of Hallowell now Augusta. After 
some delay a title was obtained to the tract of land and the town- 
ship was laid out, and the first meeting of Colburn and his Asso- 
ciates was held at Sandy River on the 15th of October, 1783. 
.\mong the early settlers were Jeriah Blake, who came from that 
part of Hallowell which is now Augusta, as did Enoch Craig, 
Robert Kannady, Calvin Edson and Gerret Burns. ^Ir. Craig in 
the winter of 1789 went to Hallowell with Dorothy Starling, his 
intended wife, for the purpose of getting married, there being no 
f'crson living nearer, qualified to solemnize marriages. ]Mr. Kan- 
nady was also married in Hallowell. Supply Belcher came to 
I'armington from Hallowell in 1791 and with him John Church, 
\*<i\h of whom figured largely in the early history of Farmington. 
Kzekiel Porter and Gershom Collier were the first to settle on what 
v>as afterwards known as Porter Hill. They, too, came from 
Hallowell. During those early days most of the business was done 
\ by the exchange of articles, corn and grain and neat stock being 
il-e staple commodities. Considerable quantities of grain were 
I iiauled to Hallowell, the nearest market, and this trade continued 
[ lor many years. The first county road was laid out from Hallo- 
l \vcll to Farmington, through Chesterville, and the mail was first 
I "wrought to Farmington from Hallowell about 1793 by Zaccheus 
I ^layhew. The mail was carried on horseback until 1829 when a 
two-horse team was employed. Thus Hallowell was really an im- 
I^>rtant element in the settlement and development of the good old 
town of Farmington. — Lewiston Journal. 



i he Bangor Historical Society is indebted to Prof. William Otis 
' » ''iwtelle of Haverford, Pa,, for an exceedingly valuable collection 

■-» '•.. ,- 


of old-time Bangor prints attractively framed, and they are dis- 
played in the historical room of the Bangor public library. The 
titles of these historic and exceedingly valuable prints are as fol- 
lows : Views of Bangor in 1837; ]^Iercantile Row with Bangor 
House in Distance, 1834; City Hall, 1853; Court House, 1853; 
Theological Seminary, 1853; Lovers* Leap, 1853; Dwinel House. \ 
1856; Custom House, Bangor House and Church; Old Town Saw- 1 
mills, 1884; Indian Island, Old Town, 1854; View of Bangor in \ 
1859; Bangor Electric Railway Cars, 1889, and Kent-Cutting l 

Liston P. Evans, editor of the Piscataquis Observer, in his 
report of the meeting of the :\Iaine Press Association at Bangor, 
Sept. 17-18, 1920, says: 

It is an interesting fact to me that five men who were at the 
banquet were natives of Piscataquis county or went from there. 
They were : .. 

Charles F. Flynt of the Kennebec Journal, who was born in 
Abbot; Roland T. Patten of the Independent-Reporter, Skow- 
hegan, who was born in Monson or at least went from that town ; 
Francis !M. Joseph, a leading W'aterville job printer, who went 
from ^lonson ; John F. Sprague, publisher of Sprague's Journal 
of Elaine History, who was born in Sangerville ; and the writer, 
who was born in Brownville. 

The Journal acknowledges its thanks to Hon. Job H. ^lontgom- 
ery of Camden, Elaine, for his historical address at the centennial 
celebration of the town of Penobscot in Hancock County, Sep- 
tember 14, 1887, and published this year at Camden, Alaine, by 
the Knox Publishing Company. It is an interesting and valuable 
addition to the history of Maine towns. 

Though not generally known by the present generation, says the 
Lewiston Journal, soldiers once guarded the Kennebec court hou-^^ 
during a murder trial. Nine prisoners were tried for the kilHus' 
of Paul Chadwick of Windsor in 1809, the tragic incident growini: 
out of controversies over the settlement and boundary lines of the 
township lands. The service of the militia cost $11,025. "^^^^ 
commissary department of one company of 50 men in service i" 

days included three barrels of pork, 17J gallons of molasses, -"^ 


pounds of chocolate, 22^ bushels of potatoes, 800 pounds of ship 
bread, 1462 pounds of beef and 59 gallons of rum. But, despite 
:.ll this, the nine prisoners walked out of the court room free men, 
at the close of the trial. 

The Rockland Gazette is publishing a most valuable historical 
>ketch of the Waldo Patent from the pen of Dr. George L. Crock- 
ett of Rockland, entitled "Romance of the Waldo Patent." It 
contains much important data never before published, which Dr. 
Crockett has rescued from oblivion in his research work regarding 
this subject. 

The Journal hopes to be able to publish it in whole or in part 
in the near future. 

We recently published in the Journal, (vol. 8, p. 196), a "History 
of the Blaine ^lansion," by Xorman L. Bassett of Augusta. 

This was an interesting and valuable article and its historical 
worth was recognized by the Americana of Xew York, one of the 
leading historical periodicals of the country, in its last issue of its 
current volume, taken from and properly credited to the Journal. 

In the Americana's literary notes, in the same number, we find 
tlie following: 

*'In Sprague's Journal of ^^laine History, a quarterly magazine 
Jiow in its ninth year, published at Doxer, Elaine, the editor, ^Iv. 
John Francis Sprague, is not only producing a work gratifying to 
the present-day reader, but one which will have ever increasing 
value as the years pass by. In the last two numbers are papers of 
T'^table interest : 'Indian Treaties in Elaine,' a subject having a 
hearing upon the hunting rights of Indians in that State as adjudi- 
<-"«'»ted in its Supreme Court some few years ago ; a 'History of the 
I'laine Mansion' in Augusta, with mention of visits there by Presi- 
dents Grant and Roosevelt; an address on 'The State of Elaine,' 
hy Hon. Clarence Hale, a Justice of the United States District 
^^Jurt, before the Elaine Society of Xew York; besides a long 
h^t of graves of Revolutionary soldiers in the Kennebec region; 
^nd much other important matter." 

in Thomas A. Edison's famous 146 questions which have at- 
tracted so much attention is: "Who is called the 'father of rail- 


roads' in the United States?" The answer is "John Stevens, 1749- 
1838, of Hoboken, X. J." - - 

Had it occurred to ^Ir. Edison to ask, who was the father of 
the international railways in America, the answer would have come 
very near being: John Alfred Poor, of Portland, ^Maine. He was 
born in x\ndover, ]\Iaine, then known as East Andover, January 8. 
1S08. He died in Portland in 187 1. He was a pioneer in the agi- 
tation for international and transcontinental system of railroads. 
He was the chief promoter of the first one built upon American 
soil, the old Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railway, and now the 
Grand Trunk system. 

You Can't Go Wrong 

In Boosting Maine Strong 

The first real action in the state-wide industrial development for 
Maine was started by The Lincoln Worsted Company, where a fine 
brick factory is now being erected, and you can not only make a 
sound, profitable investment, but, help boom Elaine by purchasing at 
this time for what vou can afford of the S^r accumulative, preferred 
stock, of THE LINCOLN WORSTED COMPANY, and receive what 
generally goes to bankers, — a fifty per cent, of bonus, in common 
stock. Par value of both classes of stock SIO.OO per share. 

For further particulars address THE LINCOLN WORSTED 
COMPANY, LINCOLN, MAINE, L. J. Co burn. Vice President. 

Coin and Stamp Collectors 


Prices I Pay — of every L'. S. Coin 
•worth over face — 13 cts. 

Rare Coins, Stamps and Curios 

What are your wants? Perhaps 
I can supply them 

Stamp Catalogrues and other Philatelic and Numismatic 
literature at publishers' prices 


292 Hammond St. Bangor, Maine 




■■■- ^--jr, ■ 1 ■■'« 




Nature Worshipers 157 

Maine Histoiy in the Schools of Maine 160 

Franklin Pierce and the State of Maine 165 

The Maine Indians 170 

Graves of Revolutionary Soldiers 175 

Mon-ill Family Reunion 180 

Lines on the Morrill Family Reunion 183 

Chronicles of the Family of John Morrill 184 

In Memoriam 191 

Good Will Home Association 196 

Maine History in the Schools 198 

Editorial , . . 203 

F C' YEflRS^he Insurance Manof Somerset Co. 

^^^ ^^^ Never a Failure — \ever a La>v Suit — AVhat more do you Tfant? 

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^r -; 










Maine's most noted historian and author, and the leading- authority on 
Maine colonial history. Editor and compiler of the "Baxter ^lanuscripts." 
For sketch of the life of Mr. Baxter see the Journal, vol. 9, p. 78. 

Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. IX October, Xovember, December, 192 i No. 4 



- (By the Editor) 

These are diverse viezi's of great and inspired zcorshipers of 
nature. The Creator fashioned and generously bestoz<.'ed upon that 
portion of His earth zvJiich is, now the State of Maine, wonderful 
and gorgeous gifts. Here is big nature, silent, relaxing, restful 
and inspiring: Hence all humans who adore nature and "worship 
at her shrine, may here find complete satisfaction and happiness, 
and have their hearts filled "with thrills of joy. 

\e children of the mountain, sing of your craggy peaks, 

^our valleys, forest laden, your clififs where Echo speaks; 

And ye, who by the prairies your childhood's joys have seen, 

^ing of your waving grasses, your velvet miles of green: 

But when my memory wanders down to the dear old home, 

I hear, amid my dreaming, the seething of the foam, 

The wet wind through the pine trees, the sobbing crash and roar, 

The mighty surge and thunder of the surf along the shore. 

I see upon the sand-dunes the beach-grass sway and swing, 

I see the whirling sea-birds sweep by on graceful wing, 

i see the silver breakers leap high on shoal and bar, 

And hear the bell-buoy tolling his lonely note afar. 

The green salt-meadows fling me their salty, sweet perfume, 

1 hear through miles of dimness the watchful fog-horn boom ; 

Once more, beneath the blackness of night's great rooftree high, 

*he wild geese chant their marches athwart the arching sky. 


The dear old Cape ! I love it ! I love its hills of sand, 
The sea-wind singing o'er it, the seaweed on its strand ; 
The bright blue ocean 'round it, the clear blue sky o'erhead; 
The fishing boats, the dripping nets, the white sails filled and 

spread ; — 
For each heart has its picture, and each its own home song, 
The sights and sounds that move it when Youth's fair memories 

throng ; - - - 

And when, down dreamland pathways, a boy, I stroll once more, 
I hear the mighty music of the surf along the shore. 

Joe Lincoln (Joseph Crosby Lincoln) 

in National Magazine. 


For the sea is murderous, cruel, and catlike in its treacherous 
habits, and all shore men know it. It tempts one out upon its sur- 
face, toys with you for an hour most pleasantly to yourself ; then 
suddenly and fiercely tosses you up, and you, coming down beneath 
an overturned boat, — why, the "beautiful sea" has enriched its vast 
death-chamber with another corpse ! 

Two yachtsmen, after storm, — out of whose clutch their yacht 
had been wrenched as by the hand of God, — were strolling on a 


beach one morning, with the dear old pines on the one hand and 
the dread billows still rolling hungrily on the other, when, clamber- 
ing around a point of slippery rocks, they suddenly saw, half 
embedded in the sand, two white faces, both young, lying side by 
side. A man's and woman's face, both young, lying so closely that 
the pale cheeks almost touched. Doubtless they had, when warm 
with life, touched each other lovingly a thousand times, for surely 
these two lying thus on a foreign beach, a thousand leagues from 
home, were lovers, death-mated. They were young emigrants 
seeking by faith another and a better country. God grant they 
found it ! * * * * * 

But the woods, the dear, frank, innocent woods. God bless 
them ! They kill no one. At their sweet roots no lovers, sleeping, 
die. Along their green edges no man and maiden lie side by side, 
killed by their treachery. Once in a hundred years, perhaps one 
man, and he by accident, is killed by the falling of a tree — some 
poor, dead tree that could not stand one instant longer, nor help 
from falling just then and there. Ay, the dear woods that kill no 
one, tempt no one, but rather warn you to keep out of their depths, 
near their bright margins, where the sun shines, flowers bloom, 
and open spaces are ; the woods that cool you so with their untaxed 
restfulness ; that never moan of nights because they have killed 
any one, but rather because any one, for any cause, must be killed, 
the world over. Yes, yes. St. John was right. There will be "no 
sea there !" 

W. H. H. IMuRRAY in 
"Lake Champlain and Its Shores." 

Nothing so fair, so pure, and at the same time so large, as a lake, 
l>erchance, lies on the surface of the earth. Sky water. It needs 
no fence. Nations come and go without defiling it. It is a mirror 
which no stone can crack, whose quicksilver will never wear ofif, 
whose gilding Nature continually repairs ; no storms, no dust, can 
dim its surface ever fresh; — a mirror in which all impurity pre- 
?^ented to it sinks, swept and dusted by the sun's hazy brush. — this 
the light dust-cloth — which retains no breath that is breathed on 
>t. but sends its own to float as clouds high above its surface, and 
^ reflected in its bosom still. 

Henry D. Thoreau in 

"Walden Pond." 


Maine is a mosaic of bright spots in life, inlaid with more gen- 
uine, worth-while, health-giving pleasure places tlian any other 
State in the Union, and framed between the most picturesque moun- 
tain range in eastern America and a seacoast, in beauty and utility, 
unequaled in any country in the world. 

Walter Emerson in preface to 

"The Latch-string." 


Evidence Is Increasing That the People of Maine Want It 

The editor of the Journal read a paper before the history depart- 
ment of the Maine Teachers' Association in Portland, Maine, 
October 2^ , 1921, entitled, ''Should Elaine History Be Taught in 
the Public Schools?" 

The fact that all of the daily and a large number of the weekly 
newspapers of the state gave this effort at an argument in favor 
of tlie proposition, such generous publicity, is convincing proof 
that the people of Elaine are heartily behind the movement to have 
the history of Elaine a part of the general course of study in the 
schools of Elaine ; that they desire that their children should have 
knowledge of the history of their own state, as well as, quoting 
from that great American, Walt Whitman — "the small theater of 
the antique or the aimless sleepwalking of the middle ages." 

The paper herein referred to was published in full in the Lewis- 
ton Journal. 

From Congressman Hersey 

Washington, D. C, October 31, 1921. 
John F. Sprague, 
Dover, Maine. 

Dear John : me to extend to you my warmest congratulations upon 
your very practical and valuable address before the teachers' con- 
vention at Portland on teaching the history of Maine in the schools. 

Ever}' boy and girl should understand the leading events of the 


history of the state. Also they should be familiar with the lives 
of the men who have made tlie state. I hope your modesty will 
not hinder you from making this address a part of the next issue of 
your valuable Journal. 

Sincerely yours, 

Ira G. ,Hersey. 

(Editorial Kennebec Journal, October 28, 1921) 

"Should Maine History Be Taught in the Public Schools?" was 
the subject of the able address given by John F. Sprague at the 
Maine Teachers' Convention in Portland, yesterday. As might 
be expected, the editor of Sprague's Journal of Alaine History 
made a convincing argument and one of absorbing interest as well. 

It is to be supposed that the grandchildren of Adam and Eve 
asked questions about their grandparents, that being in accord 
with natural desire, but for many thousands of years the accuracy 
of historical research may be questioned and it is known that tradi- 
tion became a warp to be hlled in with the variegated coloring 
supplied by the imagination. Later more attention was paid to 
the fact and less to the hction, and historical research "kept pace 
with the expansion of every phase of human enlightenment." 

Now if history is to be taught in our schools — and no one will 
seriously oppose that — it follows, or should, as a matter of course, 
that attention should be given to the study of Elaine's history. The 
histor)' of our state may not be comprehended without recourse 
to the history of certain other parts of the world, history that had 
a very important part in shaping our own along with the world's 
affairs. Mr. Sprague very aptly shows that the impulses which 
had to do with this part of the land during its formative period 
had their origin in old world conditions at a time when they were 
undergoing far-reaching changes. How may a child acquire knowd- 
Hge of Maine history and escape some valuable conception of 
European affairs when : ''The very roots of the history of Maine 
hegin in the splendid dream of the French nation, a new France 
in the new world"? 

Then, viewed from another angle, the speaker rightly concludes : 
"First teach the boy and girl to know and love their own town, 
county and state and you have gone a long way toward teaching 


them to know and love their own town, county and state and you 
have gone a long way toward teaching them to know and love their 
country." And that is the way we would have our youth travel. 

(Editorial Bangor Commercial, October 29, 1921) 

John F. Sprague of Dover, in a valuable address given Thurs- 
day at the convention of teachers in Portland, made a strong argu- 
ment for more extended teaching of Maine history in the public 
schools. It is nothing new for Mr. Sprague to offer vigorous 
remarks along this line as he has frequently done so in his historical 

The Commercial is thoroughly in accord with the views of ^Ir. 
Sprague as has more than once been expressed in these columns. 
We do not wish to give the impression that Elaine history is not 
taught in Maine schools but with very few exceptions we believe 
that it is not sufficiently taught, that the attention paid to our own 
rich history is far too meagre. 

Our early history is a large part of the early history of New 
England. As a part of Massachusetts our Elaine soldiers took a 
very prominent role in our early wars and in the Revolution, 
although it has been the custom to give the credit therefor largely 
to Massachusetts. A knowledge of the history of our state is not 
only a vital part of the education of our people but it remains a 
constant source of pleasure and interest to those possessing it. 
We believe with ^Ir. Sprague that this is a matter demanding more 
extensively the attention of our educators although we are glad 
to note that in recent years more and more effort is being made in 
many of the schools to give the pupils a good ground work of Elaine 

As our early days become more and more distant it is increasingly 
difficult to collect historical data and ^Ir. Sprague in his journal 
of history and the efforts of the Maine Historical Society and local 
organizations such as the Bangor Historical Society are doing a 
splendid work that will be ai)preciated by future generations- of 
Maine people. 

(Editorial Portland Herald, October 28. 1921) 

Addressing the Department of History at the Maine Teachers* 
Convention yesterday, John Francis Sprague, editor of Sprague's 



Journal of Maine History, made an earnest and eloquent appeal 
for the teaching of the history of Elaine to the pupils of Maine, 
pointing out that it was equally essential, if not more essential, 
that they become thoroughly acquainted with the lives and char- 
acters and accomplishments of the pioneers of Maine and the his- 
torical events that transpired on Elaine soil, as it is to be taught 
the doings and hopes and aspirations of ancient warriors and 
statesmen of centuries ago. 

He referred to the popular campaign for the teaching of Ameri- 
canism and democracy and declared his firm belief that in teaching 
the history of the state and the locaUty in which the pupil resides 
is a vital and necessary first step, for without love of city and town 
and state, how can a child expect to develop a love of country. 

Referring to the statement of Dr. Leonard P. Ayres of the Rus- 
sell Sage Foundation that only twelve per cent, of the children 
who enter the public school remain until they are sixteen years 
of age and that S^ per cent, of the children are studying Latin, 
French and other languages other than English, which less than 
five per cent, will ever use, he quoted the lines of Pope : 

" 'Tis education forms the common mind : 
Just as the twig is bent, 
The tree's inclined." 

And said : 

"And right here the point that I would make, the seriousness 
of which impresses me deeply is that the 88 per cent. — or whatever 
it may be, of children who do not long remain in the schools, many 
of whom do not even graduate from the high school or the acad- 
emy, should be taught the fundamental principles of democracy; 
that in the graded schools these twigs should at least be bent towards 
the patriotism of democracy and that interesting them in the history 
of the highway over which they daily travel, of the pioneers of 
their own town, of the things with which they are familiar is a 
first and long step in its accomplishment." 

This point was further emphasized when he said he would have 
the pupil "as much interested in the thrilling story of Arnold's 
expedition through ^^laine. as in the question of whether or not 
the Spartans betrayed their allies. \\'ould have him know some- 
thing of what a deed of land means when it says that a farm 'lies 


north of the Waldo Patent/ as well as to know all about Demos- 
thenes' speech on the embassy." 

Editor Sprague has called attention to an important feature of 
the educational system, one that should be given careful considera- 
tion on the part of educators and parents alike. 

(Editorial Evening- Express, Portland, October 29, 1921) 

There should be no necessity of a Maine man's appearing before 
a group of ]\Iaine teachers and arguing for tlie teaching of Elaine 
history in Maine schools. That broad and extensive instructions 
regarding this state and its past should be given the boys and girls 
is so self evident a proposition as to admit of no denial. That 
there has been a lack in this regard is no doubt due in part to the 
fact that the curricula of our schools have been so crowded with 
subjects, one striving with another for a place tlierein, that there 
has been a tendency to overlook matters tliat have not been espe- 
cially urged by individuals interested. 

In a paper read by him at Thursday's session of the ]Maine Teach- 
ers' Association, John F. Sprague of Dover presents with unanswer- 
able logic and in the pleasing style which always characterizes his 
writings, the case of }^Iaine history. 

In this paper ^Ir. Sprague not only demonstrates why ]\Iaine 
pupils should be instructed in Elaine history, but he gives in brief 
outHne the story of our past and tells how it was linked with the 
great events which stand as the mile posts to mark the advance of 
civilization and the development of popular government. 

Maine history is so indissolubly and so conspicuously linked 
with world history is one of the reasons ^Ir. Sprague gives for 
urging the paying of greater attention to the subject in our schools. 

Another and fully as important a reason that is given by him 
for a more extended study of our state is that such a study engen- 
ders patriotism and creates good citizenship. 

Patriotism is defined as love of and devotion to one's country, 
and it is axiomatic that the more our children know of our past 
and the more they find to admire in it, the greater will be their love 
for it. 

In ^Ir. Sprague's opinion two false ideas relative to the impor- 
tance of knowing Maine history are more or less prevalent amon 



Maine people. One is tliat as !Maine early came under the political 
jurisdiction of ^lassachusetts it has no distinct place in early Ameri- 
can history. The other is that if we have a history it is not of 
interest or value to any but lovers of an3-thing that is antique and 

Both these are false premises, as ^Ir. Sprague conclusively 
shows. From the days of \\'aymouth, as he says, down to the 
Governors of the present day ''Maine has had a continuous record 
of potential events in the history of democracy in the world," and 
these records have an important bearing on the problems that now 
confront us. ' 

It is a satisfaction to learn, as the Dover historian states near 
the conclusion of his deeply interesting paper, that the state super- 
intendent, Dr. Thomas, and his assistants are now making the study 
of Elaine history an important feature in the regular course of 
study in the schools of !Maine. 

(Editorial Piscataquis Observer, November 3, 1921) 

John F. Sprague delivered an address before the department of 
history at the IMaine Teachers' Convention in Portland last week 
which received the hearty commendation of those who heard it 
and of the daily papers, many of which spoke of it at considerable 
length editorially. 

The subject was the teaching of Elaine History In the public 
schools, a matter which ^Ir. Sprague has consistently advocated 
for years in his Journal of ^Malne History, and he made a strong 
argument for it. 

All who are In harmony with the spirit of the foregoing should 
<lo everything possible to sustain Dr. Thomas In his efforts to have 
the schools of Elaine teach the youth of Maine the story of the 
past and the present of their own native state. 


(By Charles E. Waterman) 

Franklin Pierce, fourteenth President of the United States, was 
3 product of New Hampshire, but he came Into personal contact 
^^>th the people of the State of IMalne on two occasions during his 
'Jietime. or, to be more exact, he came Into contact with the people 


of Elaine on one occasion and nearly came in contact with them 


on another. 

In 1820, when sixteen years of age, Pierce entered Bowdoin 
college, and, after the customary four years course, graduated. 
The next year after he entered this college came Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne, and, although belonging to different classes, the two young 
men became warm friends. This friendship lasted through life. 
When Pierce ran for the Presidency in 1852, Hawthorne wrote 
a biography of his friend for the campaign. In payment for this 
work Hawthorne was appointed surveyor of customs for the port 
of Salem. While holding this position, Hawthorne, in ransacking 
the lumber in the basement of the custom house, came upon a faded 
letter embroidered on cloth which so stimulated his imagination 
that he wrote that classic of American fiction, "The Scarlet Letter."" 
In this biography of Pierce and that part of it devoted to his 
college life can be found two statements which are interesting to 
and connected with Elaine people. The first is that his class chum 
was Zenas Caldwell, and the second that "during one of his winter 
vacations Pierce taught a country school." 

These two statements can be taken together. Zenas Caldwell 
was the son of William and Nancy (W^oodward) Caldwell and 
born in the town of Hebron, afterward Oxford, in that part known 
as East Oxford, and being the friend of Pierce secured the school 
in his neighborhood, locally known as District Number Six, a dis- 
trict located near the birthplace of the writer and therefore of 
interest to him, for his friend. Not much has come down regarding 
his pedagogy, and the fact of his teaching this school might have 
been forgotten had he not attained the Presidency and therefore 
put a distinguishing mark on this schoolhouse. He had one pupil, 
however, that was destined for state-wide recognition at least, — 
John Jasiel Perry, who became a lawyer, editor, major-general of 
militia and was member of Congress during the term of Pierce s 
encumbency at the \\ hite House. 

It might be recorded here that Caldwell came to an early death. 
He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1824 and was immediately 
elected principal of Yarmouth Academy. He died in 1826 while 
holding the position. 

Pierce was a brilliant and active man. Of his attainments as a 
student, Hawthorne says : 


During the early part of his college course, it may be. 
doubted whether Pierce was distinguished for scholarship. 
But for the last two years he appeared to grow more 
intent on the business in hand, and, without losing any of 
his vivacious qualities as a companion, was evidently re- 
solved to gain an honorable elevation in his class. His 
habits of attention and obedience to college discipline were 
of the strictest character ; he rose progressively in scholar- 
ship and took a highly credible degree. 

Leaving college he studied law, then entered political life, in 
which he rapidly advanced. On the north side of the pedestal 
supporting his statue on the capitol grounds in Concord can be 
seen the following in regard to his political life: 

Member Xew Hampshire Legislature at 2^ and Speaker at 2^ 

Congressman at 2g 
United States Senator at J2 and Resigned at j/ 
Later in Life DecVvied the Office of Attorney General of the United 
States; that of Secretary of War; tJie United States Senator- 
ship and Goz'ernorsJiip of Xew Hampshire 
President of the Xew Hampshire Constitutional Convention 

President of the United States 
. Died at Concord October 8, iS6q ' 

This inscription concerns the history of New Hampshire particu- 
larly. Where he expected to come into personal touch with the 
people of [Maine for the second time was in Mexican War service. 

\\ hen President Polk called for volunteers, two regiments were 
assigned as New England's quota. One of these regiments was 
to be raised in ^lassachusetts and the other in the remaining states, 
two companies to each. 

Pierce had been brought in a militan,^ atmosphere. His father, 
(general Benjamin Pierce, had been a Revolutionary soldier, serving 
seven years in that war. There was a military company attached 
to Bowdoin College during the four years he lived in Brunswick 
and Pierce was one of the officers. He was a southern sympathizer, 
and, therefore greatly interested in the Mexican war. He intended 
to take part and was early slated as one of Polk's generals. In 


1847 there were not many trained soldiers, therefore a poHtical 
general was a necessity as well as a privilege. Pierce was not 
unmindful of dramatic effect, and perhaps had the morale of his 
troops in view through force of example. Although sure of his 
general's star, he enlisted as a private in a company raised in Con- 
cord, but on the passage of the bill to increase the size of the army 
was appointed colonel of the New England regiment, which after- 
wards became the Ninth United States Infantry; and before reach- 
ing Mexico received a commission as brigadier general. 

This regiment was a pet scheme with General Pierce, in which 
was associated Truman Bishop Ransom. Colonel Ransom, at the 
opening of the war, was president of Norwich (Vermont) Uni- 
versity, an institution founded by a \\>st Pointer, Captain /\lden 
Patridge, and which has always maintained a military character. 
In all, up to the opening of the world war, 517 of its graduates 
had been in the United States military service. Six of these 
reached the rank of major-general and eight that of brigadier- 
general. It has also produced three rear admirals, the most noted 
of whom was George Dewey, victor at ^lanila Bay. Over 700 of 
its graduates served in the world war. 

Inasmuch as this regiment was to have had two companies from 
Maine, it interested the writer to quite an extent. Upon inquiry 
at the Maine Adjutant General's office, however, no record of such 
organizations could be found. An application to the Adjutant Gen- 
eral's office in Washington brought no better results. General H. 
P. McCann, who held the office at that time, wrote : 

It does not appear from the official records on hie in the A\'ar 
Department that any company belonging to the Ninth Regiment 
United States Infantry, of which Franklin Pierce was colonel, 
was raised in the State of Maine. 

It seems therefore, no units of Elaine troops were raised for 
this regiment. There are several reasons that may be assigned 
for this default. Maine was not favorably inclined toward the 
war. It was considered a plan to increase slave territory. Then 
the regiment was assembled and mustered into service at Fort 
Adams, Providence, Rhode Island, where Maine could see and 
hear little of the bustle of preparation. Nevertheless, it sounded 
somewhat singular that no mention of the regiment appeared in 
the documents of the time, or of the organization of troops for 


the war. Albert Greenlaw, when adjutant general of Maine, found 
records of the raising of two companies for the Mexican war, not 
in his office but in that of Secretary of State. These companies 
were raised in the town and vicinity of Sanford, more especially 
in Shapleigh. The roll discovered is in the form of a single com- 
pany, but according to Edwin Emery's history of Sanford, the 
men were organized into two companies, the officers of the Sanford 
company were ]Moses Goodwin, captain, with Charles E. Webb 
and Samuel S. Thing, lieutenants. The captain of the Shapleigh 
company was \\'illiam Emery. These companies were organized 
and mustered, then disbanded, costing the state the sum of $167.00 
and, it might be added, Captain Goodwin a banquet for the men. 
These men were raised for the First Regiment of Maine \^olun- 
teers, but that was early in the war and before the quota had been 
agreed upon. The roll, which has never been printed, follows with 
the exception of age and occupation of the members. 

WE, whose names are hereunto affixed, do severally consent, 
and by our signature hereunto made, do agree to be enrolled into 
the Company to be raised by Closes Goodwin, Jr., of Shapleigh, a 
citizen of the State of Maine, acting under the authority of the 
Governor thereof, which Company is to form a component part 
of the "First Regiment of ]\Iaine A^olunteers," which Regiment is, 
when called for, to be mustered into the service of the United 
States, and placed at the disposal of the President, under authority 
of an act providing for the prosecution of the War declared in 
said Act to exist between the Republic of Mexico and the United 
States. And we do further hereby covenant and agree, to be holden 
by this enrolment, and well and faithfully to serve as members of 
said Company, according to the time for which we shall be mus- 
tered into the service of the United States. 

Enrolled from Shapleigh June 25, 1846, Moses Goodwin, Jr., 
Alexander H. Prime; June 26, 1846, Samuel Gewish, Franklin 
Hubbard, William Hammet, Ichabod Abbot, George Abbot, Benja- 
min Gowan, Orsamery Jellison, George F. Wentworth ; June 2^, 
1846, Simon Huntress, Albea Norton, James M. Trafton, William 
^Iuchnovv; June 29, 1846, William X Hussey his mark, Moses 
Littlefield; July 2, 1846, Hazenk X Xason his mark, John H. Brag- 
^on, Solomon Littlefield; July 11, 1846, Thomas B. Seavey; July 


l6, 1846, Stephen Damon; July 17, 1846, Daniel ^I. Challier ; Julv 
24, 1846, Elisha Wentvvorth ; July 2"/, 1846, David B. Smith ; August 
6, 1846, Reuben Horn. 

From Sanford June 25, 1846, Samuel Lord, Asa Low, Charles 
E. Weld, Samuel S. Thing, Samuel B. Emery, John Day, Albert 
Day, James M. Burbank, Jason Hamilton, Jordan D. Frost, James 
E. Wilson, Samuel ^I. Frost, Otis Y. Chandler, George Kinney, 
Joseph N. Wilkinson, William H. Wiggin; June 26, 1846, Dennis 
Hatch, Richard Lunny, Orrin Day, John S. Carter, Caleb S. Emerv, 
Edward Ricker, Luthur W. Paul ; June 27, 1846, James P. Nut- 
ting; June 29, 1846, Joseph Jellison, Reuben G. \\'entworth ; June 
30, 1846, John T. Hickbonol ; July 2, 1846, Nehemiah A\>lch ; July 

16, 1846, William H. Lord ; July 18, 1846, Isaac Reed, Samuel L. 
Pillsbury, Joshua Littlefield, William E. Pillsbury, Daniel Zebulon ; 
July 20, 1846, Joseph \\^elch signed to take A. P. Hubberd's place ; 
July 23, 1846, Leander Garey, George W. Witham; July 25, 1846, 
D? M?; August 6, 1846, Joseph Welch. 

From Saco August 20, 1846, William Emery, 3d. 

From \\'aterboro July 8, 1846, Horace A. Pinkham, Ivory Thing. 

From x\cton July 9, 1846, Daniel Nason, Simon W. Brackett. 
Aaron Goodwin, Jr., Ivory Goodwin; July 15, 1846, Charles H. 
Rowell ; July 18, 1846, Calvin Sanborn ; August 5, 1846, Noah 

From Lebanon July 14, 1846, John Ricker, Jr., Frederick A. 
Wood, Joseph Stacpole ; July 16, 1846, Nathaniel W. Keay ; July 

17, 1846, Latan? X Penn his mark; August 6, 1846, Nathaniel 

From Alfred July 20, 1846, P. H. Burnham, Stillman B. Allen. 



(By Ethel M. Wood) 

(Continued from page 125) 

V. King Philip's War 

The Indians and English in Maine were generally at peace with 
each other until 1675, a year of general unrest in New England. 
At this time the towns and plantations in Maine numbered thirteen, 


Kittery, York, Wells, Cape Porpoise, Saco, Scarborough, Falmouth, 
Pejepscot, Sagadahoc, Sheepscot, Damariscotta, Pemaquid, and 
Monhegan. The Indians were much fewer in number than when 
the white man first came in contact with them, for a dreadful 
plague had decimated their ranks. This disease, believed to be 
either small-pox or yellow fever, was contracted from the English, 
and it ravaged the whole region from Massachusetts as far east 
as the A\'awenock tribe in Maine, in some cases extinguishing whole 
tribes. The bleaching bones of the dead were found by the set- 
tlers. As has been said, the two races lived in comparative friend- 
liness for many years. They even shared each others' hospitality, 
but still the Indians felt that the English cared only for their furs, 
and consequently they learned to put more trust in the French, 
who manifested some interest in the natives for their own sake. 

King Philip's War broke out in the Plymouth colony in June 
1675, and in a few weeks Maine was astir. Captains Lake, Pette- 
shall, and W'iswell were appointed "a committee of safety for the 
eastern parts."^ They met to decide upon a course of action, and 
finally sent a party up the river for the purpose of disarming the 
natives. Meeting a party of five Androscoggins and seven Kenne- 
becs, thev made them surrender their arms. In the course of the 
proceeding, Sowen, a Kennebec, struck at one Hosea ^lallet and 
would have killed him had not ^Mallet's friends restrained the sav- 
age. Sowen's companions begged that his life be spared, and ran- 
somed him with forty beaver skins. An agreement of peace was 
then made with ^lahotiwomet, the principal sagamore of the Ken- 
nebecs, who, by the way, was called by the English by the romantic 
title of Robinhood. The entire tribe was assembled the next day 
and a dance held in honor of the peace. From the Alerrimac to 
Pemaquid, there was a visible agitation among the natives, and a 
change In their attitude toward the English settlers which boded 
iH. The first overt act of hostility committed by the Indians 
occurred on the fifth of September when the house of Thomas 
Purchas at Brunswick was sacked. While no one was Injured, 
the family was threatened with further disaster. On September 
12 occurred the first Indian massacre In Maine. The victims were 
I nomas Wakely and his family of eight persons at Falmouth. The 
youngest daughter, Elizabeth, aged eleven, was taken captive, but 

» Hubbard's Indian Wars; p. 301. 


after nine months she was restored to the English through the 
mstrumentaUty of Sqaundo, chief of the Sacos. In the three months 
following this first massacre, seventy-two white persons were killed 
between Casco and the Piscataqua, largely by the Sacos and Andro- 

Scarborough was a town which suffered much in this and subse- 
quent Indian wars. In and about this town lived members of the 
Saco tribe, the fiercest of all the Alaine Indians. The inhabitants 
and natives were bound by what was called a "treaty of amity and 
tribute," - which required that each person should pay annually the 
nominal tribute of one peck of corn to Madockawando, sagamore 
of Penobscot and Bashaba of the Indian tribes. It was fortunate 
that heretofore the Indians had made no trouble for the settlers, 
for Scarborough would have been in a particularly dangerous sit- 
uation in the event of an attack, since it was far removed from 
any available aid. King Philip had tried in vain to induce the Sacos 
to join him, but they probably would never have done so except for 
a certain unfortunate occurrence which happened about this time. 
The wife of Squando was one day crossing the Saco in a canoe 
with her baby. Some British sailors nearby thought this a good 
opportunity to test the truth of the common belief that an Indian 
child swims as naturally as a young puppy or duck. Accordingly, 
as she was about to land, they approached the canoe, and, in a half- 
joking manner, overturned it, throwing the occupants into the 
water. The little one sank to the bottom, and the mother barely 
saved it from drowning. The child died soon after, and naturally 
the angry Squando attributed the sad event to the recent ducking 
which the child had received. He was now determined to join 
in the attack against the English settlers. He was a man of genius 
and ability and consequently had much influence with other tribes. 
Now stirred with grief over the death of his child and filled with a 
lasting hatred of the English, he called the neighboring Indians 
to councils and war dances, and soon induced them to join him in 
making war upon the English. 

The first attack made upon any citizen of Scarborough was on 
September 20 at the house of Robert Nichols at Blue Point near 
Dunstan. The two old people, Mr. and Mrs. Nichols, were alone; 

«See Me. Hist. Soc. Coll. Series 1, Vol. 3. p. 102. 



they were killed and the house burned. Another attack was made 
in October, this time upon Alger's garrison house, situated at some 
distance north of the settlement at Dunstan. The garrison house 
and twenty-seven dwelling houses were burned to tlie ground, and 
the homeless families left to suffer. Other attacks were made 
during the year. During the winter there was a cessation of hos- 
tilities, but on the thirteenth of ^lay a three days' siege of the Black 
Point garrison in the southeastern part of the Town of Scarbor- 
ough was begun. As a result of tlie siege only three men were 
killed and one taken captive by the Indians. The leader of the 
band, Mugg, a Penobscot chieftain, was killed, and his death caused 
much relief among the settlers, who had long regarded him as a 
veritable scourge. In the meantime the garrison was reinforced, 
and in the next engagement, compelled the foe to withdraw after 
sustaining a severe loss of men. 

On September 24 Newichawannock (now South Berwick) was 
attacked by a band of Indians under the leadership of Andrew 
of the Sacos and Hopehood* of the Kennebecs. One of the name- 
less heroines of the war figured in this encounter. Among the 
dwellings attacked by the savages was that of John Tozler, in which 
fifteen women and children were alone and unprotected. A terrible 
fate would undoubtedly have been theirs, had it not been for the 
noble heroism of a young girl of eighteen, who made the door fast 
and held it by main strength while her friends escaped by a back 
way. Finally the door was beaten down, and the savages enraged 
at being thus outwitted showered blow after blow upon the poor 
S^irl ; then, leaving her for dead, pursued the fugitives. The brave 
t;Irl afterward revived, and lived to a good old age. 

The traders at Sagadahoc upon the Kennebec were trying to 
^^eep the war from their midst, and Abraham Shurte, an honest, 
Kind-hearted magistrate of Pemaquid, was employed as a peace- 
niaker. He invited some of the sagamores to Pemaquid and there 
^hey told him their grievances, that is, how certain of their number 
had been taken captive and sold into slavery, and how, through 
^ne fact that the English had withheld firearms and ammunition, 
^hey had suffered from lack of food during the winter and some 
•lad actually died of starvation. Mr. Shurte promised them justice 

Hopehood was the son of the chief Robinhood referred to on pai^e 30. 


if they would remain at peace. Later he issued an invitation to 
the sachems of all the tribes to meet him in council at Teconnet." 
Shurte sailed in his own boat to Sagadahoc at the mouth of tlie 
Kennebec, where he took on board Capt. Sylvanus Davis, whom 
the committee had appointed to accompany him. A large number 
of Indians awaited them at Teconnet, including chiefs from the 
Kennebecs, Penobscots, and Androscoggins. Squando of the Sacos 
did not appear. Tarumkin of the Androscoggins spoke eloquently 
in favor of peace and the other chiefs readily agreed with him, 
but no general treaty could be made in the absence of Squando. 
The Indians pleaded for guns that they might kill necessary game 
for tliemselves, but the English, fearing lest they might give or 
sell their gims to the Sacos, refused their request. Hunger and 
famine now stared them in the face. Driven to desperation and 
despair because of the refusal to grant them arms and ammunition, 
they became angry and abruptly terminated the council by their 
sudden departure. 

The warriors of King Philip were circulating tales of warlike 
deeds, exciting revengeful thoughts in the breasts of the Maine 
tribes. The first war party was formed of certain of the Kennebecs 
in alliance with the Androscoggins. On August 13, 1676, they " 
plundered the trading fort of Richard Hammond at the outlet of 
Merrymeeting Bay, where three were killed and sixteen taken 
captive. A brave young woman fled in the night to Sheepscot and 
warned the settlers there of the impending danger. From there 
they went to Clark and Lake's post on Arrowsic Island. Only 
a few escaped from the fort ; Capt. Lake of the committee was 
among those who perished, and Capt. Davis was wounded. There 
was a general devastation along the coast from Piscataqua to Pema- 
quid, but during the winter the Indians were obliged to go to the 
English for food and there was a temporar}* peace. 

(To be continued.) 
•Teconnet was near the site of the present town of Winslow. 

Winthrop Agricultural Society, 1820 

President, Samuel A\^ood. 
Vice-President, Nemeiah Pierce. 
Corresponding Secretary, Deacon Joseph Metcalf. 
Treasurer, Alexander Belcher. 





(By Mrs. Mabel Goodwin Hall, Hallowell, Maine) 

(Continued from page 2'j') 

Paul Lancaster — Lieut. Died Feb. 18, 1814, aged 79. Buried at 
E. Winthrop. Enlisted from Ipswich. Served as ensign and 

Daniel Lane — Capt., is buried at Leeds, the grave being marked 
with gov't stone. He was ist Lieut, in Capt. John Lane's Co., 
in seacoast defense, probably stationed at Cape x\nn. Was de- 
tained as prisoner at Dartmoor prison nearly 2 years. 

James Lawrence — Died July 3, 181 1, aged 66. He is buried at 
Evergreen Cemetery, ^Ionmouth-A\'ayne. He came to AX'ayne 
from Sandwich, ]\Iass., in 1786. He enlisted from Sandwich as 
private in Capt. Ward Swift's (2d Sandwich) Co. of militia. 

Stephen Longfellow — Died Xov. 3, 1S24, aged j^, and is buried at 
Hallowell. He enlisted July 13, 1778, from Ballstown Planta- 
tion, as private in Capt. John Blunt's Co., Maj. William Lith- 
gow's detachment of militia, service i mo. 15 days, defending 
the frontiers of Lincoln Co. 

James Lord — Born in Ipswich, 1737, died Feb. 13, 1830, and is 
buried in the Grant Neighborhood, Litchfield. He served 3 yrs. 
in the old French war and 4.I- yrs. in the Revolution. Held 
Lieut. 's commission and commanded the company which led the 
way to Bunker Hill on the morning of the battle. 

John Lovejoy — Died Jan. 11, 1S31, aged 80. He is buried at Fayette 
beside his wife ^lartha, who died Xov. 2, 1847, aged 93. "He 
served in the Revolutionary war faithfully and with honor." Is 
on rolls from Amherst, X. H. 

Xathl. Lovering — Died Dec. 30, 1842, aged yj , and is buried at E. 
Winthrop. He served in the ]\Iass. militia. Is on the pension 
rolls of 1835 and 1840. 

Andrew ]Mace — Died Apr. 6, 1845, aged 88, and is buried at E. 
Readfield. Pensioned Feb. 15, 1806, for life; amount of annual 
pension, $144.00. He served as private and sergeant in Mass. 

Ebenezer Mayo — Died Apr. 29, 1814, aged 57, Is buried at Hallo- 
well. He served as private and sergeant, enlisting, from Eastham, 

jfc' _,'■♦' >:.;^; ,'' 



William ^lorse — Born, IMethuen, Mass., July 22, 1762; died Apr. 
17, 1844 y buried at Hallowell. , He served as private in Capt. 
John Peabody's Co., Col. Ebenezer Francis's Regt. 

John Mower — Died Feb. 4, 1854, aged 94 yrs. 10 mos. He is buried 
at Greene. He served as private in Capt. Xicholson Broughton's 
Co., Col. Glover's Regt. Pensioner in 1835 and 1840. 

Thomas Xeal — Died Sept. 20, 1835, aged 83 ; is buried at E. Read- 
field. Served in the Revolutionary war; is on the 1835 pension 

Samuel Norcross — Died Dec. 2, 1800, aged 75 ; is buried at Hallo- 
well. Served as private in Capt. John Blunt's Co., Col. Samuel 
McCobb's Regt. Service, 3 mos., Penobscot expedition. 

Nathan Xorris — Formerly of A\'areham, ]\Iass., died July 13. 1825, 
aged 75 ; is buried in Evergreen Cemetery, ^lonmouth-W'ayne. 
He served as private in Capt. John Gibbs' Co., Col. Ebenezer 
Sprout's (4th Plymouth Co.) Regt. 

Elisha Nye — Capt. ; born in Sandwich, ]\Iass., Apr. 22, 1745 ; died 
May 12, 1833 ; buried at Hallowell, having a gov't stone. Served 
as Lieut, in Capt. John Grannis' Co.; commissioned Jan. i, 1776; 
also captain, entered service Jan. 4, 1776. 

Hugh W. Owen — Died Jan. 16, 1846, aged yy, and is buried at 
Wales. He served as private in Capt. John Read's Co., Col. 
James Hunter's corps, raised for defense of eastern Massachu- 
setts; enlisted Apr. 12, 1782; service 7 mos. 9 days. Pensioner 
1835 and 1840. •' 

Dr. Benjamin Page — Died Oct. 28, 1824, aged yS. He is buried 
at Hallowell. Served as physician in the N. H. line. 

David Paul — Died Aug. 25, 1850, aged 89, and is buried at Bar- 
ker's Mills, Lewiston. 1835 Bounty list gives residence Lewiston, 
enlisted from New Gloucester. 

Obadiah Pettingill — Born in Brockton, Feb. 9, 1761 ; died Mar. 29, 
1846; buried at L'nion Cemetery, Leeds. He served in Capt. 
Joseph Cole's Co., Col. Robinson's Regt., service 5 mos. 25 days. 

William Pettingill — Born in Bridgewater, Mass., 1759; died Nov, 
16, 1846 ; buried at L'nion Cemetery, Leeds. He served in Capt. 
Cole's Co., Col. Robinson's Regt. 

Isaac Pilsbury — Born in Amesbury, T762; died ^lay 4, 181J., aged 
52; buried at Hallowell. He served in Capt. Gray's 3rd Co. 


Benjamin Pratt — Died Sept. 16, 1825, aged 68, and is buried at 

Greene. He was a private in Mass, militia. On pension rolls 

of 1835. 
Abraham Pray — Born in Berwick, Sept. 20, 1753; died Jan. 20, 

1840; is buried at Hallowell. Sergeant in Capt. Samuel Darby's 

Co., Col. James Scammon's Regt. (30th). 

John Rice — Born in Bristol, Eng. ; died May 29, 1835, aged 76. 
Buried on Litchfield road, Hallowell. He was a soldier of the 
Revolution, receiving a pension 1835, private in Alass. militia. 

Bradley Richards — Capt.; died June 12, 1821, aged 71; buried at 
Hallowell. Private in Capt. Thomas Cogswell's Co. Ensign. 
Lieut, in Col. Loammi Balden's 38th Regt. 

Matthias Ridley — Born in Saco, Feb. 4, 1749, died Alay 13, 1837, 
and is buried \\'ayne-Strickland's Ferry, beside wife, Dorcas. He 
was a corporal in Capt. Jeremiah Hill's Co., Col. James Scam- 
mon's Regt. 

Luther Robbins — Died Sept. 15, 1840, aged 83. Burled at Greene. 
Private and Quartermaster in !Mass. ^lilitia. Rec'd pension in 


John Rogers — Born in 1758, died Apr. 18, 1824. Buried at Litch- 
field Plains. Revolutionary pensioner. 

Abraham Shaw — Capt.; died Apr. 8, 1813, aged 55. Is buried at 
Winthrop. Born in Middleborough, ^lass., Aug. 10, 1857. He 
marched on the alarm of Apr. 19, 1775, with Capt. Isaac Wood's, 
Col. Theophilus Cotton's Regt. Went to A\'inthrop in 1797. 

Elisha Shaw — Died Aug. 6, 1839, aged 8r, and is buried at L'nion 
Cemetery, Leeds. He served in the ^lass. state troops as sergeant 
and ensign. Revolutionary pensioner, 1835. 

John Skinner — Born Dec. 27, 1749; died ^lar. 16, 1844; buried at 
Barker's Mills, Lewiston. Served in the Continental Army, 
engaged for town of Cape Elizabeth, joined Capt. Smith's Co., 
Col. Patterson's Regt., term 3 years. Pensioner in 1835 and 

^latthias Smith — Died June 20, 1812, aged ^2> Y^^- Is buried at 
Readfield. He was born in Rehobeth, Mass., Aug. 30. 1759. 
Served as private in Capt. John Blunt's Co., Col. Samuel !Mc- 
Cobb's Regt., from June 28 to Sept. 2S, 1779. 


Saniuel Smith — Died Oct. 10, 181 1. Buried at Hallowell. Served 
as private in Capt. Sherman's Co., Col. Gerrish's Regt. 

Adin Stanley — Born in Attleborough, ^Mass., 1761 ; died Nov. 20, 
1850; buried near Stanley's, \\'inthrop. He served 3 years in 
the Rev. army. Was engaged in the battles of Springfield and 
Rhode Island. A\'ent to Winthrop about 1785. Pensioner in 
1835 and 1840. 

Solomon Stanley — Born in Attleborough, !Mass., ^lay 13, 1740. 
Died ]Mar. 9, 18 19. Buried at Winthrop. Private in Capt. Jabez 
Ellis' Co. of ^Minute ^Icn who marched from Attleborough, Apr. 
19, 1775 ; also as ensign in Capt. Caleb Richardson's Co., Col. 
Timothy Walker's Regt., Oct. 6, 1775. 

Daniel Stevens — Born in Brentwood, N. H. ; died Alar. 24, 1796; 
buried at Hallowell. Served as sergeant in Capt. Ezekiel Ladd's 
Co., Col. Timothy Bedel's Regt. ; also Capt. Benjamin A\^hitcomb's 
Co. of Rangers, N. H. line. 

Joseph Stevens — Born in Billerica, Oct. 17, 1720; died Oct. 4, 1791 ; 
buried at \\'inthrop. \\'as allowed 12s. for military service by 
the town, Jan. 15, 1777. 

Enoch Strout — Deacon; died Apr. i, 1832, aged 71; buried at 
Wales. He was formerly from Limington, Ale. Served as pri- 
vate in Capt. Joshua Jordan's Co., Col. Jonathan Alitchell's Regt. 

Thomas Taylor — Died Feb. 18, 1825, aged 89 ; buried at Barker's 
Mills, Lewiston. He enlisted from Dracut, as private in Capt. 
Stephen Russell's Co. of militia. He fought at Lexington and 
Saratoga. . -■ 

Jeremiah Towle — Born 1753; died Dec. 6, 1835, aged -jy \ buried 
near No. Monmouth. He fought at Trenton, Monmouth, A\'hite 
Plains and Stillwater, was with \\'ashington at Valley Forge 
and was present at the execution of Alajor Andre. He was 
wounded, 1777. 

Noah Towne — Died Mar. 10, 1841, aged 84 yrs. 11 mos. Buried 
at Litchfield. Served as private in N. H. line. Pensioner in 1835 
and 1840. 


Aaron True — Died Apr. 3, 1837, aged 79 yrs. 7 mos. ; buried at 
So. Litchfield. Served as private in Capt. Stephen Jenkins' Co., 
Col. Jacob Gerrish's Regt. Service i mo. 2 days. Pensioner 
in 1835. 

John Wadsworth — Born in Stoughton, ^lass., Xov. 11, 1762. Died 
Apr. 18, 1834; buried at East Winthrop. Served as private and 
musician in Capt. Gulliver's Co., Col. Henry Jackson's Regt., 
for six months from June, 1778; also enlisted April, 1780, for 
nine months, in Capt. Daniel Lunt's Co., Col. Benj. Tupper's 
Regt. Pensioner in 1835. 

Braddock Weeks — Died Oct. 11, 181 1, aged 50; buried in Ever- 
green Cemetery, ^Ionmouth-A\'ayne, beside his wife, Bethiah. He 
served in the Rev. war, enlisting from Falmouth. Betliiah Wrecks 
rec'd pension, 1840. 

James \\'eeks — Died ^lar. 10, 1843, aged 82 yrs. Buried at ^Ion- 
mouth. Served as private in }^Iass. militia. Pensioner in 1835. 

Benjamin White — Died Dec. 18, 1833, aged 'j'j. Buried at Chelsea. 
Enlisted from Hallowell, service 3 mos. Penobscot expedition. 

Jonathan \\'hiting — Born in Wrentham, ^lass,, May 25, 1726. Died 
Oct. II, 1807. Buried near Stanley's, Winthrop. Served as ist 
Lieut, in Capt. Timothy Foster's Co., 2d Lincoln Co. Regt. of 
Mass. militia. 

John Wilcox — Born Apr. 26, 1759; died Mar. 10, 1844; buried at 
Monmouth. He enlisted from Tiverton, R. I. Pensioner in 1835 
and 1840. : 

Dr. John Wingate — Died July 25, 18 19, aged 76. Buried at Hallo- 
well. . Served as surgeon in the Revolutionary war, enlisting from 

Joshua \\'ingate — Born in Amesbury, ]Mass., Mar. 4, 1747; died 
Oct. II, 1844; buried at Hallowell. Served as ensign in Capt. 
Matthias Hoyt's Co. of ]\Iinute ^len, which marched on the 
alarm of Apr. 19, 1775, service 9 days. 

John Witherell — Born 1758; died June 12, 1854; buried at ]Mon- 
mouth Ridge. He was private and serg. in the Mass. militia, 
serving as quartermaster during the war. 

Samuel Wood — Sept. 10, 1759-Sept. 10, 1848; buried at Stanley's, 
Winthrop. He enlisted from ^Middleborough as private. His 
company marched to Bristol, R. L., service 73 days. 




The first ]\Iorrill family reunion, which was held at the old 
ancestral estate at North Berwick, Elaine, on September 3, 192 1, 
was very successful. 

The morning was given over to the inspection of the numerOtis 
historical places on the estate. This was under the personal direc- 
tion of the hostess, Mrs. Harriette (Randell) ^lorrill, and the vari- 
ous places pointed out and the story told, as only she can tell them. 

Starting from the house along the shore of Bauneg Beg Lake, 
the first object of interest is the old pot hole of the Indians, now 
little more than a slight depression in the earth. It is beneath the 
great pines, on a slight bluff near the lake. Here, around this camp- 
fire stood the wigwams of the Indians who were snowed in while 
on their way to Canada after a raid on Kittery, and here was born 
the child of their white captive, Katherine Allen. Food was so 
scarce the whole party nearly starved to death, and the cries of the 
white infant, starving slowly, so annoyed the savages that the 
mother was forced to gather faggots and after lighting them lay 
on her living infant, she being too weak with hunger to offer resist- 

Later she was enabled to elude the ^'igilance of her captors long 
enough to discover in the ashes a single hip bone of the child. This 
she carried for weeks in her dress until it was discovered by a 
squaw, who destroyed it because it made "squaw heap laugh," 
meaning it gave her pleasure. 

From Breezy Point one follows the shore along a fine road 
beneath the beautiful pines, until near the Elaine road, when we 
came into the old Indian trail from Kittery to Canada. One-half 
minute along this ancient highway brings one to the Winthrop 
Morrill homestead, which is still in very good repair, thanks to 
"Dan and Hattie." Here is also the first schoolhouse in these parts. 
Across the street in the great barn is stored the "wonderful one- 
horse shay'* and its companion, a well preserved top buggy, which 
was the cause of certain jealous neighbors dubbing the owner "the 
aristocrat of Bauneg Beg." 

Beside this barn lies the old cemetery with its four generations 


of owners and their wives, lying side by side in a row. At their 
feet, in the second row, are their children and so on. 

The ''old homestead" is rich in traditions and antiques. A spin- 
ning wheel, flax wheel, child's dress, andirons, ancient lantern, 
foot warmer, and bread toaster are only a few of the many things " 
preserved by the present owners. Here is to be seen one of the 
first melodeans made, which is pumped, not by foot power, but by 
hand, as it sits on any convenient chair or table. 

Through the courtesy of our host the writer had tlie pleasure of 
visiting the "Tidy lot," which lot belonged to the John Tidy who 
married Hannah, daughter of John (i) Morrill. Adjoining it is 
.the lot of Peaselee, ancestor of two governors. 

Many other interesting spots are here, but must be left for future v.. 
use; truly it was worth a long day's journey just to spend a morn- 
ing in the company of the owners of this place. It is doubtful 
whether there is another estate just like it in America. 

At noon a bountiful dinner was served in the Grange hall by 
the local descendants of the ^Morrill family, to which over lOO 
persons did ample justice. After dinner several group photos were 
taken, when the guests adjourned to the hall to enjoy the following 
program : 

"Praise God From Whom All Blessings Flow," all standing; 
one moment of Quaker (silent) prayer. A brief outline of tlie 
early history of the family was given by Hon. Melville P. Morrill 
of Natick, Mass. ^Ir. Morrill, who is 85 years of age and did not 
expect to be called upon, held the close attention of every one pres- 
ent and proved that he is thoroughly versed in his ancestry. Al- 
though he has traveled extensively in his lifetime, and is not now 
a resident of this state, he still keeps his faith in the natives of 
Maine. Said he : 

*T am proud of the fact that I wsre born in the State of Maine; 
no better people live in the L'nited States. I have met them in 
all parts of the west, and Elaine people have done more to start 
the western states right than any other eastern state ; and the Mor- 
als have certainly done their part wherever they have been 

Mr. Morrill has been a !Mason for sixty years, having held all 
the offices in the higher bodies. Some years ago, the Grand Lodge 


of Massachusetts presented him with a "Henry Price Jewel," a rare 

"The Litchfield Branch, by One of Them," was read by the 
author, L. B. Morrill of Lewiston, who presided at the meeting. 
Song, **'Auld Lang Syne," by audience; "Historical Glimpses of 
Bauneg Beg," from the pen of Harriet R. Morrill, was read bv 
Mrs. Rosa IMorrill Brown of Newton Highlands, Mass. Poem by 
W. H. Totem of Seattle, \\'ashington, read by ^liss Grace Hussev 
of South Berwick. Mrs. Delia ]\Iorrill Greenfield presided at the 

The discussion which followed was led bv Senator Mathew C. 
Morrill of Gray, Elaine, and Hon. M. P. ^lorrill of Natick, Mass^ 

The following officers were elected : President, L. B. Morrill of 
Lewiston ; vice president, William H. Austin of North Berwick ; 
secretary, Mrs. Delia Greenfield, Rochester, N. H. ; historian, ]^Irs. 
Ethel ^lorrill McCollister, ]\Iexico; treasurer. Nelson C. B. Mor- 
rill, Rochester, N. H. 

The oldest person present was Ephriam ^lorrill of South Law- 
rence, Mass., age 86 years. The list of guests follows : Lewis 
Morrill, age 80 years, of Providence, R. I. ; the following were 
from North Berwick : ]Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Austin, ]\Irs. Bessy 
Emma Morrill, A'ivian E. Morrill, age 5 years, Charles O. Morrill, 
Elizabeth Morrill Ricker, Katherine ^I. Ricker, age 5 years, A\'in- 
throp Ricker, age 4 years, E. Raymond ^^lorrill, L. M. Sherburne, 
Ida M. Sherburne, Sumner C. ]\Iorrill, Grace J. Morrill, Katie A. 
Morrill, Charles W. Abbott ; those from South Berwick were Nellie 
M. Hussey, Miss Grace Hussey; from Wiscasset, ^Ir. Clifford P. 
Dow, Mrs. Blanche Dow Fowle, ^Nlrs. Emma Alorrill Dow, Mrs. 
Earle Dow, Philip G. Dow, age 2 years one month, Charles H. 
Dow, age 2 years; from \\>st Cumberland, Mrs. H. H. Morrill, 
Mr. Edwin C. Morrill, Mrs. Emma M. :\rorrill, Mr. Fred H. :Mor- 
rill, Miss Inez I. Morrill, ^Irs. ^lary C. Brackett ; from Falmouth, 
Mrs. Ada ^lorrill W'inslow, Mr. Ernest \\'. W'inslow, Charles E. 
W'inslow, age 5 years, Miss Lena B. W'inslow; from Portland, Mr. 
Walter E. Morrill, Mrs. W. J. Hunton, Mrs. ^Morrill Hamlin ; from 
Lewiston, IMrs. Sadie f^[orrill) Morrill, Mr. L. B. Morrill; from 
Norway, Maine, Mr. and Mrs. Frank P. Morrill ; from Grav, Hon. 
and Mrs. M. C. Morrill ; from East Dover, Mrs. Lena Dow, ^liss 


Eleanor Dow ; from Cornish, Florence L. Alorrill, Annie L. ]\Ior- 
rill, Fred L. ^lorrill ; from W'aterville, ^Irs. A\\ P. Stewart ; from 
Mexico, ^Ir. and Airs. Charles H. Davey, Miss Maude E. Davey, 
Mrs. Everett AIcGee, Mrs. Blanche Al\'\vard, Evelyn G. Alyward, 
age 8 months, iMiss Laura AI. Alorrill, Airs. Ethel Alorrill AIcCol- 
lister, Mrs. E. E. AlcCollister, Alaster Andrew L. Bandon AIcCol- 
lister; from Berlin, N. H., Air. and Airs. Peter Anderson: from 
Rochester, N. H., Airs. George E. Greenfield, Air. Nelson E. B. 
Alorrill, Airs. Alary Kelley Alorrill, Airs. George E. Greenfield; 
from Union, N. H., Airs. Ethel Alorrill, Airs. G. \\\ Alorrill ; 
from Dover, N. H., Clyde R. Alorrill ; from Newton, Alass.. Airs. 
Rosa Alorrill Brown ; from Natick, Alass., Aliss Julia L. Alorrill ; 
from West Somerville, Alass., Air. Frank L. Alorrill, Florence O. 
Alorrill, age 8 years ; from Haverhill, Alass., Airs. Florence N. 
Osgood ; from Lawrence, Alass., Air. John H. Wilkinson, Airs, 
Lillian Wilkinson ; from Alansfield, Alass., Airs. Will Freeman, 
Air. Will Freeman, Aliss Nettie Freeman, Robert A. Freeman, 
age 9 years ; from East Deerfield, Alass., Air. Flarvey A. Alorrill, 
Grace A. Alorrill; from Alliston, Alass., Ethel Al Shumway; from 
Alarblehead, Alass., Airs. S. B. Dingley; from Somerville, Alass., 
Mr. and Airs. Fred W. Alorrill ; from Lawrence, Alass., Airs. John 
H. Wilkinson ; from Bauneg Beg, Ale., Airs. Harriette Randell 
Alorrill, Airs. Daniel P. Alorrill ; from Alechanic Falls, Airs. E. A. 
AlcCollister, house guest of E. E. AlcCollister. 


By William D. Totten of Seattle, "Washing-ton. Great-grandson of Enoch 
Morrill, Who Was Born in Cornish. :Maine. February 6, 1769 

Visions of beauty sweetly come 

Of scenes near old Atlantic's shore, 
With thoughts of our ancestral home, 

Whose memories sacred we adore. 

As pilgrims meet at sacred shrines, 

Their holy saints to contemplate. 
Meet we where stand the ancient pines. 

Brave souls of old to venerate. 


God-fearing pioneers were they. 

From creeds of bigotr}' apart; 
Content to labor day by day. 

Sisters and brothers, hand and heart. 

Morrills in name, and Hying true 

'To moral rules, their course to guide, — 
Gladly their story \ye reyiew 
With patriotic joy and pride. 

One soul inspiring purpose runs 

Through our deyotion to our sires, — 

To nobly liye as \yorthy sons 
And keep aliye loyes altar fires. 

Let us assemble eyery year 

As kinsmen near Atlantic's shore, 

And honor them \yith hearts sincere, 
Whose memories sacred we adore. 

(By Mrs. Ethel [Morrill] McCoHister) 


KITTERY, MAINE, 1640-1920 

Very few of the early settlers of the territory now known as the 
State of ]\Iaine can boast a longer list of distinguished descendants 
than that of John ^Morrill of Kittery. Not only in !Maine but in 
many other states as well, are these names household words, for 
they were pioneers in manufacturing, political, religious and educa- 
tional pursuits. 

Almost nothing has been published about them collectiyely, due 
in part, perhaps, to the fact that each one has been so busy pushing 
for\yard in strange unblazened trails that there was no time to con- 
template the past. Moreoyer, the Quakers were neyer giyen to 
"shouting their deeds from the housetops." It has been said that 
the Quakers were such good citizens that they often counted for 
far more during the Reyolution for offices they performed for the 
government, than if they had fought in the ranks. 


-In writing the history of tlie ^lorrill family one could not easily 
separate it from the history of beautiful Bauneg Beg, which has 
been truly said to resemble in many characteristics the lake of 
Killarney, celebrated in song and story the world over, for the 
history of Bauneg Beg is the history of the family, who were the 
tirst white settlers upon its shores, coming when the Indians alone 
listened to the music of the waters, or searched for the plentiful 
fish and game which then abounded. 

Beneath the same great timber pines which cast their shadow 
over the red man, today walk the descendants in the eighth genera- 



X v' 

~-,^': ■»■ ^~ 



A Glimpse of Dauneg^ Beg Lake from Breezy Point 

tion, going about the business of log sawing at the ancient mill, 
or the numerous errands of the home nestling almost in the shadow 
of the old homestead built many, many years ago. Many descend- 
ants come each year from far off cities to rest and recuperate from 
their labors. 

The first white owner was Ferdinando Gorges, who explored the 
coast of what is now a part of Elaine in 1635-6; in 1639 he was 
granted a charter of a great tract which he called Xew Somershire. 

It included Kittery Commons, so-called, which extended from 
the Salmon Falls River on the south to Bauneg Beg hills on the 
north. There in what is now Kittery Township, in the following 
year, 1640, was born the first American of our line — John Morrill. 


The name had been very popular in the days when persons were 
named for famihar objects such as fish, hand, etc. It is derived 
from Latin meaning "yellow hair" and was popular in Italy, France, 
Holland and the British Isles. 

England claimed two Morrill families with coat-of-arms. Al- 
though the founder of this family in America was a wealthy Eng- 
lishman, it is not known to the writer whether he was related to 
either of the titled families. 

This John was a brickmason. In 1686 he was licensed to "con- 
duct" a ferry and house of "entertainment." His wife, Sarah, 

-s\ <^!S?«.,--?yF^. 


First School House at Bauneg Beg^ Lake — An Old-Time Chaise 

was a daughter of Nicholas Hodgson, who was in Hingham, Mass., 
as early as 1635, and was killed by Indians in Wells, Maine, 1704. 
Her mother was a supposed daughter of John W'incoll. 

In 1674 John ^lorrill's father-in-law gave him a deed of Birch 
Point in what is now South Berwick. In 1676 he exchanged this 
for land at Cool Harbor f Eliot), still in the family. Between 
1658-1703 he was granted 3,100 acres by King George, which in- 
cluded Bauneg Beg lake. He was a Quaker as were many of his 
descendants, as we shall see. A great-great-grandson, John (5) 
had seven children, all of whom died unmarried. This John (5) 
was born in Eliot, October 17, 1797, lived on the homestead there 
and died in 1881 ; his wife Sarah (Jenkins) having died in 1868. 


An admirer of Andrew Jackson, for whom he named a son born 
in 1843, 

John (i) had six children. The oldest, John, born 1668, was 
a blacksmith. He had the homestead at Kittery. Ordered by tlie 
military officers in session at York, August 25, 1720, to erect a 
garrison of refuge near the ferry for the benefit of "ye inhabitants 
and families from William Frys' to John Morrill, son of Nicholas, 
inclusively." Sarah (2) married George Huntress in 1701. Edah 
(2) married Jonathan Nason in 1702. Hannah married John Tidy 
same year. John (2) married Hannah Dixon, lived at North Ber- 
wick, was prominent in town affairs, being a large land and slave 






^•'•'■^■■'■JSj^*-^ ''•... 




The House 'Winthrop INIorrill Built in 1763 at 
Bauneg Beg Lake, North Berwick 

owner. One slave was willed to his wife with the provision that 
she be freed at her death. Some of our most prominent lines 
sprang from his sons, particularly Jedediah (3), Peter (3), and 
Peaselee (3). The others were John (3), Thomas (3), Richard 
(3), and Stephen (3). 

Abraham (2), son of John (i), married Phoebe Heard but died 
soon after without issue. Elizabeth, the youngest of John's (i) 
family, married Thomas Hobbs in 1721. She lived in Boston. 
Jedediah (3), son of John (2), held 2,000 acres of the King 
eorge grant. W'as prominent in town affairs. To his son Win- 
throp he gave the tract of land at Bauneg Beg, Peter's share nearer 


what is now North Berwick village, and Josiah tlie homestead. 
He was one of those versatile pioneer spirits who could "turn a 
hand" to any kind of work; in addition to carrying on his great 
farm and the mill at Bauneg Beg, he was a blacksmith and was 
one of the first in Elaine to practice medicine. A Quaker in religion. 
The first three mills built were burned by the Indians. The first 
dwelling was a log cabin, soon followed by a small frame house. 
In 1769, when W'inthrop (4) came there witli his bride, Susannah 
(Lewis), who rode on horseback through the forest from York, 
he built the fine colonial mansion which still stands, and the present 
mill. The Indians, having learned that he was a ''William Penn 
man," never molested him. This mill is now run by his great- 
grandson, Daniel ^lorrill. 

His daughter, Anna, was the first white child born at Bauneg 
Beg. Last summer her great grandson, ^Ir. A. A. Thompson of 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, visited Bauneg Beg. During his visit he 
was presented with a chair which had been a gift to Anna from 
her mother. Originally there was a set of six of these old "1700" 
.Windsor chairs. Anna ^lorrill before her death divided these 
chairs between her daughters. 

Winthrop in his old age was cared for by his grandson, Nathan 

Nathan was the father of the present owner of the estate, ^Ir. 
Daniel Morrill. He was cared for in his turn by his son, and 
Daniel's wife has a number of stories which grandpa told her, one 
of which she passed on for this article. It was told to Nathan by 
his grandfather, Winthrop. 

An Indian bra\ e with his wife and papoose asked at Jedediah's 
house for shelter from an approaching storm. The baby was 
strapped to a board as was their custom. Bidden to enter, they 
stood the board and baby against the outside of the house. "Bring 
baby in, it rains," said Mr. Jedediah. The brave replied, "^le 
toughen baby." When ready to resume their journey they found 
the papoose "toughened" indeed. The water from the eaves falling 
on his head ran into his mouth and drowned the child. They stoical- 
ly carried it down by the river and buried it, continuing their jour- 
ney as though nothing had happened out of the ordinary. 

Doors were never locked in these times and it was an every-dav 
occurrence for Winthrop and his wife to awake In the night and 


lie quietly in their great four-poster bed in the kitchen, and watch 
the Indians who had stolen quietly in and were warming them- 
selves by the fireplace, talking softly in their gutteral, their swarthy 
faces lighted by the blaze of the great logs. \Mien warm and rested 
they carefully covered the fire with ashes as they found it, and 
resumed their journey, never disturbing tliis Quaker family, who 
had no fear of them. 

Nathan very closely resembled in features Andrew Jackson, 
whose staunch admirer he was, being as they used to express it, "a. 
Jackson man." To his son Daniel's wife, Harriette (Randell), all 
seekers of our lineage owe a great debt of gratitude. For forty 
years she has been an able and untiring assistant to one and all. 
Her prolific pen often working far into the night to record the 
many interesting niorsels of family history which she so well knew 
how to make interesting, even to the most casual reader. 

This couple are the last of their line, having lost all their chil- 
dren many years ago. But ^Irs. ^Morrill's great mother love would 
not be starved ; several girls have been fed, clothed and educated 
by her and worthy boys helped to start in life. At present she has 
three, the youngest not yet of school age. 

Jedediah, Jr., son of Jedediah, settled in the town which was 
afterward named for him, "Alorrill," in Knox County, near Bel- 
fast, Maine. Two others, Josiah and Peace married Meader, set- 
tled in the eastern part of the state. One of his granddaughters 
was a famous Quaker minister of Seabrook, New Hampshire. 
This lady, Mrs. Elizabeth Morrill Folsom, was the dearest friend 
of J. G. Whittier's mother. On her death the poet wrote the lines 

The Friend's Burial 

"My thoughts are all in yonder town, 

Where, wept by many tears. 
Today my mother's friend lays down 

The burden of her years. 

Oh, not for her the florist's art, 

The mocking weeds of woe ; 
Dear memories in each mourner's heart 

Like heaven's white lilies blow. 



How reverent in our midst she stood 

Or knelt in grateful praise ! 
What grace of Christian womanhood, 

Was in her household ways. 

For still her holy living meant 

No duty left undone; 
The heavenly and human blent 

Their kindred loves in one. 

An inborn charm of graciousness, 

Made sweet her smile and tone. 
And glorified her farmwife's dress, 

With beautv^ not its own." 

Many pictures of this lady and others, sisters, cousins and other 
relatives are still preserved by North Berwick descendants. The 
quaint and prim Quaker head-dress, white folds at neck and shawl, 
make very aristocratic photos. 

John (2), son of John (i), had a son, Stephen, who married 
Elizabeth Winslow of Falmouth. Peter (3) had a daughter killed 
and scalped by the Indians. As the story is told, she and an older 
brotlier had been sent into the forest to get a hemlock broom. She 
happened upon some lurking savages, who were waiting for dark- 
ness to attack the settlement. She screamed and the savages caught 
and scalped her to prevent the spread of the alarm. She expired 
on her father's doorstep. 

When the Indians learned that they had killed a Quaker maiden 
they were filled with regret ; on their return march north they 
stopped at a small lake, some three miles away and carved her pic- 
ture on a great tree. 

This lake was then named "Picture Lake" and is still so called. 
The tree was often visited and the story is still told beneath its 
boughs by the old inhabitants to the children of today "in her 

Peter's (3) son, David, was the ancestor of ex-Congressman 
Daniel Jackson ^Morrill of Johnstown, Pa. Daniel J. was born 
at N. B. Aug. 8, 1821, served in Congress 1867-71. Interested in 
steel mills, his mills had at one time the largest daily output in 

IN me:mory of 191 

America. Was the first to use Bessemer steel for railroad, created 
the great Cambria Iron Works. At the time of the Johnstown 
disaster, a cousin, Thomas ^lorrill, chemist of the Cambria Iron 
W'orks, lived near him. A\'hen Thomas' house was swept aw^ay 
he and his wife jumped, being lashed together. Both were expert 
swimmers, so they progressed favorably till a floating house held 
them under till nearly drowned, but it finally passed on. At last 
they caught a line and were drawn into the attic window of Daniel 
Jackson's great mansion. Clothing was made by cutting holes in 
blankets with a pair of discarded scissors found in an old desk in 
the attic. Here they remained for three days till a rescuing party 
reached them. 

(To be continued) 


Dr. George A. Phillips 

Dr. George A. Phillips died at his home in Bar Harbor October 
21, 1921. He was born in Orland, Ale., April 18, 1854. He grad- 
uated from the University of New York (now Cornell Aledical 
College) in 1882 and had practiced medicine ever since in Han- 
cock County, first at Ellsworth and since 1901 at Bar Harbor. He 
was a leading physician in that part of Maine and a public man 
of note throughout the state. 

He was a member of the Legislature 1919-20 and 1921-22. He 
was a gentleman of culture, a student of wide range and familiar 
with the best literature. He was deeply interested in two subjects 
that have always interested the writer, Maine's colonial history 
and the preservation of wild life in our state. He had a host of 
friends all over Maine, who will regret his departure from this 

Samuel M. Giles 

Samuel M. Giles, for many years a prominent and well-known 
resident of Sangerville, Me., was born in Vienna, Me., February 
6, 1832, died at Camp Etna, June 21, 1921. Until about 11 years 
ago his home for about 40 years had been in Sangerville. 

His occupation in life had generally been that of farming, lum- 
bering, etc. He was a man of staunch and upright character, 


always supporting measures in his town which were progressive 
and for the pubHc good. He was " in every sense of the word a 
good citizen ; a true and loyal friend and never wavered in his 
support of the principles which he believed in and adhered to. 

He was, at the time of his deatli, one of the oldest members of 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Piscataquis County. In 
this great fraternal order he had always taken a deep interest, had 
been a very active member and held prominent offices in the sub- 
ordinate and grand lodge. 

Politically he was a Republican and in religion he was a mem- 
ber of tlie Universalist church, but many years ago he made a study 
of what is now known as ''modern Spiritualism" and embraced 
its philosophy and became a firm believer in the truth of its phe- 
nomena. He was an officer in and a leading member of the Maine 
State Spiritualist Association. 

His funeral occurred at Odd Fellows' Hall in Guilford, June 
22. The services were conducted by Good Cheer Lodge, I. O. O. 
F., and Golden Link Rebekah Lodge. 

The following poem was penned by one of his friends and pub- 
lished in a recent number of the ''Banner of Life" of Boston: 

~~" "My good old friend. All hail to thee 

Since thou hast entered eternity, 
Where angel friends hold communion sweet, 
With all thy dear ones there to greet. 

We would have kept thee longer still. 
Within our sphere thy place to fill, 
But by that wise and wondrous power. 
The summons came to that bright bower 

Where no more pain will come to thee. 
Where your soul is now unfettered free, 
So we must not mourn but carry on, 
The work you so nobly tried to perform. 

Always ready with heart and hand. 
To lend thv aid to a fellow man, 
To work unceasingly for the right, 
Thy presence still will bring us light. 

>,ft- v •,-.'• 

if ■:■ ■> 



Your blessings we shall still receive. 
For your interest in us we believe, 
Still holds good, from that fairer shore, 
And to Camp Etna you come once more. 

To blend your love and fill your place, 
*Tho we mav not see vour form or face, 
*Tho your familiar figure is hidden from view. 
You, yet are there the living you. 

And I believe with many more. 
The old Camp will grow as ne'er before, 
For with strong forces for the right, 
Etna will hold aloft the Banner of Light. 

So all hail to thee, my elder brother, 

Let us all live for one another ; > 

If out of the temple of flesh and clay, - . • 

Or encased therein, let us work while 'tis day. 

Unity, Me., August 4, 192 1. C. B. Crosby." 

Frederick H. Costeelo 

Frederick H. Costello, the well-known author who has been 
for the past 30 years manager of R. G. Dunn & Go's, local agency, 
died Tuesday, August 2, 1921, at the age of 69 years, 10 months and 
8 days. He leaves beside his widow, one son, Harold Costello, who 
now lives in Terra Bella, Calif. 

The funeral will be held from the home Friday afternoon at 2 
o'clock and the burial will be in Mt. Hope cemetery. 

Mr. Costello lived in Bangor for the past 35 years, during 
which time he was connected with the local Dunn Agency. For 
the past 5 years of his service he was a reporter and for the past 
30 years has officiated as the manager of the local branch. 

He was always a profound student of history and wrote a num- 
^T of books, mostly boys' stories built around valuable historical 
data, which he spent most of his leisure time in collecting. During 
"is lifetime he collected an excellent historical library and was an 
authority on matters of historical and political Interest. 



Frederick H. Costello was born in Bangor, September 4, 185 1. 
He was educated in the public schools of tlie city and by private 
tutors. In his early twenties he journeyed west to California, 
where he became principal of a private school in that state, a posi- 
tion he held for several years. 

In early life he was unwell a great deal of the time, but in Cali- 
fornia he recovered his health by being out of doors a great deal 
and by doing g}-mnastic work. In 18S6 he came east and became 
associated with the R. G. Dunn Co., at their Bangor agency. For 
the first 5 years he was a reporter and then he became manager. 

In 1903 he married ]\Irs. !Mabel E. Hennessey of Bangor and they 
have lived since tlien at 15 Poplar Street. 

On account of ill health ^Ir. Costello was obliged to give up 
his work at the R. G. Dunn office last fall and I^Irs. Costello has 
carried on the work for him. His poor health was brought on 
largely by overvvork, his friends think, as he was accustomed to 
work hard at his office days and to study for his own pleasure late 
at night. 

Among, his published works are the following books : The Two 
on Galley Island, ^Master Ardick, Buccaneer, Under the Rattle- 
snake Flag, On Fighting Decks in 1812, A Tar of the Old School, 
and Nelson's Yankee Boy, Sure Dart, Morgan's Youngest Rifle- 
man and The Girl with Two Selves. 

Mr. Costello's books for boys met with a ready sale and re- 
ceived very favorable notices from the critics as they deserved, 
for they were the product of a man who had fine control of Eng- 
lish arid who made a profound study of his facts. He always wrote 
very interestingly and displayed an historical knowledge that was 
only explained by his constant study and his love of the work, to 
which he devoted most of the time not given to his office duties. • 
Mr. Costello was especially well versed in the history of the 
Revolutionar>' War and in matters of the sea and his maritime tales 
displayed the knowledge of a sailor. 

He was also much interested in politics and kept in constant 
touch with governmental affairs, the Bangor newspapers often 
being enriched by communications from him on current news, 
these always showing a thoughtful mind and wide study. 

Mr. Costello was a thorough gentleman, courteous, kindly and 





affable, one of the best of husbands and fathers and a neighbor 
who was universally esteemed and respected. 

Hon. Edwin M. Johnson 

The death of Hon. Edwin ]\I. Johnson, long one of the most 
prominent business men and political leaders of eastern Piscataquis, 
occurred suddenly at his home in Brownville, Me., on Tuesday, 
October 11, 1921, in his 77th year. He was born in Orono, the 
son of Moses S. and Betsey (Snow) Johnson, attended school in 
that town and East Maine Conference Seminary and Westbrook 
Seminary. The most of his life was spent in tliis town and he 
had extensive business interests here and in other parts of the state. 

He took an active interest in town, county and state affairs. For 
six years he was chairman of the board of selectmen. He was 
state assessor from 1909 to 191 5, represented the county in the 
state senate in the session of 1899- 1900 and was always high in 
the counsels of the Republican party. He is survived by his wife 
and one son, Edwin S. Johnson of Brownville. 

Oxford Agricultural Society 

Incorporated February 24th, 1814. 
Annual meeting, ist Tuesday in January. 

President, Seth ^lorse. 
Secretary, Caleb Prentiss. 
Treasurer, William Reed. 

Trustees, Daniel Stowell, Elias Stowell, William C. Whitney, Abner 
Rawson, Wm. Barrows, Seth Morse, Joel Robinson. 

Committee of Correspondence, Cyrus Hamlin, Benjamin Chandler, 
Alanson Mellen, Samuel F. Brown, Thomas Clark. 

John Chandler of Monmouth was Sheriff of Kennebec County 
in 1809. Fitt Dillingham and Samuel Weston were Deputy Sheriffs 
at Augusta, John Hazeltine at Gardiner, and Daniel Evans and 
Jesse Robinson at Hallowell. 





The writer In a public address 
once described the school and its 
founder at the Good \M11 Home 
Association at Hinckley, Maine, 
as follows : 

"A school unique in some 
ways and great in every way, 
founded and presided over by 
one whose capacity for training 
and building real manhood has 
become so well understood and 
so highly appreciated that his 
talents in this direction are 
recognized as those of a genius, 
is situated on the westerly banks 
of one of the beautiful and most 
historic rivers on the North At- 
lantic coast." 

In the year 1889 the Reverend George W. Hinckley of Guilford, 
Connecticut, with no capital but a great vision, abundance of cour- 
age, a belief in Providence and possessing all of the human elements 
which make a noble and cheerful optimist, began this great work. 
He has acquired an enviable and well deserved reputation as a great 
and successful teacher of youth, one who can take crude and raw 
material of boyhood and make it into good and successful man- 
hood. He has accomplished this and established this now famous 
and almost wonderful Institution without noise, fuss or organized 
publicity. ^lodest and unassuming, he has never been, and by tem- 
perament could not be, a seeker for front page or gallery applause. 
Hundreds of children in Maine unfortunately circumstanced 
have owed an inestimable debt to this institution. Its value to our 
state cannot be measured. 

The Independent Reporter of Skowhegan in its issue of July 21, 
1921, published an interview with Mr. Hinckley, in which he gave 
a brief and interesting review of his work. In this among other 
things he said : 


**In May, 1889, I purchased one hundred and twenty-five acres 
of land, situated in the town of Fairfield, Somerset County, Elaine. 
This farm was paid for with two thousand dollars which had been 
contributed by sympathetic people, in sums ranging from five cents 
to two hundred dollars; the contributions had come from all parts 
of the country. This first purchase was an important step in a 
plan which I had cherished from boyhood — a plan to form a philan- 
thropic and educational institution for needy and imperilled, but 
deserving boys. It was a more extensive and comprehensive plan 
than it was wise to discuss in those days of small beginnings, there 
seemed to be no reason for attracting ridicule by telling of dreams 
of great things for God and humanity when only dimes and nickels 
were available, and when at best, the project was in its primeval 
stage. My dream was based on faith in God's power ; upon the 
belief that the country is the best place for boyhood and develop- 
ment of character ; upon the conviction that to make philanthropy 
effective in young life, a change of environment is often necessary; 
upon the theory that in laying foundations for future citizenship 
there is no substitute for family life, and that an old-time New 
England family often consisted of fifteen children, but not often 
of a larger number ; upon the persuasion that in the development 
of character, neither a home nor a school nor industry nor discipline 
nor religious training is in itself sufficient, but that all are needed. 

I believe that anything worth doing is worth doing well ; that 
nothing worth doing can be accomplished in any other way than 
by long continued persistent effort ; that when philanthropic people 
fully understand the plan and its possibilities, they would rally to 
Its support and development, and that I would be allowed to see 
to some extent, the plan mature and fructify." 

It may not be in the ordinary use of the term a "state institu- 
tion," yet all good citizens of Maine must be proud of the fact that 
this great and worthy institution is within our state and each should 
deem it a pleasurable duty to render it material aid as well as sym- 
pathy and praise. 

Postmasters in Maine in 1843 

Auburn, S. H. Pickard ; Ellsworth, Joseph A. Wood; Calais, 
WilHam Goodwin; Augusta, Richard S. Perkins. 


This Department is open to con- Conducted by Augustus O. 
tributions from all teachers and Thomas, State Superintendent of 
pupils. I Schools, Augusta, Me. 



From ("One Hundred Years of Statehood and One Hundred 

Leading Facts of Maine") 

Maine History from the Sources 

Almost every town in the State of Maine offers an opportunity 
for pupils to gather from the sources many facts of history. In 
South Berwick stands the old Hamilton house which figured in 
the life and interests of John Paul Jones. In the town of Kittery 
is the Sir William Pepperell mansion, the Sparhawk mansion, now 
occupied by Hon. Horace 3*Iitchell. In Winslow is old Fort Hali- 
fax ; at Fort Kent the old blojckhouse still stands. There are battle- 
fields, old buildings, Indian trails, war trails and trails of the 
pioneers in all sections of the state, the home of Longfellow, the 
Oaks about which he wrote. Trophies of Peary's Arctic explora- 
tions are to be found in the museum at Bowdoin College. There 
is endless variety of interesting materials for study first-hand. 

How to Conduct the Study 

The work should be well planned by the teacher before it is under- 
taken. Pupils should be instructed to make a map of the town, 
to find out from whatever means possible where the first settlement 
was made and when. Find the names of the early settlers; are 
there any descendants of the earliest inhabitants now Hving in the 
town? Children should get from the oldest settlers the stories of 
the early days — tradition handed down from the preceding genera- 
tion; photographs and descriptions of old buildings and historic 
places should be made. . . 

The children in the history classes may be detailed to specific 
features of the local history; some may gather any information 


relative to the town of the present day. Children should be in- 
structed in collecting data to reject unreliable information, to dis- 
tinguish between first-class evidences and unreliable data. When 
the data are gathered the pupil should make a brief, carefully writ- 
ten narrative covering his project. 

^Ir. Sprague, publisher of the Journal, also submits to this depart- 
ment the following "suggestions for the study of Maine local his- 
tory" and an offer of awards as follows : 

1 The name of your county? 

2 From whence was its name derived ? 

3 Date of its organization? 

4 Give the number and names of the plantations, towns or cities 
in your county. 

5 How does a town differ in its organization' from a plantation? 

6 Dift'erence between a plantation and an unorganized wild land 

7 How do the children in unorganized townships obtain an edu- 

8 The name of your own town? 

9 The date of its first settlement ? 

10 Give names of some of its pioneers or first settlers. 

11 Date of its organization? 

12 Give names of the town officers — selectmen, overseers of the 
poor, assessors, clerk, treasurer, school committee, road com- 
missioner, etc. 

13 How are these officers chosen and qualified? 

14 State the powers and duties of such officers. 

15 Give number of votes by political parties cast at the last three 
state elections in your town or city; same at the last Presiden- 
tial election. ' " ' ' • 

10 If you reside in a city give date of its organization, its officers 
and their powers and duties. 

17 Differentiate between the town and city form of government? 

lo Give reasons for or against the study of Maine history in Maine 

'9 What men or women of state or national fame have been na- 
tives of your town or city? 


20 Give any other data about your town that your teacher may 
regard as of historical interest. 

The Journal will present to the scholar waiting, under the direc- 
tion of his or her teacher, the best composition answering the above 
questions, two bound volumes (7-8) of Sprague's Journal of Maine 
History, and to the scholars writing the next three highest ones, 
each a year's subscription to the Journal. Awards for the same to 
be made by the State Department of Public Schools. 

The work of gathering and preserving the historical data and 
sources of information of today for the use and benefit of the people 
of tomorrow is not only a pleasant and enjoyable task but is of 
vast importance as well. The following excerpt from a paper by 
Prof. Alvord, of the University. of Illinois, read at the Seventh 
Annual Conference of the American Historical Societies at Indian- 
apolis, December 2S, 1910, and published in the Annual Report of 
the American Historical Association for the year 1910 — (Wash- 
ington, 1912) p. 251, is an interesting and concise presentation of 
this thought. 

"In the middle of the seventeenth century — about the first third 
of the seventeenth century — there lived in London a bookseller by 
the name of Thompson, who was regarded by his neighbors as a 
crank, because he gathered everything that was printed or written 
— that floated in the atmosphere in his particular neighborhood — 
the floatsam and jetsam of life in London. It consisted of printed 
newsletters; it consisted of invitations to dinners; it consisted of 
notes between one gentleman and another ; it consisted of programs 
of vaudeville shows in Yauxhall Gardens and elsewhere — every- 
thing that was a record of the times. He had a vision of posterity 
and gathered it all; but he did not know how to classify and use 
it; he simply gathered. He wrote on each one the time and the 
conditions under which he had collected it. Thev were tied up 
and piled in piles, and after his death somebody bou.e^ht the col- 
lection and presented it to the British Museum, and it lay there 
until IMacaulay found it and used it. He saw in this collection a 
vision of life during the civil-war period of England, and with the 
assistance of his imagination he pictured for us, from this collection 
of odds and ends, the life of that period. 


"So I say that any historical society, no matter how broad or 
narrow its scope, should gather material, for someone has said, 
'The literary rubbish of one generation is the priceless treasure 
of the next/ The members of the historical societies should have 
a vision of posterity. What is interesting to you that has come 
down from the past ? Some old colonial newspaper ; some playbill 
when the English were occupying Philadelphia and having a gay 
time ; something that keeps you in touch with the old days ? That 
all interests you today and helps you to rebuild the past, and so what 
we are gathering today will be considered treasures by the next 
generation. We should have a vision of posterity, and that is the 
basis on which an historical society should be conducted." 

And the above will apply with equal force to schools and school 
libraries as well as to historical societies, for the aims of each are 
the same. 

Questionnaires Sent to Pupils 


True C. Morrill 
Superintendent of Schools, Bangor, Maine 


Dear Pupils : 

The eighth grade boys and girls of Bangor, Maine, are anxious 
to receive information from you concerning the following points. 
Kindly write your answers to the following outline in interesting 
story form, so they will be of interest to boys and girls of your own 

\\ hat was the town's population at the last census ? 

How many schools has it together with their enrollment' 

Brief description. 

Locate your town as to its nearness to some prominent physical 
feature of the state, e. g. upper Kennebec Valley. Lake Webber 
noted for, etc. 

Kinds of soil and for what best adapted? 

To what river system are the lakes and streams in your section 
tributary? How many lakes and ponds have you? 


What are the important historical facts concerning the settlement 
of }'X)ur town ? 

What historical places or events are marked by monuments or 
tablets? If none, is anything being done to encourage such work? 

Has anyone of national fame been born in your town or lived 
there as a permanent resident? For what noted? 

Means of transportation and communication. 

. What is your chief trading center? W^hy? 

What nationalities are prominent? 

What are the chief products and industries of your town? ^ 

Names of different settlements in your town and the principal 
industry of each. 

What are the town's resources for maintaining its present size 
and future growth? . "^ 

About how much taxable property is owned by summer residents ? 

Chief attractions and resources that attract capital and summer 

Kindly include anything of special interest with respect to your 
town or omit any of the above points that do not apply. Picture 
post cards or samples of products as paper, cloth, etc., will be grate- 
fully received. 

We want to know about your town. 

A new organization was perfected in connection with the recent 
Maine Teachers' Association convention when an association was 
formed to be known as the Association of Secondary School 
Principals of Elaine. The following officers were elected: Presi- 
dent, William E. ^\'ing, principal of the Deering High School; 
vice-president, William B. Jack, principal of the Portland Higb 
School; secretary-treasurer, Clarence P. Quimby, principal of the 
Cony High School. The three members of the executive com- 
mittee are Prln. L. E. ^Moulton of the Edward Little High, Clarence 
E. Proctor of the Bangor High, and Principal Woodbury of Thorn- 
ton Academy. 




Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, S2.00. Single copies of current and previous vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 




"Somerset County in the World War" is the title of one of the 
most important Elaine books recently issued, its author being Flor- 
ence Waugh Dan forth of Skowhegan, Ale. ]\Irs. Danforth is well 
known in the literary circles of ?^Iaine. 

This is a book of 330 pages, finely illustrated, and is a complete 
history of Company E of the National Guard of ]^Iaine. She has 
set an example that other patriotic people ought to follow in every 
county in the state. The history of these brave men who crossed 
the ocean to defend America in the darkest days of the world war 
should be compiled and preserved for future generations now when 
the data and all the facts are easily accessible. 

Maine has had a glorious record in all of the American wars for 
defense. It begins in 1745 at the siege of Louisburg, when the 
name of Sir William Phips of Kittery Point, Ale., was inscribed 
on the roll of Anglo-Saxon heroes and knighted by England for 
his valor, and it is a part of the history of the wars of the revolu- 
tion, 1812, the Spanish war and the world war. 

D. H. Knowlton & Company, publishers at Farmington, Me., 

are now publishing a series of little paper covered books called 

i^xcelsior Classics." One of their latest issues is an exceedingly 

interesting and scientific history of Maine Gem-Stones by Charles 

A. Waterman, a well-known Maine newspaper writer and author. 



It is a valuable Elaine brochure on a subject of much importance 
that but few ]Maine people have extensive knowledge of. 


. Bangor, ]Me., October 25, 1921. 
Editor Sprague's Journal : 

I was much interested in your account of the Home Rule meeting 
in your last issue of the Journal ; but I want to say for your infor- 
mation that, in the language of Daniel \\'ebster, *'I aint dead yet/" 

Sincerely yours, 

D. A. RoBixsox. 

The above letter from Dr. D. A. Robinson of Bangor, Me., re- 
veals the committing of a blunder. Probably the most self -aggra- 
vating mistake known to humans is the one that the maker of can- 
not blame onto anyone but himself, where it is not the result directly 
or indirectly of any other person's carelessness, absentmindedness 
or stupidity. . ~- 

Frequently an ingenious and resourceful mind, will, in such 
cases, light upon some co-laborer who can easily be made "the 
goat." Not so in this matter. This is a fact, though a sad one. 
For many years we have known Dr. Robinson as a leader in the 
business, professional, social, intellectual, religious and political 
life of the city of Bangor ; when this particular blunder was made 
we knew all this, had known it for more than a quarter of a century 
and knew that he was then alive and enjoying the same eminent 
place in the citizenship of Bangor now as then. 

We are exceedingly sorry that this occurred but we have no 
copyist in our office, there is no one in the print shop that prepares 
the Journal for publication, no proof-reader, no one that can be 
blamed except 

The Editor. 



Rockland, ^le., July 2nd, 192 1. 
Dear Sprague : 

Gen. Samuel A\'aldo died at what is now Brewer, Maine. His 




Ixxiy was first buried at Fort Point (Fort Pownal), then exhumed 
and taken to Boston. 

In 1768 his heirs and family had a council at Boston, at which 
tliey made an indenture to divide the land of the A\*aldo tract among 

I never knew this until last Sunday, when I found the original 
indenture dated at Boston 1768 and recorded at Suffolk County. 
This family agreement passed into the hands of the famous Samuel 
Adams and now is in my office. 

In the near future I shall give the public a copy of the original. 
It clears up many names and locations. 

In 1793 the heirs of old Samuel Waldo, who died at Brewer, 
1759, gave full power of attorney to Gen. Henry Knox to become 
owner, manager, etc., of the Waldo Patent. This same year Knox 
had Monvel explore the Waldo Patent. I base my limits of the 
Patent on the Journal of Monvel, the original that I gave Harold 

I have no deed of Knox County earlier than 17 10. 

I hope to get up to see you this summer for a good chat. ^Irs. 
Crockett will go with me. The Angel of Cushing is very ill. Have 
not heard from Sam for some time. 

Good luck, etc., 

Dr. Crockett. 


Dexter will have the honor of sending the only Maine man, as 
lar as known, to be the nation's guest on Armistice Day and to 
• >c one of the nation's official mourners at the burial of the unknown . 
American soldier. 

The invitation has been extended to Otis O. Roberts of this 
town, late sergeant in Co. H, Sixth Maine \'olunteers, and wearer 
of the Congressional Medal of Honor for valor in the field, to come 
to \\ ashington for Armistice Day, all expenses paid by the nation. 
^Ir. Roberts has accepted the invitation which came from Adjutant 
General P. C. Harris. 

It IS understood that similar invitations have been extended to all 
holders of the Congressional Medal of Honor in the countrv. Mr. 


Roberts has the distinction of being one of thirty odd soldiers in 
the Civil war to receive the highest decoration awarded in- this 
country for valor on the battlefield. 

He was the son of Christina (Ryerson) and Amos Roberts and 
was born in the town of Sangerville, 3*Ie., on ]\Iarch 20, 1842. Mr. 
Roberts won the medal for bravery at Rappahannock Station, Vir- 
ginia, on November 7, 1863, when, single handed, he captured a 
Confederate flag, which, a few days later, accompanied by an honor 
guard he took to A\'ashington and delivered to the Secretary of 
War. The awarding of the Congressional Medal of Honor soon 
followed. A year later at the Cedar Creek engagement in the She- 
nandoah \'alley he suffered wounds which resulted in the amputa- 
tion of a foot. 

Only a few days before ]\Ir. Roberts was to depart he was in- 
formed that the order inviting him to attend had been rescinded. 
A cog had apparently slipped in the military machine at Washing- 
ton. This machine is generally supposed to be bound together 
largely by red-tape, so it is possible a piece of it had broken. 

Anyhow, Otis O. Roberts was for a brief time a rather disap- 
pointed old hero. 

The Reverend Father C. T. Maney learning of his predicament, 
immediately moved about among his neighbors and told them the 
story. This resulted in his raising in a few hours a sufficient sum 
of money to pay all of the expenses of the trip. 

Thus through the eft'orts of Father Maney and many other loyal 
citizens of Dexter, the journey was made. 

Honorable John C. Stewart, a prominent lawyer of York Village, 
Maine, has recently edited and compiled one of the most important 
Maine items of historical value that we know of. It is entitled 
"Biographical Sketches of Natives of Elaine Who Have Served 
in the Congress of the United States," and has contributed it to 
the Journal for publication. We shall publish it serially beginniniz 
the first part in the January-February-AIarch number of vol 10. 
which will be the next issue of the Journal. We look forward to 
this being greatly appreciated by our readers. 



Honorable George C. Wing, Jr., has written for the Journal an 
historical and descriptive sketch of ]Mount Katahdin, which will 
be a valuable addition to the literature upon this subject. ]\Iuch 
has been said about it in the press, in magazines and on the forum, 
but so far as we are aware this is the only accurate historical paper 
ever prepared. ^Ir. Wing's research extends from the earliest 
writers, Greenleaf, Williamson, etc., to Commissioner Parsons of 
the Maine Inland Fish and Game Department. We can assure our 
readers that this will appear during the next (loth) volume of the 

The Journal's library has recently been presented with a copy 
of "Sketch of Deer Isle,'' ?^Iaine, by George L. Hosmer (Boston, 
1896). 'I his gift is from our esteemed friend, Dr. B. Lake iNoyes 

of Stonlngton, Maine, and we extend to him our sincere thanks 
for the same. 

The Saunterer in the Portland Sunday Telegram has been shown 
llie log book of the brig Brutus of Bath on its voyage to Barbadoes, 
l^ginning December 25, 1825, and ending with its voyage from 
Havana to Portland in August, 1827. The first master of the brig 
was Harvey Preble, who in June, 1827, was succeeded by William 
1 homes. In this log book are recorded the speed of the vessel, 
direction of the wind, latitude by obse^'vation and general remarks. 
As a fair specimen of the remarks the following are copied from 
the record of June 4, 1827: "First part of this 24 hours commences 
\vjth light breeze and fine weather, middle and latter part much 
"le same. Part of crew employed, bent sail and got ready for sea. 
1 he wind from southward. So ends this day. I joined the brig 
May 26, 1827." This was evidently written by ^Master William 
'i homes. 


(March 4, 1820 ) 

The bill for the admission of Maine has at last passed the Senate 
with the amendments. These amendments are, first, the bill for 
the admission of ^Missouri, without restrictions, and secondly, a 
provision for the exclusion of slaven,* trom all that part of the 
territory purchased of France, which was called Louisiana, which 
lies north of 36 deg. 30 min. north latitude. This last provision, 
introduced by Mr. Thomas of Illinois, is denominated the com- 
promise. The advocates of slavery ha\e insisted vehemently upon 
having the whole western world be\-ond the Mississippi kept open 
as a market for their slaves; and their opponents have contended 
for the utter exclusion of slavery therefrom. 

By the compromise the friends of humanity will accomplish 
much, perhaps all that can be done in the present state of feeling 
and interest in the slave-holding states — 

There may be some danger of the repeal of this provision for 
the restriction of slavery when the sla\-e-holders shall have in- 
creased in numbers and strength, by the admission of Missouri 
and others. We believe that a period of greater infatuation, and 
more prostituted for zeal for servitude than the present, will never 
arise. The light of truth and the principles of justice and religion 
will hereafter illumine the whole of our country, not excepting 
even those dark and degraded portions now blackened by the 
curse of slavery- and we trust that every future Congress so far 
from repeating this restricti\e provision, will regret and blush for 
their predecessors, that it had not been extended to the whole 
instead of a part. 

The bill with these amendments was sent down to the House for 
concurrence, and occasioned a very spirited debate, which we this 
day present to our readers. 

W^e have, more than once expressed, in unequivocal terms, the 
opinion which we entertain of the conduct of the Senate, in coupling 
Maine and Missouri. 

It appears by the debate, that the members of the House are 
not insensible to the gross insult offered to them, and to the nation, 
by this unprincipled mode of legislation. 

The House would undoubtedly concur at once in the compro- 
mise, but they cannot, without self-degradation, concur in the 

kS • '.Si 


union of the Missouri bill with that ot Maine, which was proposed 
and rejected in the first instance, and before the bill was sent 
to the Senate. 



This exceedingly valuable work compiled by the late Charles 
Alcott Flagg, was published as a serial in the last two volumes of 
the Journal. Only two hundred copies of this have been preserved 
in book form. It makes a book of 91 pages with 3 illustrations. 
It contains the names and data of fourteen thousand one hundred 
and sixty-one such pensioners. It is neatly bound in paper boards, 
schoolbook style with label titles. This is the only authoritative 
work of any extent upon this subject ever published in Maine and 
is invaluable to all interested in Revolutionarv historv and ancestrv. 
Price. $3.00. Orders for this may be mailed to Sprague's Journal, 
Dover, Me., or to A. J. Huston, 192 Exchange St., Portland, Maine. 

A book of unusual interest, which has been presented to the 
Waterville Historical Society by Edward G. Meader, is Record 
Book No. I of Waterville Engine Company No. 3, one of the first 
and finest of the fire-fighting organizations to be organized in that 
city. From this book may be gleaned many facts of historical 
interest which become increasingly fascinating and precious as 
time goes on. To anyone who is at all interested in the past of 
the city, especially in the work done by one of its pioneer fire 
companies, reading of the book, almost in its entirety, will prove 
a genuine joy. It barkens back to the past, the long, long ago, 
and tells accurately something of the work of W'aterville's sterling 
old citizenry whom this generation and perhaps no generation can 
hardly be said to exceed in any particular. 

The city of W'estbrook will possess a public park and a pubHc 
place of amusement for social meetings, according to the will of 
Cornelius L. \Varren of Waltham, :Mass., allowed in Probate Court 
in Portland recently. Joseph A. Warren, Philip Dana and John 
E. Hyde of Westbrook are made trustees of a fund to be obtained 
from real estate belonging to the testatrix in Standish and West- 
brook, including the "Elms" in the latter city and the library at 
Cumberland :Mills. 



Abenakis 61-69 

Adams. Samuel 148-49 

Alford, Professor 200 

American Historical Associa- 
tion 93-94 
Ancestry 94-96 
Argall, Captain Samuel 

103. 109-12. 113, 114, 115-18 
Aroostook State Normal School 36 
Association of Secondary School 

Principals of Maine 202 

Atkinson, :Minnie 43 

Atwood, William F., Jr. 135 

Augusta 32 

taverns 21 


Bachelder's tavern 
Bailey, Rev. Jacob 


Historical Society 

Barristers in Maine 
Barrows. Fred D. 
Barwise, Mark A. 
Bassett. Norman L- 
Bath library 
Bauneg Beg Lake 
Baxter, James Phinney 

Percival P. 
Biard, Father Pierre 
Biographical sketches of natives 
of Maine who have served in 
the Congress of the United 
States 206 

"Bit of Maine" (poem) 70 

Blaine Mansion 153 

Boardman, Samuel L. 80 

Bodge. Delia 8-9 

Boston Gazette and Country 

Journal 32 

Rriry. Annie M. 140 

Brown's Corner tavern 22-23 

Brutus (brig) 207 

Burr. Freeman F. 74-75 

Burroughs. John 74-75 

Butler. General Benjamin F. 86 


50. 84 



45, 85, 151-52 








43. 78-80. 131 


101-120. 122-23 

Castine conference 141-43 

Centennial towns. 1921 45-46 

Chadwick. Paul • 152-53 

Chandler. Margaret 9. 10 

Chesuncook Lake • 135 

School House 140 

China (Asia) 11 
Churches, early, in Portland 81-83 

Cleveland, George A. 13 

Cobb, Daniel 15 

Colonial history 41--f3 
Congregational Church. Otisfield 17 
Congressional ^Medal of Honor 

Maine man 205-6 

Conner, Sam E. 137 

Constitution, catechism of 40 

Copeland, Thomas J. 33 

Cornville 86 

Costello, Frederick H. 193-95 

Craig. Rachael 10 

Thomas 10 
Crockett, George L. 153. 204 

Crosby. C. B. 193 

Mrs. J. Willis 138 

Currier's tavern 21 

Cushnoc House 21 


Danforth. Florence Waugh 203 

Day. Hoi man F. 127-28 

Deer Isle 207 

Doxter D. A. R. 138-40 

Dodge. Xellie C. 35 

Domicile, law of 99-100 

Dresden 83-85 

see also Pownalborough 

Dreuillettes, Father Gabriel 124 

Dunnack, Henry E. 76 

Dutton, Sam 85-86 


Edes. Benjamin 

George A. 

George Valentine 


Samuel D. 
Emerson. Walter 
Eveleth. John H. 
Excelsior Classics 




32-33. 85-86 







^' - ^'^'■,' "'\< 



.■.--'yfi-': ' 



Fernald's Point 


Charles Alcott 

Fort Halifax 

Fort St. Georgre 

Free Will Baptist Church, 

Freeman, Samuel 
French, Josiah 
"Friend's Burial" (poem) 
Fuller, John J. 
Fuller tavern 


20. 31. 45 





Henry 18-1» 

■ John 1& 

Holway, Melvin Smith 146-48 
Home Rule for Ireland meeting 126 

Hosmer, George L. 207 

Hunton, Jonathan G. ^ 

Huston, A. J. 31 

Indian women 44 

Indians, Maine 61-69 

Indians, Maine, and their rela- 
tions with the white settlers 

120-25, 170-74: 


Gage's tavern 21-22 

Gammon, Samuel 15 

Gardiner, John 49-59 

Robert H. 83 

Dr. Silvester 49-50 

Giles, Samuel M. 191-93 

Gilmore, Evelyn L. 28 

Glad.^tone-Parnell bill 126 

Good "SVill Home Association 196-97 
Grand Lake Stream Plantation 43 
Graves of Revolutionary soldiers 

in Kennebec region 23-27, 175-79 
Great Northern Paper Company 

Guernsey, Frank E. 29 

James I 

Jesuit missionaries 
Jewett, A. G. 
Johnson, Edwin ]\r. 
Jones, "^lahogany" 


101-120, 121-25 

72, 73 



Jordan, Nellie Woodbury 40 


Kedesquit 103, 104, 105 
Kennebec County court house 152-53 

Gazette 33 

Journal 161-62 

Kennebeck Intelligencer 33 

King, William, library of 76-77 

King Philip's War 170-17 + 


Hale, Clarence 3 

Hall. Mabel Goodwin 21. 23. 175 

Hallowell 21 

Hancock, Joseph 15 

Harries. Margaret 50 

Hawthorne. Nathaniel 166-67 

Herald of Liberty 33 

Hersey. Ira G. 161 

Hill. W. Scott 21 

Hilton, Leonard 135 

Hilton's tavern 21 

Hinckley. George \V. 196-97 

Township 43 

Historical societies 94 
History, local, in the schools 

36-40. 41-43. 143-45, 148, 
160-65, 198-202 

Holden, Charles F. 14 

Captain Daniel 18 

"Lake Champlain and its shores" 159 

"Latch-string, The" ICO 

Lawyers, Waldo County 72-74 

Lermond, Norman Wallace 93 

Letters 72-76 

Lewiston Journal 10 

Lincoln. Joseph Crosby 158 

Litchfield 23 

Livermore ^. 71 

"Lumberjacks" 126-30 


McCollister. Ethel (Morrill) 184 

:^rachias 130 

McLean, L. 76 

Magnusson, Victoria Aurora 131 

Maine, origin of name of 92 

Maine. State of (address) 3-8 





Maine Naturalist 93 

Society of New York 3 
Writers' Research Club 

21, 149-50 
Making history in the Maine 
woods — culture for the lum- 
berjack 126-30 
Mather vs. Cunningham 99-100 
Mathison, James 43 
Mexican war, Maine in 167-70 
Minot, George E. 8 
ilontgomery, Job H. 152 
Moors, Johnathan 15 
Morrill, John, family 184-89 
True C. 201-2 
Morrill family reunion 180-83 
poem 183-84 
Moses. Galen C. 77 
Mount Desert 101-120 
Katahdin 207 
Murray, W. H. H. 159 


Naturalist, see ^Maine Naturalist 
Nature worshipers may find it 

all in the State of Maine 157 
Newspapers 32, 33, 34 

Nicolar, Mrs. Peter 44 

Norris's tavern 22 

Norumbega 35 


Observer Publishing Co. 34 

Old Point 124-25 

"One Hundred Years of State- 
hood" 36 
Oquossoc Angling Association 43 
Otisfield 14-19 

Piper's tavern 
Piscataquis County 



Poetry 1^ 

Pollard, Amos 
Poor. John Alfred 
Popham, George 
Porronveau, Louis 
Portland early churches 

Evening Express 


Court House 
Printing industry- 
Prize contest in local history llt9-2uo 
Projects in local history 36-40. 143-45 

.33, 152 

34, 165 
9-70. 131, 135. 157-58 

55, 83-85 
49. S3, 84 

toast to Maine 


Railway pioneer 

Rale, Sebastian 

Ray, David 

Rebecca Weston Chapter 

Reed. Senator 

Reed, Noah 
Thomas B. 

Reed's tavern 

Revolutionary Soldiers Living 
in Maine, Alphabetical In- 
dex of 20, 31. 76 

Revolutionary soldiers' graves 
in Kennebec Region, in- 
scriptions 23-27. 175-79 

Ricker, Nellie 136 

Roberts. Cassuss Clay 74 

Otis O. 205-6 

Robinson, D. A. 204 










Packard, Bertram E. 49 

Partridge, Amos 22 

Patch, Benjamin 15 

Patten, John 76, 77 
Patten Library A.«;sociation 76-77 

"Pejepscot" (poem) 135-36 

Penobscot (town) 152 

River (poem) 13 

Phillips, George A. 191 

Phinney, Dea. Stephen 15 
Pierce, Franklin, and the State 

of Maine 165-170 

George 15 

Sagadahock 11 

Saint Sauveur, Story of 101-20 

Sanford 169-70 

Sawtelle, William Otis 

75-76, 101, ir,l-.^2 
Scarborough 172-73 

School children, Maine histories 

by 87-91 

Schools, local history in 

36-40, 41-43, 143-45. 148, 160. 
Unorganized l'*^ 

■«■■ * : 




Secondary school principals of 

Iklaine, Association of 202 

Secretary of State's warrant 51-52 

Shapleigh 169-70 

Shurte. Abraham 173-74 

Smart, E. K. 72, 73 

Smith, Edgar C. 


Francis Orman Jefferson 12 

Captain Stephen 130-31 

Smock marriage 137-38 

Somerset County 33 

"Somerset County in the "World 

War" 203 

Somerset Journal 33 

Spear, Albert M. 99 
Sprague, John F, 

78. 126, 157. 160-65, 204 

Spurr, Joseph 15 

Stewart, Arthur ^V. 69-70. 132 

C. Marshall 132 

John C. 206 

Supreme Judicial Court 99-100 

Swann, Major William 16 

Tahanida II 

Tate, Captain George 28 

Taverns, Early Kennebec 21-23 

Thomas, Augustus O. 

36, 87-91, 141, 148, 198 

David 21 

Thompson, Florence Whittlesey 81 

Thoreau, Henry D. 159 

"To the Pine Tree State" (poem) 

Totten, William D. 183-84 

Tourists' despatch 135 

Town, outline of study for 144-45 

histories 43-44 


Unorganized Territory School 

system 140 

Virginia, Second Colony of 



Wakely, Thomas 
"Walden Pond" 
Waldo, Samuel 
Waldo County lawyers 

Patent, romance of 
Washburn, R. :M. 



Washburn family of Livermore 71-72 
Waterman, Charles A. 203 

Charles E. 165 

Waugh, George " 10 

"Where the Pine Tree Fringed 

Penobscot River Flows" (poem) 13 
Whiting, Eunice 14, 17 

Whitney tavern 21 

Whittier, John Greenleaf 189 

Wight. Joseph 15 

Wiley, James S. 29-31 

Wilkes. John 50-51 

Wing. George C, Jr. 207 

Wood. Ethel M. 61, 120. 170 

Woodsmen 126-30 

Worster, Helen L. 70 



Hon. Clarence Hale 2 

Francis Orman Jefferson Smith 12 

Charles Alcott Flagg 20 

A Maine Colonial House 28 

Maine Inland Scenery 47, 97, 155 

John Gardiner 48 

Indian Women Making Baskets 60 

First Parish Church, Portland, Maine 82 

Albert M. Spear, Associate Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court 98 

Henriette de Balsac, Marquise de Vemeuil 104 

Femald's Point, the Site of Saint Sauveur 108 

Champlain Monument — Seal Harbor 119 

Fort Halifax as Completed in 1755 132 

"Tourists' Despatch" Stamp 135 

Chesuncook School House 140 

James Phinney Baxter 156 

Maine Coast-line Scene Near Cape Elizabeth 158 

Glimpse of Bauneg Beg Lake from Breezy Point 185 

First School House at Bauneg Beg Lake— An Old Time Chaise 186 

House Winthrop Morrill Built in 1763 at Bauneg Beg Lake, North 

Berwick '. 187 

Hinckley, Rev. George W 196 


Sprague's Journal Publications For Sale 

Piscataquis Biography and 

Fragments .... Sprague 

Accidental Shooting- in the 


Game Season. .. .Sprague 


The North-Eastern Bound- 

ary Controversy and the 

Aroostook War..Sprague 


Sprag-ue's Journal of ^Maine 

History. Bound vols. 2-4- 

5-6-7-8, each 


Reprints from the Journal 

Genealogy of the Simmons 

Family Simmons 


Maine Revolutionary Pen- 

sioners. ... Flagg-'s Index 


Baron De St. Castin 



Maine One Hundred Years 

(bound) '. Sprague .75 

Sir Hiram Maxim. .Sprague .75 

Robert Bayley, the First 
Schoolmaster in Fal- 
mouth (Portland) Maine, 
and Some of His De- 
scendants Talbot .75 

Colonel John Allen, a ^Maine 
Revolutionary Patriot... 
Sprague .75 

David Barker Sprague .75 

Engagement of Enterprise 

and Boxer (1813), Thayer .75 

A Bibliog-raphy of Piscata- 
quis County Sprat: ue .50 

Loyalists of the Kennebec 

Thayer .75 

Any of the above named books will be sent postpaid upon the receipt 
of the price. Address Sprague's Journal, Dover, Maine, or 

A. J. HUSTON, 92 Exchange Street, Portland, Maine. 

You Can't Go Wrong 

In Boosting Maine Strong 

The first real action in the state-wide industrial development for 
Maine was started by The Lincoln Worsted Company, where a fine 
brick factory is now being erected, and you can not only make a 
sound, profitable investment, but, help boom Maine by purchasing at 
this time for what vou can afford of the 8^r accumulative, preferred 
stock, of THE LINCOLX WORSTED COMPANY, and receive what 
generally goes to bankers, — a fifty per cent, of bonus, in common 
stock. Par value of both classes of stock $10.00 per share. 

For further particulars address THE LINCOLN WORSTED 
COMPANY, LINCOLN, MAINE, L. J. Coburn, Vice President. 

Coin and Stamp Collectors 


Prices I Pay — of every U. S. Coin 
▼rorth over face — 13 cts. 

Rare Coins, Stamps and Curios 

What are your wants? Perhaps 
I can supply them 

Stamp Catalog-ues and other Philatelic and Numismatic 
literature at publishers' prices 


292 Hammond St. Bangor, Maine 

' -v.-- 








•V — • * 

.- >^ 










No. 2 








History is the trutli; ever impartial; 
never prejudiced 

'■ / i 











Office Outfitters 

Typewriters of all Makes. Wood & 
Steel Filing Equipment 



Conservative Investment Bonds 


Munlcliial, Rnilroiid nnd Public Utility 
Ihsucs. Specialists in Maine Securities 

Augusta Portland Bangor 

W{]v WnUnnih fHorntug grnttttpl 

Goes to press later than any other paper reachiirg Central Maine. It 
handles messages by wire up to 3 o'clock in the morning. If you 
want the latest news, READ THE SENTINEL. 
$5.00 per year by mail for cash. '-^ 

BJatrrmllr g»rnt!nrl Pnliltshinrj (Sompang 

" ISatrruillr. £Hainr 

TT^ 13 \ VQ T^^^ Q \ \lTi ^'^^' yo^^'* plans to start youc savincrs 
•■•■■• -I- il- A O JL V/ Oil. T jLj account with this banl; on your very 
next pay-day. Set aside One Dollar — more if you can spare it — come to 
the bank and make your first deposit, i^mall sums are wolcomo. 

Put system into your savinprs. Save a little every week and save that 
little ropularly. Make it an obligation to yourself just as you are in duty 
bound to p.iy the grocer or the coal man. SAVE FAITHFULLY. The 
dollars you save now will serve you later on when you will have prreater 
need for them. 


P. E. GUIJBNSEY, Pres. V7. C. WOODnUSY, Treas. 

Money Back If Not Satisfied — Is Your Protection 







We havt* positive evidence of the reliability of advertis>T3 on tht-se paiXf's 



Office Outfitters 

Typewriters of all Makes. Wood & 
Steel Filing Equipment 



Consenrative Investment Bonds 


3Iiuilclpal, Railroad and Public Utility 
Issues. Specialists in Maine Securities 

Augusta Portland Bangor 

SIjp liatpnrtUf iHormng S'fntin^l 

Goes to press later than any other paper reaching Central Maine. It 

handles messages by wire up to 3 o'clock in the morning. If you 

want the latest news, READ THE SENTINEL. 

$5.00 per year by mail for cash. 


Lay your plans to start your saving's 
account with this bank on your very 
next pay-day. Set aside One Dollar — more If you can spare It— come to 
the bank and make your first deposit. Small sums are "welcome. 

Put system into your savings. Save a little every week and save that 
little regTjlarly. Make it an obligation to yourself just as you are in duty 
bound to pay the grocer or the coal man. SAVE FAITHFUL-LiT. The 
dollars you save noxr will serve you later on when you will have greater 
need for them. 


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Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol.. X January, February, !March, 1922 No, t^ 


(By the Editor) 

In recent years investigators along the lines of religious history 
in the 19th century have taken more than ordinary interest in the 
followers of \\'illiam ^^liller, who commenced preaching the second 
coming of Christ about the year 1831. 

Recently I was asked to write to a lady in Boston, who is a 
prominent Unitarian research worker in this field, for any infor- 
mation that I might have upon this subject. 

Some writers have said that ]Miller's contention was that the 
coming was to be "between }vlarch 21, 1843, ^^^ ^larch 21, 1844." 
As to this I have no knowledge or data. 

In the following letter to this lady I did not attempt anything 
but to state my own recollections of this people in Elaine, as I 
knew them in my childhood days. 

Intelligent persons at all familiar with the history of the human 
race, whatever may be their own religious faith or preferences, do 
not deny that religion is now and ever has been a great moral and 
civilizing force in the world. 

Hence, I wrote from this general viewpoint alone, having no 
desire for argument for or against the dogmas of the Adventists, 
the Spiritualists or any other religious sect of those days. 

The letter above referred to follows: 

November 21, 1921. 
Miss Clara Endicott Sears, , 

Prospect Hill, 

Harvard, Mass. 

Dear Miss Sears : 

I must beg your pardon for my negligence in not writing you 
before. I received a letter from my good friend Norman L. Bassett 


of Augusta, iMaine, dated September 3, 192 1, asking me to write 
you if I had any historical data or information with reference to 
the Millerites. 

I have quite a large collection of ^Maine newspaper clippings and 
have searched them for something of real importance, but do not 
find much except what I believe to be the old stock lie that the 
Millerites prepared ascension robes to "go up" in. 

Under the lead of William ^liller they had set a day in 1843. 
When a small boy I have heard people state that "Father ]\Iiller" 
visited Maine in 1843 ^^^ preached here some with his illustrated 
charts, explaining what "signs" had already been "fulfilled" and 
figures to prove that the end of this world would come on the date 
fixed by him. I think that ]^Iiller died soon after this date proved 
to be a mistake. 

But his death did not discourage his followers, who engaged in 
studying the Old Testament prophecies and making mathematical 
calculations with renewed energ}'. 

Very soon they decided that they had discovered just how Aliller's 
figures chanced to be wrong. It was clear where the error had 
occurred. So the date was again positively fixed for a day certain 
in 1854. I have nothing to fix it by except that it was in the 
autumn of that year. I was six years old and remember it well, 
for my father was an enthusiastic "^lillerite" or "Second Advent- 
ist" as they had then begun to call themselves. My mother, 
although a member of the Congregational church, was also a be- 
liever in the Advent doctrine. 

They commenced this campaign with a well conducted weekly 
newspaper, published in Boston and ably edited by "Elder" ^liles 
Grant. All of their ministers were called Elders, none bore the 
title of "Reverend." Their preachers had all been "called" by the 
voice of God to go forth and preach the Gospel of Jesus Christ 
and His second coming and reign on this earth. They were, on all 
theological matters except what pertained to their own peculiar 
views, Trinitarians, and believed in baptism by immersion and cele- 
brated the Lord's supper in the same manner as do all Protestant 

While the "washing of the Saint's feet" was not regarded as an 
essential duty, some of them in the early days observed this, 


although I do not recall that I ever witnessed its ceremony when 
a child. ^ • • 

The fundamental tenets which separated them from other Prot- 
estant sects were their belief in the sleep of the dead, the second 
coming of Christ, the literal resurrection of the dead on the judg- 
ment day when all who had died in their sins would be finally 
destroyed by fire. 

When the time predicted for the ''Day of Judgment" passed 
uneventfully in 1854, the decision of the leaders was that the exact 
time of the end of the world was one of the "mysteries" of religion 
and of the Bible which the finite mind could not fathom by any 
principles of matliematics. The passing of this did not however 
weaken their faith or deter them from continuing to preach the 
second coming of Christ. The exact time of this event had simply 
passed into the realm of Divine mysteries and with equal ardor 
they proclaimed that the "signs" were being rapidly fulfilled and 
tliat this sublime event was "near at hand." 

Like the Puritans, they were firm believers not only in the inspi- 
ration of, but in the absolute infallibility of everything in the Scrip- 
tures, from the first word of Genesis to the last word of Revela- 
tion ; and that the Bible was to be taken literally, that no part of it 
had any unknown, obscure or subtle meaning. It was their guide, 
their government and their law, and they held that their prayerful 
interpretation of it was the truth. 

They declined to vote or take any part in town or state affairs, 
for they were not of the world; yet they were loyal citizens and 
paid taxes without murmur because they had been commanded to 
"render to Caesar the things which are Caesar's," and their town, 
state and country constituted their Caesar within the meaning of 
this command. 

They were opponents to human slavery and to war, and like the 
Quakers were recognized by the government as "non-resistants." 
Probably today they would answer to the name of pacifist. 

The early Millerites in Maine were a God-fearing, devout and 
peaceful class. None could doubt their sincerity or the purity of 
their lives. They were respected as good citizens and kind neigh- 
bors. They met with violent opposition and their leaders were 
sometimes arrested for vagrancy and similar charges. This they 


simply called persecution, which they had expected if not hoped 
for. They were often jeered, rebuffed and made the butt of ridi- 
cule which served only to strengthen their faith. The Master had 
foretold them of persecutors and scoffers and they welcomed and 
prayed for them. 

In 1899, there was published (Bangor, Maine) a little book of 
local history in the county (Piscataquis) entitled "Piscataquis 
Biography and Fragments," of which I was the author. In speak- 
ing of James Stuart Holmes, the first lawyer of the county, I quote 
from a letter regarding him that I had previously received from the 
late Joseph D. Brown, as follows : 

"I well remember a remarkable scene in the year 1843, i^ which he 
(Holmes) was an active participant. The Adventists or followers 
6i William ^Miller were numerous in the neighboring town of 
Atkinson. Their preaching of the second coming of Christ was. 
deemed a heresv bv leadino^ citizens and members of other churches. 
Some of these citizens who opposed the Millerites went to Dover 
and instituted legal proceedings against Israel Damon and several 
others who were preachers and leaders in the ]\Iiller faith, under 
the vagrant act. In the old church on the hill they were arraigned 
before ]\Ioses Scott, a justice of the peace. 

"Without pecuniary compensation Air. Holmes volunteered his 
services for the defense. For four days the courtroom was 
crowded with people. During the whole time there was a suc- 
cession of praying, singing of hymns, plaintive and exhilarating, 
as only the old-style ^Millerites could sing, shouting, jeers, groans 
and applause, but above all these occasional distracting sounds 
could be heard Mr. Holmes' eloquent argument for religious free- 
dom and toleration, and the right of every person to worship God 
according to the dictates of his own conscience, under his own 
vine and fig tree. At the close of the trial the prisoners were 
promptly discharged." 

And yet, like all other forms of religious belief, in which mingles 
the element of fanaticism, it sometimes had evil results. Obviously 
the parent who believed that within a very few years the doom of 
this world would be sealed for all eternity, could not take such an 
interest in the child's receiving an education as would have been 
the case had the parent not been obsessed with this delusion. 



Naturally the parent's hopes and heart desires for the child were 
centered on guiding him so that the "purity of his life while here 
would entitle him to a seat with the saints ; that he might not be 
"burned up root and branch" and be forever only "stubble under 
the saint's feet." This being the parent's paramount thought for 
the child, it necessarily crowded out of his mind the necessity for 
learning about a world soon to be destroyed by fire anyhow. x\s 
a result of this, children sometimes lost opportunity in after life 
to which they were entitled. 

Then for a year or so before the hoped-for Day, which never 
came, some of the Advent families which I knew, literally obeyed 
the command to sell their worldly goods and give alms to the poor 
about them. Hence, the passing of the Day found them in desti- 
tute circumstances. 

The popular notion that the ^lillerites prepared ascension robes 
and wore them when they were expecting to be "caught up" was, 
so far as I ever knew, entirely false. I think the Outlook maga- 
zine about a quarter of a century or more ago made an investi- 
gation of the question of whether or not the ^lillerites made use 
of ascension robes in 1843 or 1854, and not finding any evidence 
of it anywhere in the country, decided that it was only a figment 
of the imagination. 

The ^lillerites believed as fully in a personal devil as they did 
in a personal Supreme Being. I think the Fox sisters burst forth 
proclaiming to the world their "rappings" and mediumistic powers 
in 1848, the year of my birth. I have a vivid recollection of the 
discussion in the days of '54 about their alleged phenomena. The 
orthodox of nearly all religious denominations met it by a positive 
denial that the mediums had produced any evidence whatever of 
any occult force ; that it was all trickery, falsehood and delusion. 
Not so with the Advent. He exulted over it. He hailed it as .v 
another "sign" of the evil days that the prophets had foretold would 
precede the end of the world. He disputed with the orthodox 
preachers who called Spiritualism a tissue of lies and sneered at it. 
The Advent believers accepted all these so-called phenomena as 
literal facts. They were in unison with the Spiritualists in advo- 
cating their actual occurrence. But as to the cause of these alleged 
wonders, their explanation was as far from that of the Spiritual- 


ists as is the South Pole from the North Pole. To their minds 
they did not emanate from departed spirits, for there were none. 
All of the dead were in an unconscious state and would remain so 
until the day of resurrection. This being a fact they could have 
but one cause, they came direct from Satan. 

The Bible taught them, as they held, that the devil, whose power 
God had been fighting ever since the creation of the world, and 
which would be forever destroyed on the day of judgment, could 
send evil spirits to take possession of human beings and enter a 
herd of swine; this being so, they reasoned that this same Satanic 
power could do all and more along this line than was claimed to 
have been accomplished by the mediums. 

The Advents admitted that mediums were controlled by spirits, 
but contended that they were spirits of darkness and evil — of the 

Since writing the foregoing I have received the following lines 
from this correspondent : 

"My dear Mr. Sprague : 

Allow me to thank you most cordially for your most interesting 
letter about ^lillerite days. It gives me many valuable points for 
which I am very grateful. I am also grateful to Mr. Bassett for 
having urged you to give me the benefit of your knowledge on this 
subject. I am impressed with the real interest that is growing 
apace in this country in regard to all the various phases that it has 
passed through in reaching the period in which we are now living. 
It is from this standpoint that I am interested in the ^lillerite days, 
and this response to my appeal for information regarding them has 
been very spontaneous and sincere and voluminous. 
Believe me, 

Sincerely yours, 




(By Ethel M. Wood) 

(Concluded from Vol. 9, page 174) 

In the massacres and conflagrations of King Philip's War about 
three hundred white people were killed and many were led away 



into captivity. The Kennebecs were much less cruel than their 
aUies. There is no record that they ever tortured a prisoner and, 
in June, 1677, they returned twenty captives with a letter to the 
governor of Massachusetts. The Androscoggins were wont to kill 
their captives after making them endure the most excruciating tor- 
tures. Infants were torn from their mothers' breasts and their 
brains dashed out against the nearest tree. In the war the Indian 
tribes, too, suffered great losses, and the day when the treaty of 
peace was signed at Casco (April 12, 1678) was one of great re- 
joicing. The cost to the colonial government of King Philip's 
War in ]\Iaine was estimated at two thousand pounds, besides inci- 
dental losses. These circumstances revealed the insecuritv of the 
settlements in Maine and their lack of protection from the Indians, 
and undoubtedly was one of the causes which led to the absorption 
of the Maine settlements by ^lassachusetts. 

In the interval of peace which followed, the settlements began 
to rise from their ashes, there was renewed prosperity along the 
coast of Maine, and the English added to their territory by pur- 
chasing large tracts of land from the Indians. The most important 
of these transactions was the famous "Pejepscot Purchase," where- 
by a large tract of land situated between the Androscoggin and 
Kennebec Rivers was obtained, July 7, 1684, from six Anasagun- 
ticook sagamores. The Alohawks, the ancient enemy of the Maine 
tribes, employed by the English in the late war, continued their 
raids until checked by command of Gov. Edmond Andros of New 
York. A second treaty was made at Portsmouth in 1685, when, 
for the first time, the English promised to protect the Indians from 
their Mohawk foe. Shortlv after the close of the war the most 
of the Saco tribes had departed for Canada and were gathered into 
the fold at St. Francis. 

VI. King William*s and Queen Anne's Wars 

In the spring of 1688, Gov. Andros plundered the home of 
Baron de St. Castin at Pentagoet ^ under the pretext that the 
Penobscot region, in which Pentagoet was located, was in the 
king's province and therefore under his jurisdiction. Bands of 
Indians organized by the French were sent out from Canada, and 
there followed a series of terrible massacres. There was constant 

*The site of the modern town of Castine. 


dread of the lurking savage and each town built its garrison house, 
to which the inhabitants could flee at a moment's notice. Eleven 
garrisons of soldiers were maintained along the coast. The de- 
struction of Xewichawannock, Pemaquid, and Fort Loyal at Fal- 
mouth are notable as among the most horrible of the events of 
this war. 

Tribal distinctions began to disappear as the various tribes became 
united against a common enemy, and the remnant of the Sacos 
allied themselves with the Androscoggins and the Kennebecs. In 
1693 Father Rale appeared at Xorridgewock, and exerted a strong 
influence in favor of peace, for later in the year thirteen chiefs 
came to him and signified their willingness to submit to English 
rule. It appears that the French, however, were not yet ready for 
peace, and, owing to their influence with the natives, another series 
of massacres followed. Bomazeen, a chief of the Kennebecs, ap- 
proaching Pemaquid with a flag of truce, was seized and carried 
to Boston. This event put the infuriated Xorridgewocks again on 
the war-path. The struggle concluded with the treaty of ]^Iere 
Point, Jan. 7, 1699. The war had done no good; neither side had 
profited, and the Indians were, if anything, in a more miserable 
condition than before. 

When Queen Anne came to the throne of England (1702) she 
immediately laid claim to Acadia and made another clash between 
the French and English in America inevitable. Gov. Joseph Dudley 
of ^lassachusetts sought to maintain peace with the Indians ; and 
large numbers of the natives assembled at Casco to meet him and 
his suite, June 20, 1703. Three of them came from X'orridgewock, 
among the number Bomazeen, the late captive, who said that there 
should be peace "so long as the sun and moon shall endure." He 
moreover said, "As high as the sun is above the earth, so far dis- 
tant shall our designs be of making the least breach between each 
other." ^ Father Rale was present at the conference and was 
looked upon with suspicion and annoyance by the English. French 
influences were too strong, and in less than two months war broke 
out again, and the Indians, swooping down from Canada, renewed 
their cruelties. In the winter of 1705, Col. Hilton, with two hun- 
dred and seventy men, went to Xorridgewock on snowshoes, hoping 

*See Palfrey, vol. 4, p. 286. 


to destroy the stronghold. Finding the village deserted, they were 
obliged to content themselves by the burning of the deserted chapel. 
That the white men as well as the Indians were guilty of cruel and 
inhuman treatment of their foes was demonstrated by Col. Hilton 
at Casco in January, 1707, when he surprised a band of eighteen 
sleeping Indians and massacred seventeen of them. Another cruel 
act was the delivery of Arruawickuabruit, a captive Norridgewock 
sachem, to the ^lohawks to be treated as the latter saw ht. By the 
treaty of Utrecht (r\Iarch, 17 13), Acadia was surrendered to the 
English by the French, and the dispute over this area was settled 
for the time being; and four months later a treaty was concluded 
with the Indians at Portsmouth.^ . 

W^ith the establishment of peace, there was little immediate fear 
of a renewal of hostilities, and the coast settlements sprang up 
with great rapidity. In 171 7, Gov. Shute of ^lassachusetts sailed 
from Boston to Georgetown, on Arrowsic Island, for the purpose 
of strengthening the friendly relations of the English with the 
Indians and drawing into a closer alliance of amity and good-will. 
Their chiefs were received with great ceremony at his tent, and in 
a few words Gov. Shute explained to them that his king was now 
a friend of the French, that English and Indians alike were his 
subjects, and that the king wished them to be treated with all jus- 
tice. Schools and Christian ministers were promised them. The 
Indians, fearing that this meant a change of religious teachers and 
of religious faith, declared that they had no desire to change their 
religion since God had sent them such good teachers. This is a 
splendid tribute to the* efficient work which had been done among 
them by the Jesuit missionaries. Heretofore, they said, they had 
been subject to no king but their own, but they would obey King 
George if they liked his laws, otherwise not. They asked particu- 
larly that no more forts be built and said that they had not sold 
their lands. The deed of the "Pejepscot Purchase" was shown 
them. Confused and confounded by a document which they could 
neither read nor understand, they sullenly withdrew. Soon they 
returned with a letter from Father Rale saying that the French 
king had not given the English any of the Indians' land. The next 

*For text of this treaty, see Me. Hist. Soc. CoU.. Series 1. vol. 6, p. 250, see Sebastian Rale, a :Maine Tragedy, etc.. Sprasue (Boston. 1906). 


day as the governor was departing, two Indians came to apologize, 
and to express a great desire for the maintenance of peace. 

VII. L,ovtw':E:hVs War 

Later developments showed that, in spite of the fact that Indians 
and English were both regarded as subjects of the king, the gov- 
ernor was disposed to neglect the rights of the natives and obli- 
gations of recent treaties, and signs of unrest among them appeared. 
New forts were continually being erected, and, in 1720, two hun- 
dred soldiers were sent to the frontier of Elaine. In the summer 
of 172 1, a grand embassy, consisting of Canadian officials, two 
Jesuits and many representatives of the tribes, approached Arrow- 
sic Island with a fleet of ninety canoes and delivered to the English 
representative there a manifesto ^ in the name of all the tribes, 
warning the settlers that unless they moved away in three weeks, 
their houses would be burned and they would be killed. There was 
great alarm in Boston ; orders were issued to put down the rebel- 
lious Indians, and great was the confusion in ]\Iaine. It was be- 
lieved that Father Rale was especially active in instigating this 
rebellion and a price was set upon his head. In the following 
December, Col. W'estbrook, one of the principal military com- 
manders in ]\Iaine, was sent up the Kennebec River with a force 
of two hundred and thirty men with orders to seize Rale. Nor- 
ridgewock, the home of Rale, was found deserted, but his strong 
box and papers, including his Indian dictionary, which were found 
there, were seized and carried off. The Indians interpreted this 
expedition for the capture of Rale as a direct blow against them- 
selves, and refused after that to meet the English in council. The 
savages now resumed the war-path, attacks were made on the 
English settlements at ]Merr}'meeting Bay, St. George, and Bruns- 
wick, and the latter place was reduced to ashes. Shortly after this 
the Indians were discovered by Capt. John Harmon and a force 
of the English in the forest near Brunswick. Capt. Harmon came 
upon them as they were slumbering, after a Bacchanalian celebra- 
tion of their recent deeds; and, taking advantage of this circum- 
stance, he swooped down upon them and murdered them all in cold 

* For text of this manifesto see Baxter; Pioneers of New France in New- 
England; pp. 111-118. 


Not only were the Xorridgewocks engaged in this struggle, but 
tliey had enlisted the support of every tribe east of the Alerrimac 
River. Garrisons were sent from Massachusetts to hold the forts 
along the coast. The ^Massachusetts legislature offered bounties 
for Indian scalps, and one thousand dollars for Father Rale, taken 
dead or alive. Fearing the attack of the Indians, many of the 
English settlers fled away to ^Massachusetts or elsewhere, and the 
Maine coast was left nearly desolate. The next year (1722) the 
Massachusetts government attempted to bribe tlie ]^Iohawks to lend 
them their aid again, but as the Iroquois Confederacy, of which 
they were a part, was then at peace with the Maine Indians, they 
refused. In the winter of 1722 another expedition to Xorridge- 
wock failed, and still another expedition, sent in 1723, found the 
place deserted. In the following spring the Indians returned to 
X'^orridgewock. It was now decided by the English to make still 
another attempt to capture Father Rale, and a force of two hun- 
dred and eight men under Captains ]»^Ioulton and Harmon of York 
were despatched from Richmond on Aug. 29, 1724, for that pur- 
pose. They proceeded by boat as far as Teconnet (W'inslow) and 
then marched overland to X^orridgewock. Arriving near the vil- 
lage, Moulton disposed his men to the best advantage and began 
an attack upon the village. The inhabitants were taken by surprise 
and knew nothing of the approach of the enemy until the latter 
was close upon them. Rale rushed out to the village cross which 
he had planted some time before, exposing his body in full view 
of the enemy, thinking by this act of bravery and self-sacrifice to 
protect his beloved neophytes. They crowded about him, however, 
and he was slain in their midst together with thirty of their number. 
Not an Englishman was even wounded. The entire village was 
burned, and the Xorridgewocks took no further part in the war 
which continued for a year longer. 

One of the most interesting events of this fourth Indian war 
was the battle of Pegwackct,"* in the southwestern part of the 
province, which took place May 8th, 1725. Capt. John Lovewell 
had set out from Dunstable, Mass., on April 25 with forty-six men 
upon an expedition against the Indians in ]^Iaine. They marched 
to the upper waters of the Saco River, where a part of the force 

•The modern town of Fryeburg. 


was left, while Capt. Lovewell and Chaplain Frye with thirty men 
went on to the borders of a small lake now called Lovewell's Pond, 
two miles from the Indian village of Pegwacket. As they jour- 
neyed through the forest, an Indian was seen hunting. Stimulated 
by the prospect of obtaining a bounty of five hundred dollars, which 
was the standing offer of the ]Ma55achusetts government for every 
Indian slain, they determined to kill him. Leaving their knapsacks 
in a little clearing, they quietly followed him at a distance, and, 
after a sharp encounter, captured him. In the meantime the knap- 
sacks which thev had left in the rear attracted the attention of two 
chiefs, Paugus and W'ahwa. who discovered them. They sounded 
an alarm and gathered a party of warriors who lay in ambush for 
the English. When Lovewell's party returned for their baggage, 
therefore, they were at once attacked and a bloody battle was waged 
for eight hours. Lovewell and nine of his companions were killed, 
while the total loss of the Indians has been estimated at fifty-eight. 
The pathetic part of the incident is that these contestants were 
former friends and acquaintances and had shared each other's hos- 
pitality. In fact, several of the savages were what were known 
as "praying Indians." To the Indians' credit, it must be admitted 
that, though they had the opportunity of scalping the bodies of 
Lovewell and his men, they refrained from doing so. The loss of 
the Sacos in this battle was so great as to break the spirit of the 
tribe, and they withdrew forever from their native haunts, as the 
Norridgewocks had done before subsequent to the destruction of 
their village. Peace was concluded at Falmouth, Elaine, July, 1726, 
and Lovewell's \\ ar was at an end. 

VII I. The Fifth and Sixth Indian Wars 

The next French and Indian war, which was the fifth in order, 
broke out in the colonies in 1744. It was known as King George's 
War, and the foes in the colonies were the English and the French, 
though the colonial war was but a part of the general European 
struggle, which was known as the A\'ar of the Austrian Succession.® 
As usual the Indians are found upon the side of the French. The 
scene of activities lay chiefly in Nova Scotia and the eastern part 
of Maine, and around Louisburg on Cape Breton Island which was 



captured by colonial troops under Sir William Pepperell. Some 
of the Abenakis, conscious of their weakness, and not wishing to 
enter anew upon the horrors of war, threw themselves upon the 
protection of the English, as did also the Penobscots. An imagi- 
nary line was drawn, therefore, three miles east of the Passama- 
quoddy River and extended north to the St. Lawrence ; and the 
Indians upon the western side were forbidden ''to have any cor- 
respondence with those eastern rebels." ^ The English strongly 
urged the friendly Indians, who were scattered about among their 
settlements, to join them in the war, but in case of a refusal they 
were permitted to remain neutral and undisturbed. 

Upon receipt of the news of the defeat of the French at Louis- 
burg (1745), the Tarratines were aroused to further hostility, and 
infected the more westerly tribes, who heretofore had been at peace 
with tlie English. Indian outrages and assaults were renewed, 
attacks being made upon Pemaquid, Topsham, and North Yar- 
mouth. The settlers could not even work on their farms, in such 
constant dread were they, and scarcely ventured to milk their cows. 
Two women were one day milking their cows at St. George a short 
distance from the garrison house, when one was suddenly seized 
and carried away to Canada. The other woman was pursued, but 
managed to escape, finding refuge in the garrison. According to 
"Dummer's Treaty" (1726),* referred to before as the treaty of 
Falmouth, the Norridgewocks and Penobscots had pledged them- 
selves to furnish a certain number of men to join the English in 
suppressing any uprising of other Indian tribes. When, in 1745, 
the demand was made, however, they refused their support, and, 
on Aug. 23, 1745, the provincial government of Massachusetts 
formally declared war against all of the Maine tribes. 

The devastation of the settlements along the coast by Indian 
attacks continued for several months, and during the winter the 
fi:arrisons were increased. In the spring of 1746, the natives re- 
doubled their efforts against the settlements, particularly against 
those of the Sagadahoc region. The last attack of the year upon 
an eastern settlement occurred on the twenty-sixth of August near 
Pemaquid. During the following autumn and winter, Canada was 
the battle-ground, but the next spring found the Indians again 

'See Williamson, vol. 2, p. 218. 
Me. Hist. Coll.. Series 1, vol. 3, p. 384. and Williamson, vol. 2. p. 240. 


wreaking their vengeance upon the IMaine towns. ^lany persons 
were killed outright or carried away into captivity. Agents sent 
from Boston in ^lay (1746) for the purpose of negotiating an 
exchange of captives at Quebec, reported, on their return in the 
following August, that in all three hundred and sixty-one captives 
had been taken to Canada by the Indians. They further reported 
that of this number, seventy had died in captivity, that they had 
secured the release and return of one hundred and seventv-one ; 
while the rest of them were reported as having disappeared, or as 
too ill to make the journey back to the colonies. After the news 
of the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) had reached the colonies, 
the Indian ravages ceased and, in June, 1749, representatives of 
the Penobscots and Xorridgewocks went to Boston to negotiate for 
peace, declaring that every tribe throughout the length and breadth 
of Maine desired it. A meeting was arranged to take place at 
Falmouth in the autumn, and here on Oct. 14, a treaty was agreed 
to, which conceded to the English indisputable rights of their settle- 
ments, and reserved to the Indians such lands as had not been con- 
. veyed to. the English by deed. 

The Indians, however, and particularly the Kennebecs, still felt 
keenly the injustice done them by the English in former years; 
the settlers in turn cherished a hatred for the natives. Owing to 
the state of feeling between the English and the Indians, peace was 
maintained with difficulty, and in less than six weeks after the 
treaty of Falmouth above referred to, a quarrel arose between the 
settlers at \\'iscasset and their savage neighbors, the Kennebecs. 
As usual the ill-feeling spread among the other tribes, and in the 
summer of 1750 an attack by the Kennebecs and Tarratines was 
made upon the fort at Richmond. Other English settlements were 
attacked from time to time, and it was not until Sept. 3, 1751, that 
the Indians were pacified and friendly relations re-established. 

After these events the Indians assumed a quiet and peaceful 
attitude, which encouraged the settlers and furnished a stimulus 
for the building of new settlements and the extension and improve- 
ment of those already established. The English settlers advanced 
up the Kennebec and built fortifications above Richmond. The 
Indians were manifestly displeased because it was regarded as an 
encroachment ui>on their territory and an invasion of their rights 

•i'^K'' '--. 


as they were defined in the Dumnier Treaty (1726) previously 
referred to. In spite of this, however, they said that they would 
remain at peace unless directly interfered with. In February, 1754, 
sixty Indian spies visited Fort Richmond. A little later a French 
Jesuit made a canvass of the Indians of the Kennebec Valley, 
promising the favor of the French to all who would take sides 
with them in the great struggle for the possession of this continent 
between France and England which was just about to begin. 
Owing to the traditional friendship of the Indian for the French, 
the appeal of the Jesuit Father had a profound effect; and in view 
of the situation, any permanent peace with the Indians was de- 
spaired of by the English, and the only course left to the latter was 
to strengthen their defences as much as possible, and prepare for 
the inevitable conflict with their former foes, the French and their 
Indian allies. In anticipation of coming events Gov. Shirley con- 
cluded to build a fort at Teconnet, at the junction of the Kennebec 
and Sebasticook Rivers. This was an important location for a fort, 
for it was but thirty-one miles from Norridgewock ; and further- 
more, it was only by way of the Sebasticook River that the Nor- 
ridgewocks could communicate with the Penobscots. The usual 
route of the latter tribe to Quebec, was by way of the Sebasticook 
and thence up the Kennebec and Chaudiere. The fort was com- 
pleted Sept. 3, 1754, and named Fort Halifax. Other fortifications 
known as Forts Western and Shirley were then built at Cushenock 
(Augusta) and Frankfort (Dresden) respectively, and equipped 
with garrisons and supplies. Large appropriations were made by 
the General Court of Massachusetts to provide supplies for garri- 
sons and fortified habitations which were established in nearly all 
parts of the province of Maine. 

Hostilities were begun, in 1754, between the French and Indians 
on the one hand and the English on the other. This marked the 
opening of the "Old French and Indian War," which was the sixth 
of the Indian wars to occur within the space of eighty years, the 
most bitterly contested in action, and the one that was fraught with 
the most important consequences for France, England, and the 
American colonies. This was a part of the world-wide conflict, 
known as the Seven Years' War in Europe. In the spring of 1755, 
savage depredations continued and on June 11, the Massachusetts 


government declared war "against, the Anasagunticook ^ Indians, 
and all other tribes eastward of Piscataqua excepting those upon 
Penobscot River." Bounties ranging as high as £250 were offered 
for every Indian scalp, and a reward of £100 for every captive 
taken. The war in the colonies raged until 1758, when the raids 
of the Indians grew more and more infrequent, finally ceasing 
altogether after failure to carry the fortifications at ^leduncook 
(Friendship). In 1760, the remnants of the Maine tribes, ex- 
hausted by war and ravaged by pestilence, sued once more for 
peace, sending word to General Preble, who was then in command 
of Fort Pownal, the strategic center of the whole Penobscot region, 
to the eft'ect that they desired to dwell near the English and under 
their protection, "living with them as many of the tribes had lived 
with the French in Canada." A council was accordingly held at 
Boston, April 29, 1760, and a treaty concluded. The Indians con- 
fessed that they had rebelled against the English government, 
agreed to the forfeiture of their lands, and renounced all further 
allegiance to the French government. The Tarratines, once so 
powerful, were now reduced to five hundred souls, and the Abe- 
nakis had sunk into relative insignificance. The white settlers now, 
for the first time, felt a real sense of security from attacks of the 
savage, and could cultivate their fields in peace and quiet, free from 
the dread of the tomahawk and the scalping knife. Forts Pownal 
and Halifax were converted into trading stations from which the 
Indians were supplied with necessary articles. One day an un- 
fortunate thing happened, for a party of four hunters from Fort 
Pownal shot and killed an Indian, whom they had overtaken in 
their quest for game, and robbed him of many valuable furs which 
he had in his possession. The incident was reported to the pro- 
vincial government in Boston, who investigated the matter, ordered 
the offenders punished, and, so far as possible, made reparation to 
the friends of the slain Indian. This incident was also made the 
excuse for the passage of strict laws against molesting the Indians 
in any way, and further trouble was thereby averted. 

This virtually concludes the story of the Indian and Indian up- 
risings in the province of Maine, for, from this time forth, the 
remnants of the tribes that were left were no longer a serious 

•In the Androscogg^in valley. 


menace to the peace of the settlements and to the expansion of the 
colony, and they dwelt in friendly relations alongside their white 
neighbors, or assumed an attitude of neutrality on the occasion of 
future wars. While it is the experience of history that an inferior 
civilization must give way before a higher one, such was the 
inevitable result when the white settler came in contact with the 
aborigines, after all there is a pathetic side to the downfall of the 
Indian. These wars of the eighteenth century were his protests 
against the invasion of his home and the appropriation of his land 
and his hunting grounds. The injustice was not all done by the 
nadve, nor was he chargeable with all the cruelties that accompanied 
Indian warfare. ^luch of the blame must be laid at the door of 
the white man. We are reminded of this in a significant reference 
in Cotton blather's "^lagnalia," which reads as follows : ''Many 
rude, wild and ungovernable English did, unto the extreme dis- 
satisfaction of the wiser sort, rashlv add unto the occasion which 
the Indians also took to grow ungovernable." The fate of the 
Indian was a regrettable one, no matter how logical and natural 
it might have been, and for that reason, he deserves a generous and 
sympathetic treatment on the part of every student of history whose 
desire it is to do justice to a race whose provocation was as great 
as theirs. 


KITTERY, MAINE, 1640-1920 

(By Mrs. Ethel (Morrill) McCollister) 

(Concluded from Page 191) 

Soon after this Thomas sold out and came east and his widow 
still summers near Kitter}-. He was the son of Horatio and Alary 
Morrill, both of them Quaker preachers of some note. 

Daniel Jackson was sent to the Paris Exposition in 1878 as U. S. 
Commissioner. Had one daughter who married Philip Chapman 
of Washington, D. C, later married Bates by whom there was born 
a son, Daniel J. Bates. 

Mr. Morrill's sister, Uianna, was a minister. She married Rev. 
Ramsey, Professor at Oberlin College. They had one son, Oberlin 
Ramsey. They are buried near her father, Thaddeus', great man- 


sion at North Berwick. Thaddeus' daughter Sarah inherited this 
home; she married her cousin, Alfred ]\Iorrill, and their heirs now 
occupy it. 

Peter, Jr., son of Peter (3) practiced law, carried on a large 
farm at North Berwick. A daughter. Comfort, married Elijah 
Neal. Her son, Peter Morrill Neal, was the 'A\'ar Major" (i860) 
of Lynn, Mass. He had quite a collection of ^Morrill genealogy. 
His son, ]Mr. William E. Neal, a banker of Lynn, maintains a 
summer home at Bauneg Beg. Stephen (4) son of Peter (3), 
married first, Elizabeth \\'inslow of Falmouth. His son Rufus 
married Nancy A\'ebb, and was the father of Edmund Neal of 
Westbrook. This latter graduated from Westbrook Seminary, 
learned the tanners' trade and then went west in 1857. In October 
of that year he was elected to first free state legislature of Kansas. 
On October 5, 1861, he enlisted as a private in Company C, 7th 
Kansas Cavalry. Mustered out in 1865 with rank of brevet Major 
for meritorious services. He held two terms as State Senator. 
Governor 1895-7. Framed the famous pension law known as the 
Morrill bill, which was passed June 2^, 1890. His brothers Levi 
and Rufus established the tanneries at Deering and their memory 
is perpetuated in Morrill's Corner. 

Peaselee (Peaselee* Peter") married Nancy ]\Iacomber. He 
moved to Augusta (then Hallowell) in 1797. Later to Belgrade 
Hill, where he kept a tavern. His death came about through an 
accident. He was standing beside a building when a pair of horses 
hitched to a heavy cart became frightened, and starting suddenly, 
crushed him against the building. He died three days later. In 
one of the most beautiful country cemeteries in the state, in a 
neglected corner is the grave of "Peaselee ]\Iorrill, formerly of 
Barnstable, Mass. Departed this life January 19, 1826." There 
are no records of this family in Barnstable or Belgrade. But he 
was the father of fourteen children, of whom at least Mr. Anson 
Peaselee and Lot Myrick need no introduction to the public. 

Anson Peaselee ^lorrill, born June 10, 1803; married Rowena 
M. Richardson. He was the first Republican governor of Maine, 
1855. Elected to Congress in i860, he took his seat at the extra 
session which was convened July 4, 1861, by President Lincoln for 
means to suppress the Civil W^ar. His good friend James G. Blaine 


later succeeded to this seat. These two were pioneers in the move- 
ment to found the RepubHcan party. In 1880 he was again elected 
to the legislature; was president of the Alaine Central Railroad 
from 1 87 1 till his death, July 4, 1887. 

His daughter Rowena married Charles W. Goddard, at one time 
Justice of the Superior Court of Cumberland County. Her eldest 
son, Charles W\, Jr., is a well known playwright. Another son, 
^Morrill Goddard, was editor of Hearst's Sunday newspapers for 
some years. Anson ^I. was admitted to the bar and practiced law 
for some years at Augusta, but is now engaged in business affairs. 

Henry is an Episcopalian clergyman. There are also two sisters, 
Mrs. ^Merrill, wife of J. F. A. Merrill, the present U. S. Attorney 
General at Portland, and Mrs. W. A. Otis of Colorado Springs. 

Lot ]\Iyrick ^lorrill was born in Belgrade, Elaine, May 3, 1813. 
Admitted to the bar in 1839, member of the state legislature in 
1854. President of the Senate 1856, Governor 1857, just a year 
later than his brother's term in the same office. He was L^. S. 
Senator 1860-76, when he was appointed Secretary of Treasury 
under President Grant. He died in Augusta, iMain€, January 10, 


Another brother, Rufus, was a merchant in Dearborn Township, 
now Oakland. An expense book is preserved. by an Oakland de- 
scendant. Among the items is a bed cord at $.46 ; one nutmeg, 
$.17. Rum was as ordinary as molasses is today and about as 
expensive. At this time a hired woman's wages were $7.00 a year. 
This store founded by Rufus has never yet closed its doors to the 
public, although it has changed hands several times. 

A grandson of Peaselee (4) married in Brownfield, New Hamp- 
shire, Mary Taylor of that town, but soon came to Maine. This 
Jacob was the father of nine children, nearly all of whom have 
posterity in this state (]^Iaine). His daughter, Mary Jacob, mar- 
ried Fred Stimpson, lumberman of Aroostook County. At his 
death his daughter came into most of his lumber rights and ably 
carried on the work, being known throughout the state as the 
"Lumber Queen." Edmund, son of Jacob, was a well known inn- 
keeper of Aroostook. He married Mary Eli/:abeth Leavitt, who 
was a direct descendant of the famous Leavitts of New Hampshire 
nnd the Cottons of Massachusetts. He was agent for the state 


prison-made carriages. It was customary to leave Thomaston with 
a string of 15-30 of them behind a pair of horses going toward the 
Canadian border. The trip ended when the stock was all sold, 
sometimes at \^an Buren or Fort Kent, a nice little trip of 260-300 
miles. When my father, Lindley E., graduated from high sciiool 
it was his intention to follow a musical career, but a chance trip 
ir with the carriages for his father proved the lure of the open to be 

r irresistible; he knew the state from Thomaston to the border as 

thoroughly as his own backyard. However, he found time to con- 
tinue his musical studies and played the leading (Eb) cornet in the 
- Houlton band. One of the writer's most vivid memories of child- 
hood is the ancient blue band cap with its swinging lamp fastened to 
the visor for use on dark nights. It was made of brass and much 
the shape of a rounded bottle, the neck holding the little round wick. 
It burned kerosene. After his mother's death he removed to Bel- 
fast and was choir master of the Baptist church. He sang tenor 
in the quartette which included ^Irs. E. P. Frost, Nellie Fletcher, 
George \\'hite, of which Belfast was justly proud. He married in 
Belfast, Cecile J., daughter of Zenophon and Elizabeth Ordway. 
Her mother was a descendant of James Hinds of Salem, ^lass., 
1636, and the titled Freeman family of England; while ^Ir. Ord- 
way was also an ofifspring of an English titled family. 

Mr. Morrill was one of a family of eight children. The eldest, 
Eli, was foreman of the Boston and ]Maine repair shops at Milo. 
He died 14 years ago. Leroy E. is interested in auto manufactur- 
ing in Boston. ^linnie L. was the wife of Fred Verplast, an in- 
ventor of \\^altham, ^lass., formerly of Aroostook County. 

Jedediah (3) had a son Josiah (4) who died in Litchfield, Sep- 
tember, 1832, at the age of 95 years. He was a leading nail man- 
ufacturer when they were made by hand, and in company with his 
son, Josiah, Jr., owned the first nail-making machine east of Boston. 
Another son, Alexander Hatch, was a Free Baptist minister. 
He founded Storahs College at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia. 
His son, Frank W., is superintendent of schools in Irvington, New 

Another son settled at Hiram, Maine. Hon. Carroll Willis "Mor- 
rill of Portland is a descendant of this Josiah. 

Ebenezer (6), son of Josiah, Jr., emigrated to California. His 


brother, Hiram K., of Gardiner, editor, author, etc., was for many 
years identified with Gardiner's leading business men. He spent 
much time and money in gathering data for a complete genealogy 
of the Morrill family but died just before the work was finished. 
His son, Ernest W., is also much interested in the work. 

Another branch of Josiah Jr.'s family settled in Lewiston, and 
the old homestead at 122 Webster Street is now owned and occu- 
pied by a descendant, ^Ir. L. B. ^lorrill. Arch (Josiah, Jr.) was 
a member of the Salem Light Infantry which was detailed to re- 
ceive Lafayette in 1824. He was a blacksmith and bricklayer and 
for many years was Gardiner's leading brick manufacturer. 

Ebenezer (5), brother of Josiah, Jr., settled in \\'indham. He 
is the grandfather of Hon. White of Windham. So a summary 
of Peter's (3) descendants include three governors, a secretary of 
treasury, three congressmen, a banker, several lawyers, a play- 
wright, and several editors, besides leading business men of many 

Nicholas (2), son of John (i), had a son Robert (3) who was 
also head of an interestins: familv. His first wife died soon after 
their marriage. In 1738 he took a second wife, Patience Wey- 
mouth. There were four children by this union, and by his third 
wife, Anna (Jones), eight children. His son Timothy is the an- 
cestor of the New Hampshire and \'ermont branches, also some 
who emigrated to Connecticut. This Timothy had three children, 
Timothy, Jr., Hibbard and William. Timothy, Jr., married Jo- 
hanna Small of IMeridan, N. H. His brother Hibbard, born South 
Hampton 1759, enlisted in 1776. Severely wounded and left on 
the battlefield three days. A doctor discovered signs of life and 
ordered him removed to hospital where he recovered and eventu- 
ally lived to a ripe old age. His daughter, Betsy Morrill Spencer, 
published in 1910 a genealogv' of the New Hampshire branches, 
she being at that time 80 years of age and confined to a wheel chair 
by rheumatism. It is a very interesting book, containing a chapter 
of the early history of the family. 

The third son, William, disappeared from Moultonbow, N. H., 
about 1800, at the age of 22 years. This may be the same W^illiam 
Morrill who married in Belfast, Elaine, in 1801, Susannah Stephen- 
son of Portland. 


Joel (4), son of Robert (3), was a signer of the warrant for 
the first town meeting of EHot, ]\Iarch 8, 181 1. He Uved on his 
father's place.- His brother Nicholas was the father of Sarah, who 
married John Jordan, a Revolutionary war veteran. He served 
from jNIay 5, 1775, till Dec. 31, 1779, having spent the month of 
January, 1778, at \'alley Forge. Joel's son Jacob died in Halifax 
prison in October, 18 12. Joel, Jr., died at sea. William (5) mar- 
ried Miss Mary Emery and to him was given the homestead that 
had been built by his granfather; Samuel settled in Tuftonbon, 
N. H. ' 

Several ]\Iorrill boys were victims of the typhoid epidemic in 
1880, among them three brothers, sons of Nathan (6).' Eph E. 
(7) and his son Nathan (8), age 14, died within a month of each 
other. A second son, an infant at the time of his death, was 
drowned at Bauneg Beg two years later. One daughter married 
Edwin E. Goodwin, banker of Springvale, both of whom are now 
dead. The other daughter lives near Portland and is the wife of 
Eugene Walker. 

This Eph (7) had a brother Closes (7) who also died leaving 
two boys, George (3) and Ransom (8). The third brother, George 
(8), lived at Hudson, N. H., but came to Berwick as a nurse during 
the epidemic, also caught the fever and died. The two motherless 
children of this hero were reared by their uncle. 

Jedediah (7), known as "Jed," was a much beloved roadmaster 
on the B. & M. R. R., between Portland and Nashua, N. H. De- 
scendants live in Rochester, N. H. His brother Ephriam was also 
a railroad official but is now retired. However, his four sons have 
followed his footsteps and are all prominent railroad men. 

George, another brother, has a son who is also connected with 
the B. & M. Railroad. 

It may seem queer to some that the later generation should turn 
to railroading, but after all it is an occupation that must appeal to 
the sons of these old pioneers, with its element of danger, the life 
in the open, and the responsibilities. Whatever task a Morrill 
undertakes is sure to be well done, whether it be running a train 
of cars or a state ; writing an ordinary letter or a movie, or an 
historical work that requires almost unlimited research, or any 
other occupation. 


The records of this family can hardly be equaled, having leaders 
in politics, religion, education, manufacturing, doctors, lawyers, 
authors and editors. And always they were among the vanguard 
in whatever was chosen as a life work. 

John ( I ) was undoubtedly the largest land-owner who ever lived 
in Kittery and has given more noted men to the world than any 
other man who ever lived in the territory now known as the State 
of Maine. Quaker modesty rather than indifference has kept the 
family in the background these hundreds of years. Only recently 
have we awakened to the fact that we owe them a debt that cannot 
be paid. Surely three hundred years of leadership with almost no 
blot on any page, is a record to be proud of. It is not often equaled 
in the history of any country. 

The first reunion of the family which is to be held on the historic 
Bauneg Beg Lake this September, we hope will set a precedent that 
will last 300 years. '*]May their tribe increase." 


(Nellie Woodbury Jordan) 

The following sketch is the result of an evening of reminiscence 
with that scholarly gentleman, Orlando Leighton, concerning the 
old landmarks of the environs of our neighborhood, Long Creek, 
Stroudwater, etc. Mr. Leighton's life spans eighty odd years, and 
having been born and reared in the town of Gorham and blessed 
with a retentive memory, he is able to relate many interesting stories 
connected with the history of Gorham, Saccarappa and Portland 
sixty-five or seventy years ago. 

For a long time his father, the late Ichabod Leighton, who kept 
a store at Little Falls, served as the agent for the Cumberland and 
Oxford Canal owners, and the son, then a young man, was familiar 
with life on that quaint thoroughfare. 

The digging of this Maine ''ditch" was begun in 1820 and in 
1829 it was opened for the purpose of getting freight in and out 
of Cumberland and Oxford Counties. Factories were located at 
Harrison and Bridgtun, the products of which, together with large 
shipments of lumber and cord wood, were sent out from the inland 
towns even from X^ew Hampshire and \'ermont. Cargoes of such 


commodities as were found in the typical country grocery store of 
that day, including sugar, molasses and rum, were taken in from 

In 1856 the canal was sold to Francis O. J. Smith, a lawyer of 
Morrill's Corner, Thomas Abbott of Spring Street, a stage driver 
between Conway and Portland, and Isaac Dyer, a lumber dealer 
of Baldwin, who later moved to Portland. Lothrop Libby of 
Capisic Pond became the first agent. In a few years. Dyer and 
Abbott bought ^Ir. Smith's interest and Ichabod Leighton assumed 
the duties required of the agent. One of these made it necessary 
to drive the length of the tow-path frequently, to keep on track of 
needed repairs. 

CaT>a\ Boat ontK^^Lal^ej 

The canal was twenty or thirty feet wide and extended from the 
foot of Sebago Lake for twenty miles through Great Falls, Gambo 
Falls, Little Falls, Horse-Beef Falls (]\Iallison's), following the 
Presumpscot River to Saccarappa (Westbrook), where it swung 
off to Libby's Corner, opening into Portland Harbor on the north 
side of the present location of the Portland Gas Light Co. There 
were twenty-seven locks between Sebago Lake and Portland Har- 
bor, among them being Guard Lock at the outlet of the canal -near 
the gas works, the Seven Locks above Stroudwater, one at Little 
River in Gorham over which the canal ran in an acqueduct made 
of plank, two at Mallison's, two above Little Falls, one at Gambo, 


two at Kemp's, two at Great Falls, and Guard Lock at the outlet 
of Sebago. Boats could sail an additional thirty miles over Sebago 
Lake, up Crooked (Songo) River, and across Long Lake to 

The first boat to make the trip from Portland to Sebago was a 
pleasure craft called the ''George Washington,'' later used to trans- 
port freight, a few old timbers of which repose in the mud near 
the lower Kemp Lock. Capt. Christopher Sampson owned a boat 
of which his son took charge while he operated a steamer over 
Sebago from Chadbourne's to Harrison for the accommodation of 
passengers. ^lany people living near the canal owned and operated 



"^ V/^ 

CvO CcLYvol- 

These canal boats were about sixty feet long and ten feet wide 
and carried twenty or thirty tons. A cabin was built on the stern 
and in these small quarters lived the three or four men who made 
up the crew. They received a wage of $1.50 per day. Each boat 
had two center-boards, two masts and sails which were used when 
crossing the lakes and in the harbor. Long poles were a necessary 
part of the equipment. When the boats entered the canal the sails 
were taken down, the center-boards raised and the horse attached 
by means of a rope some sixty feet in length. The horse walked 
along the tow-path drawing the boat until the harbor was reached. 
Some of the horses used for this purpose were stabled in the barn 
of the Lake House, of which Henry and William Chadbourne were 


the proprietors. A grocery store was also a part of their business 

It usually required two days to make the trip out and two to 
return, the remainder of the week being spent in loading and un- 
loading the cargo. Occasionally a passenger was taken on board. 
Mr. Leighton recalls sailing home to spend his vacation while a 
student at Bridgton Academy. He thinks it was about 1857 that 
Nathaniel Hawthorne came into his father's store to see if he could 
engage passage in one of ]\Ir. ^lanning's boats across Sebago Lake 
to Mr. iManning's farm in Raymond. 

Frequently wash-outs after severe storms delayed the boatmen, 
as they were required to make the repairs. This often brought 
them into conflict with the log-drivers on the Presumpscot and 
lively fights ensued, causing no little excitement to the law-abiding 
citizens dwelling in the quiet towns along the banks. In the winter 
when the canal was frozen over freight went out over the roads. 

The building of the Grand Trunk Railroad injured the freight 
business on the canal and the opening of the Portland and Ogdens- 
burg dealt it a death blow. In 1870 it ceased to function as a route 
of transportation and the land involved was restored to the original 
owners without any payment of money on their part. 


(By Alice May Douglas) 

The first public building erected in Bath is still standing. This 
is known as the Erudition Schoolhouse. 

The building lot was donated by Joshan Shaw — a fair-sized lot 
on High Street, a little north of Center Street and not far from 
the Court House. The schoolhouse was erected in 1794 by Joseph 
Sewall. He was the son of Col. Dummer Sewall, who caused the 
British Red Coats to cease felling trees at King's wharf near the 
Old Couples' Home — the Sewall for whom Dum.mer Street and 
Bath D. A. R. are named. Joseph Sewall wrote an excellent his- 
tory of Bath. He was related to Arthur Sewall — the nominee for 
vice president with William Jennings Bryan the first time he was 
nominated for president. 


Wlien Bath was a young town its public services were held in 
its schoolhouse, a custom still in vogue in several places. When 
Washington died during the month of December, 1799, the news 
did not reach the province of ]\laine with the speed by which 
messages are now transmitted, and it was not until the twenty- 
second of February, 1800, that memorial services were held for 
the first president. These were held in the Erudition Schoolhouse 
and the oration was delivered by Andrew Greenwood, Esquire. 
In this building Governor King and his bride "appeared out." 

Local historians have completed a list of old-time teachers of 
this school, all of whom were men, for it took a strong hand to 
deal with the youth of pioneer days. A teacher was then called 
master and this list includes Masters Hobby, Hillard, blather, Patch, 
Manning, Jewett, Sleeper, Hall and Joshan Page. 

Master Page came to Bath in 1805 and taught school for more 
than thirty years, most of the time in the Erudition. He was a 
man of great influence and many of Bath's leading citizens in the 
days gone by were his pupils. 

In 1894 the Sagadahoc Historical Society observed the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of the erection of the old schoolhouse. Services 
were held in the building and souvenirs containing the picture of 
the building and of blaster Page were distributed. 

During the services all who had ever attended school in the old 
Erudition were asked to rise. ]\Iany arose, for this building was 
still used as a school. Among the number was Charles Davenport, 
a member of the first city government. 

^Ir. Davenport related many instances concerning the schools. 
He said that the pupils were excused from their lessons to see the 
first train of cars steaming into the place. 

A few years ago Mr. Albert H. Shaw wished to purchase of the 
city the Erudition lot upon which to build a residence. It was one 
of the finest building spots in Bath, and a good price was offered 
for it. Some of the citizens to whom the associations of the his- 
torical landmark were sacred, protested ; however, the sale was 
made and the schoolhouse moved to another street. It is now in 
the rear of the ^^lorse High School and an interesting object lesson 
it is to view the little square schoolhouse beside the High School 
structure — one of the most impressive to be found in New England. 


Here the past and present seem to meet. The scene is the more 
impressive because the ^lorse High School stands where stood the 
Page homestead, the house having been removed as well as the old 
Academy to make place for it. This spot certainly seems sacred 
to the cause of education. The Erudition was used as a primary 
school for many years. On its original site now stands one of the 
most beautiful residences of the city. 


(From Official Bulletin, 1921) 

The Maine Society mourns the recent death of its president, 
Hon. James O. Bradbury, of Saco, who assumed the office early 
in February last, and who had greatly appreciated the honor be- 
stowed upon him. Compatriot Bradbury was also the Trustee of 
the National Society for Maine. The Board of ^Managers elected, 
on June 9 last, William B. Berry, of Gardiner, to fill out the unex- 
pired term of Mr. Bradbury, and adopted appropriate resolutions 
upon his death. Compatriot Berry is a direct descendant of Lieu- 
tenant Samuel Berry, whose brother, Lieutenant Nathaniel Berry, 
was the last surviving member of George Washington's Life 
Guards. A boulder with bronze tablet of inscription suitably com- 
memorates this hero in Gardiner. 

On Saturday, September lo, at Auburn, Maine, there was un- 
veiled a beautiful tablet to the memor\' of 357 men who served in 
the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. The exer- 
cises were conducted by the Mary Dillingham Chapter, Daughters 
of the American Revolution, and was a most impressive and inter- 
esting ceremony. The address of welcome was made by ^liss 
Margaret Wilson, representing the ^lary Dillingham Chapter, and 
was responded to by Miss ^laud ^lyrick, the State Regent of ^^laine. 
Judge George C. Wing, President of the Auburn Chapter, Sons of 
the American Revolution, was the principal speaker and made an 
eloquent and patriotic address. The event was one of the most 
^significant and memorable in the history of Auburn. 




The first recorded Irish settlement in Maine was made by fami- 
lies named Kelly and Haley from Gahvay, who located on the Isles 
of Shoals about the year 1653. In 1692, Roger Kelly was a repre- 
sentative from the Isles to the General Court of Massachusetts, 
and is described in local annals as ''King of the Isles." The large 
number of islands, bays, and promontories on the Maine coast 
bearing distinctive Celtic names attests the presence and influence 
of Irish people in this section in colonial times. In 1720, Robert 
Temple from Cork brought to Elaine five shiploads of people, 
mostly from the province of ^funster. They landed at the junc- 
tion of the Kennebec and Eastern Rivers, where they established 
the town of Cork, which, however, after a precarious existence of 
only six years, was entirely destroyed by the Indians. For nearly 
a century the place was familiarly known to the residents of the 
locality as "Ireland." The records of York, Lincoln and Cum- 
berland counties contain references to large numbers of Irish 
people who settled in those localities during the early years of the 
eighteenth century. The Town Books of Georgetown, Kittery, and 
Kennebunkport, of the period 1740 to 1775, are especially rich in 
Irish names, and in the Saco A'alley numerous settlements were 
made by Irish immigrants, not a few of whom are referred to by 
local historians as "men of wealth and social standing." In the 
marriage and other records of Limerick, j\Ie., as published by the 
Maine Historical and Genealogical Recorder, in the marriage regis- 
ters of the First Congregational Church of Scarborough, and in 
other similarly unquestionable records, I find a surprisingly large 
number of Irish names at various periods during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. In fact, there is not one town in the 
province that did not have its quota of Irish people, who came 
either direct from Ireland or migrated from other sections of New 

The records of New Hampshire and Rhode Island are also a 
fruitful source of information on this subject, and the provincial 
papers indicate an almost unbroken tide of Irish immigration to 
this section, beginning as early as the year 1640. One of the most 


noted of Exeter's pioneer settlers was an Irishman named Darby 
Field, who came to that place in 1631 and who has been credited 
by Governor ^\'inthrop as "the first European who witnessed the 
White ^lountains." He is also recorded as "an Irish soldier for 
discovery," and I find his name in the annals of Exeter as one of 
the grantees of an Indian deed dated A_pril 3, 1638, as well as 
several other Irish names down to the year 1664. I^i examining- 
the town registers, gazeteers, and genealogies, as well as the local 
histories of Xew Hampshire, in which are embodied copies of the 
original entries made by the town clerks, I find numerous refer- 
ences to the Irish pioneers, and in many instances they are written 
down, among others, as "the first settlers." Some are mentioned 
as selectmen, town clerks, representatives, or colonial soldiers, and 
it is indeed remarkable that there is not one of these authorities 
that I have examined, out of more than two hundred, that does not 
contain Irish names. From these Irish pioneers sprang many men 
who attained prominence in Maine and Xew Hampshire, in the 


legislature, the professions, the military, the arts and crafts, and 
in all departments of civil life, down to the present time. In the 
marriage registers of Portsmouth, Boscawen. Xew Boston, Antrim, 
Londonderry, and otlier X"ew Hampshire towns, are recorded, in 
some cases as early as 17 16, names of Irish persons, with the places 
of their nativity, indicating that they came from all parts of Ire- 
land. At Hampton, I find Humphrey SulHvan teaching school in 
1714, while the name of John Sullivan from Limerick, schoolmaster 
at Dover and at Berwick, Me., for upwards of fifty years, is one 
of the 'most honored in early Maine and X^ew Hampshire history. 
This John Sullivan was surely one of the grandest characters in 
the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, and the record of his descend- 
ants serves as an all-sufficient reply to the anti-Irish prejudices of 
some American historians. He was the father of a governor of 
New Hampshire and of a governor of Massachusetts; of an attor- 
ney-general of X'^ew Hampshire and of an attorney-general of 
Massachusetts; of Xew Hampshire's only major-general in the 
Continental army; of the first judge appointed by Washington in 
New Hampshire ; and of four sons who were officers in the Con- 
tinental army. He was grandfather of an attorney-general of New 
Hampshire, and of a L'nited States Senator from New Hampshire. 


He was great-grandfather of an attorney-general of New Hamp- 
shire, and great-great-grandfather of an officer in the Thirteenth 
New Hampshire Regiment in the Civil War. 

:Michael J. O'Brien ("The Irish in the United States") in "The Glories of 
Ireland," by Dunn and Lennox. (Pheonix. AVashingrton. D. C, 1914). For a 
sketch of the SuUivans in :Maine, see Sprague's Journal, vol. 7, pp. 170-187. 


(By the Editor) 

We presume that every generation of people enjoy recalling at 
times the odd and peculiar "characters'' who lived in the long ago 
and are known to those who talk of their peculiarities and eccen- 
tricities only through tradition-stories which have been handed 
down from grandfather to grandson. 

Recently a few such congenial spirits who love reflections of this 
sort. hap)pened to foregather in the sanctum of the editor of the 
Journal. Thirty years ago the late Deacon Charles H. B. Wood- 
hury, Alexander ^I. Robinson and Orman Brown of Dover, and 
Augustus G. Lebroke of Foxcroft each had a wonderful fund of 
humorous tales of the early settlers of Piscataquis County, their 
strange doings and startling idiosyncrasies. 

Some could remember some of these and they were retold and 
talked over. 

Former Congressman Frank E. Guernsey contributed the fol- 
lowing : 

Nearly three-quarters of a century ago one "Elder" Bartlett, an 
upright "elder" in the Free \\'ill Baptist Church, and long a resi- 
dent of Dover, and storekeeper in what is now L'^nion Square, and 
prominent in village matters, whose high character and honesty 
were never questioned, held odd views as to regularity. 

In the course of traffic as a country storekeeper he handled many 
horses. His son usually was the visible and active agent in these 
horse transactions, particularly when they were being disposed of, 
although the elder would appear frequently at the psychological 
moment, particularly if a balky, a wind-broken or kicking horse 
was to be disposed of, and say in a very loud and imperative voice, 
"Smith, don't you trade off the old gray mare. You know your 
mother likes to ride behind a good horse." 

The elder was in the habit of using in his store measures that 



were small at the top and large at the bottom. If a customer 
noticed that the elder did not empty quite all of the molasses from 
the measure and ventured to call attention to it, the honest elder 
would say, "Well, there was just about that amount in the measure 
before,"* which of course was a very satisfactory and conclusive 
reason for not draining it to the bottom for his inquisitive customer. 
Like other storekeepers in those days he dealt in New England 
rum. He filled the jugs of his customers in the course of trade, 
and as a man was departing with a supply of rum and was near 
the door the elder would say, "I suppose that it is for sickness?" 
"O, yes," the customer would shout back as he went through the 
door, and the elder would say, "It is well that it was, for if it hadn't 
been you wouldn't have got it." 


Captain Christopher Jones of the Mayflower 

At the Mayflower Congress held at Plymouth, September 6, 192 1, 
Deputy Governor General Asa P. French delivered an able and 
entertaining address of welcome to the delegates there assembled, 
from which we make the following excerpt : 

"!May I digress for a moment to remind you that there is one 
individual, to whom our ancestors were greatly beholden, whose 
memory and claim upon our gratitude seem to have been completely 
overlooked. In the countless paneg}'rics which have been written 
and delivered concerning the Forefathers themselves, nobody, so 
far as I know, has ever turned aside for an instant to pay a deserv- 
ing tribute to Christopher Jones. Some of you, no doubt, are quite 
unfamiliar with the name of Jones in this connection, but it was 
a Jones who steered our forebears to Plymouth. No gleam of 
intelligence illumines your upturned countenances as I refer to him. 
It is only the careful student of history, like Brother Bowman and 
myself, who knows that Jones was the much disparaged master of 
the Mayflower, and that he was accused of accepting bribes from 
the Dutch to keep away from Manhattan and the Hudson, and of 
all kinds of treachery- and deceit, by his contemporaries as well as 
by posterity. But his title to our respect and gratitude rests upon 



the fact that he was a sufficiently courageous man and skilful navi- 
gator to transport our honored ancestors over here in safety; other- 
wise our very existence would have been at least problematical. 
Nor should it be forgotten that to this same alleged treachery and 
deceit we are indebted for the fact that the memorable landing 
was made here rather than at Coney Island. Imagine Plymouth 
Rock at Luna Park ! But I will not further dilate upon the cir- 
cumstance. For this accomplishment, Jones should be rehabilitated 
and reparation made to his damaged memory before it is too late. 
We are discovering all kinds of pleasant things in these days about 
the ogres of history; for example, I heard it stated by somebody 
not long ago, that it is all a mistake that Nero was playing a fiddle 
while Rome burned. As a matter of fact, it seems that he was 
playing the hose, — which was quite a different and credible thing, 
under the circumstances." 


* (Julia Tuttle Lewis) 

Canaan probably had more separate settlements and names than 
any other town in the state. Pooduck is a familiar name to nearly 
ever^'body whose memory goes back that far, and some of the 
others are Slab City, Brown's Corner, Moore's ^lill. Pirate Lane, 
Lake George and The Notch. x\lso Canaan Village was for many 
years known as "Tuttle's Mills." It was settled about the year 
1800 by sons of Ebenezer Tuttle and his first wife (Mary Grant), 
whose homestead was on Beech Ridge at Doughty's Falls (North 
Berwick) near her residence of some twenty years ago. About 
1808 he, with his second wife (Sarah Nason) and a numerous 
brood of little ones, moved to Canaan and pitched his tent perma- 
nently there. At one time more than 50 of his descendants hved 
in that pleasant and busy village. In time the territory of the town 
was greatly diminished by cutting it off for the towns of Skow- 
hegan and Bloomfield. 

Nearly all the original settlers of ancient Canaan went there from 
Wells, Berwick and York. Jeremiah Goodwin, uncle of Captain 
George Goodwin of Wells, and Thomas Chase, also of Wells, 


erected the first sawmill in Canaan, about the year 1801. Canaan 
is located on both banks of the Carrabasset Stream, which had its 
source in Sibley's Pond, a large sheet of water bounded by Canaan, 
Pittsfield and Hartland, and emptying into the Kennebec River 
above Pishon's Ferry. The soil of Canaan is productive and its 
scenery of hill, dale and grove is picturesque and beautiful. 


Honorable George C. ^^ ing, Jr., of Auburn, contributes the fol- 
lowing resolve to the Journal and writes as follows regarding it : 

The Honorable Daniel J. ^IcGillicuddy, formerly a member of 
Congress from this district, a lover of history and of the recondite, 
has called my attention to Chapter 55 of the Resolves of the Six- 
teenth Legislature of the State of Maine, held in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-six. 

In the year 1836 Robert F. Dunlap was Governor, Jonathan 
Cilley was Speaker of the House of Representatives, Josiah Pierce 
was President of the Senate, John Holmes sat as a Representative 
from Alfred, Hannibal Hamlin sat as a Representative from 

At the next session of the Legislature in 1837, Mr. Dunlap was 
again Governor but Air. Hamlin was Speaker of the House of 
Representatives. Evidently at this time he was not the Abolition- 
ist that he afterwards became. 

You can easily see the resolve endorses State Rights and the 
institution of slavery. It was the result of the labors of a Joint 
Select Committee to whom was referred the message of the Gov- 
ernor, communicating the Report and Resolutions of the Legis- 
latures of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and 
Virginia on the incendiary proceedings of the Abolitionists in the 
non-slaveholding states. 

It occurs to me that when we prate of our moral virtues w^e 
would do well to delve into the past, because it often appears that 
we are not as virtuous as we would seem. 


Resolve relating to the discussion of Slavery in the State of Maine. 

Approved March 22, 1836. 

Resolved, That the L'nited States Government is a Government 
of enumerated Hmited and defined powers all which are set forth 
in the Constitution ; and that all powers not granted in that instru- 
ment are reserved to the States or to the People. 

Resolved, That the power of regulating Slavery within the con- 
fines of a State was not granted, and therefore does not exist in 
the General Government. 

Resolved, That excepting so far as they are united for certain 
and defined purposes, the States forming the confederacy of the 
United States, are with respect to each other distinct and sovereign 
States, each having a separate and independent Government the 
action of which under the limitations of the Constitution of the 
United States, and within the confines of the State, is not to be 
questioned by any power save the people of that State; and that 
any interference by a State or by the inhabitants of a State, with 
the domestic concerns of another State, tends to break up the com- 
promises, and disturb the harmony of the L^nion, and should be 
discountenanced by every good citizen. 

Resolved, That in ]Maine the discussion of the question of the 
abolition of Slavery having been arrested by the decided expression 
of public disapprobation, and no abolition paper being printed with- 
in the borders of the State, legislation on the subject is inexpedient. 

Resolved, That the Governor be requested to forward a copy of 
this Report and these Resolutions to the Executives of North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Virginia, and to the 
Executive of each of the other States with a request that they be 
communicated to their respective Legislatures. 

Maine Peace Society in 1820 

President, Samuel Freeman. 
Vice-President, Mathew Cobb. 
Treasurer, Stephen Longfellow, Jr. 
Corresponding Secretary. Simon Greenleaf. 
Recording Secretary, Charles T. Davies. 

Trustees, Rev. Ichabod Nichols, Rev. Edward Payson, Prentiss 
Millen, Levi Cutter. 



Culled from Elaine Newspapers 

At a session of the Supreme Judicial Court in Skowhegan, Sep- 
tember 22, 1921, under the direction of Associate Justice Warren 
C. Philbrook, 15 aliens were naturalized as American citizens. 

The new citizens were presented with small American flags by 
Mrs. Mabel C. Judkins, representing Eunice Farnsworth Chapter, 
•Daughters of the American Revolution. 

The Portland Sunday Telegram says : 

With approximately 3,500 Catholic pupils entering upon their 
school duties in Portland, interest becomes focused upon the paro- 
chial and Catholic school system of the city, which in turn is the 
center of a group of important educational institutions. 

This system includes St. Joseph's Academy and College, in 
Deering, the only college for women in the state, which is con- 
ducted by Sisters of ]\Iercy ; the King's Academy on State Street, 
an exclusive day school for girls, St. Louis' Home and school at 
Dunstan, for orphan boys, the Catholic Institute and Boys' High 
School, on Free Street, and the parochial schools of the several 
parishes, the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, St. Dom- 
inic's, Sacred Heart and St. Joseph's. 

The history of the City's parochial schools dates back to 1865. 
The first permanent school was St. Dominic's. In 1877 the school 
begun by Bishop David \\'illiam Bacon was completed by Bishop 
James Augustine Healy at a cost of $23,000. It was named Kav- 
anagh in honor of Miss Kavanagh, a sister of Governor Edward 
Kavanagh of Maine, and it remains a monument to the sterling 
Catholic principles of the Kavanagh family. It is located on Con- 
gress Street, near the Cathedral. In a preface to Henry W\ Long- 
fellow's prose work, entitled Kavanagh, reference to the school is 
made as follows : "The name Kavanagh is that of an old Catholic 
family of Elaine, now extinct, and is perpetuated by this book and 
by a school in Portland called the Kavanagh school." 

The opening of the Kavanagh School Annex will be the special 
event which will mark the beginning of the present school year. 
This building was necessitated by the crowded conditions in the 


Kavanagh school and it has been built witli a view of extension 
and enlargement should it be necessary, the plans of the architect 
providing for such a contingency. It is a fine brick building which 
is as modern in every respect as anything in present day school 
construction. Although the ground was not broken for building 
until last June, the school is ready for occupancy on ]Monday, even 
in the matter of such details as pictures and other decorations, all 
of which are in place. 

All tliese institutions are knit together by the local Catholic 
school system, under the direction of Rt. Rev. Louis S. \\'alsh, 
D. D., Bishop of Portland, who in his ministry has been actively 
identified with various educational movements and has long been 
recognized as an authority in such matters. 

Illiteracy in Maine 

According to the census of 1920 there are 20,240 illiterate per- 
sons ten years of age and over in the State of Elaine, ''illiterate" 
meaning unable to write in any language. Of this number 5,106 
are native whites of native parentage, 3,290 are of foreign or mixed 
parentage, and 11,604 ^re of foreign birth. The number of illiterate 
Negroes is 64. In the total population ten years of age and over 
the percentage of illiteracy is 3.3, which shows a slight decrease 
since 1910, when it was 4.1. 

There is less illiteracy in the rural districts of the state than in 
the cities, the percentages being 3.1 for the rural population and 
3.5 for the urban; the dift'erence is doubtless due to the large num- 
ber of foreign-born in the cities. For the native white population 
of native parentage the urban percentage of illiteracy is 0.5, while 
the rural is 1.6. 

By counties the percentage of illiteracy ranges from 9.9 in Aroos- 
took county to 0.3 in Hancock county. 

A Ser^iox by Radio 

The following Item may not appear at all strange to those of 
■ our readers who may peruse it a centurv' hence, but in this year of 
Our Lord, 1921, the feat of this talented clerg>^man seems nearly 


We in Maine yet claim Dr. Martin as one of our own people. 
He, was born in Guilford in the County of Piscataquis and lived 
there during his childhood, school and college days, and well into 
his young manhood. 

He was the son of the late Otis Alartin, long sheriff of this 
county, who always was a leading and well-known citizen of Guil- 

To Rev. George A. Martin of Springfield, Mass., a native of 
Guilford, belongs the distinction of preaching the first radio sermon 
from the largest station in New England. The following clipping 
from the Springfield Republican of October 3rd gives the par- 
ticulars. In a letter to his folks at home here, Dr. ]\Iartin states 
that he has since learned that his sermon was heard as far away 
as Pittsburg and other places in Pennsylvania, in Long Island and 
in Boston. He also received word from a man in Hartford, Conn., 
an official of the Hartford Lumber Co. and a member of the Meth- 
odist Church, that he had the pleasure of listening to Dr. ]\Iartin's 
sermon in Hartford and received it all as clearlv as if he had been 
in the same building. 

Radio stations throughout New England were turned into 
churches last e\ening when the government station at the \\^esting- 
house sent out a complete church service. Rev. George A. Martin, 
pastor of the A\'esley Alethodist Episcopal Church, preached a ser- 
mon into the radiophone transmitter at the W'estinghouse station. 

At all available stations throughout the city groups of people 
listened while Miss Gray, John F. ]\Iarsh and Mr. Devoe sang 
hymns into the W'estinghouse phone. Listeners bowed their heads 
in prayer that came to them from far away. Concerts have been 
conducted by radio telephone from the W'estinghouse for some 
time, but this is the first time a religious service has been trans- 

Every word of Dr. ^lartin's sermon was distinctly heard at the 
station on Orleans Street, where 10 or 12 radio club men "went 
to church." *T am speaking to men and women whom I may never 
see," said Dr. Martin. "My voice is just a voice in the night, but 
as I send out this message, I want to be remembered not only as 
a messenger, but as a bearer of a great truth, that God is love." He 
concluded with a prayer. 


A closing hymn was sung by the trio, and "A\'hispering Hope" 
was transmitted from the \'ictrola which Taylor's ^lusic Company 
has lent the station for its experimental and concert work. 

The church service will be sent out every Sunday evening from 
the \\*estinghouse, which is the largest radio station in Xew Eng- 
land. According to A. F. Fuller, publicity manager of the station, 
Springfield is soon to be made a radio worker. 

Next Sunday evening the South Congregational Church service 
will be sent out and Dr. Soule, assistant pastor of the church, will 
preach. The usual concerts will be given on ^Monday, ^^'ednesday 
and Friday evenings. 

Radio stations in Springfield are making rapid headway sending 
messages direct as far as Calrendon, Vs.. Relays as far as San 
Francisco have been successfullv transmitted and confirmed. 

Pulp Consumption and Maine 

Recent figures showing the consumption of pulp-wood in Elaine 
go to prove again how imperative is the need for reforestation on 
cut-over lands here in this country. Canada is supplying our needs 
to a large extent today. But her resources are not unlimited. ]\Iore- 
over there are excellent reasons whv our eastern mills should not 
be moved to the West Coast or Alaska. 

The figures show that 35 mills in Maine consumed in 1920 a total 
of 1,389,495 cords of pulp wood, at a total cost of 329,297,353. The 
total consumption of the United States was 6,114,072 cords, valued 
at $ii6',495,720, and Maine ranks first in both the quantitv' and the 
value of the wood consumed. 

The United States in that year, however, Imported $85,000,000 
worth of news print paper, $89,000,000 worth of wood pulp, and 
$28,000,000 worth of pulp wood to operate its paper mills, while 
in 1918 the importation of Canadian pulp wood was only $14,- 

The detailed figures for Maine which are thus made available 
through the cooperation of the paper industry and the Federal 
Forest Service, show a total of thirty-five establishments in Maine 
using pulp wood, and of the wood consumed 1,019,495 *cords 
were domestic spruce and 93,581 cords imported spruce. Over 


138,000 cords of domestic poplar were used, and 61,585 cords of 
balsam fir, hemlock, basswood, beech, birch and maple were used 
in comparatively small quantities. There was imported 54,280 
cords of poplar. 

The utilization of this wood was distributed as follows : Mechan- 
ical pulp, 444,316 cords; sulphite, 690,035 cords; soda, 209,579 
cords ; and 44,765 by the sulphate process. 

In comparison with previous years, it is found that the propor- 
tion of imported spruce used in Maine fell off in 1920, but its use 
increased in New York, Pennsylvania and Alichigan. The greatest 
increase in usage is shown by Alaine, which leads in the production 
of sulphite pulp. Importations serve to bring the cost of wood in 
Maine higher than non-importing states. 

A Houlton dispatch dated July 23, 1821, says: 

The value of beavers to some sections is just becoming apparent. 
The report of Special W^arden D. L. Cummings of Houlton brings 
out the worth of beavers in stopping forest fires and also in saving 
the lives of fish in sections where complaints have been made of 
the alleged depredations of beavers. 

"On Wednesday, June 29, the fire I visited on the centre line of 
Township 7, Range 4, is around a beaver pond of about three acres, 
giving them plenty of water," says Warden Cummings in his report. 

"The brook the beaver pond is on is dry above and below the 
pond," continues the report. 

"Lots of little trout died in these small brooks that are so nearly 
dried up and some quite so. 

"The big fire on Township 7, Range 3, on the northwest side of 
the railroad, the first of June, was also checked by a string of 
beaver ponds a mile long on Township 7, Range 4, in an alder 
swamp. It gave the fire fighters a chance to get it under control. 
It is on the same ground about which complaints have been made 
•about the beavers and some wanted it opened to trapping. The 
beavers were doing no harm whatever. 

"The beavers on these wild lands should never be exterminated." 

■^■i <'■ .. 


This Department is open to con- Conducted by Augustus O. 
tributions from all teachers and Thomas, State Superintendent of 
pupils. Schools, Augusta, Me. 


(From "One Hundred Years of Statehood and One Hundred Leading Facts") 

The teacher should assist pupils who are undertaking history 
projects to make a book in which to record their work. This book 
may be simple and inexpensive. It may be made of wrapping 
paper, or out of ordinary brown paper, even the rough wrapping 
paper from the store, cut into even sheets and pasted or tied to- 
gether at the margin. Make sure the booklet contains a sufficient 
number of leaves to accommodate the project. Kodak pictures, 
pictures clipped from newspapers and magazines, drawings, maps, 
etc., should be carefully preserved. They should be put together 
in systematic order and labeled or described so that the pupils will 
have complete and consecutive grouping of their source materials. 
Present-day affairs and conditions should not be forgotten. A por- 
tion of the children may be detailed to gather current information 
and data; a map should be required; the chief centers and roads 
should be marked; railroads, trolley lines and highways should be 
carefully traced out; Kodak pictures of streets, buildings, public 
places, churches and schools should be made. Industries in which 
the people are engaged should be illustrated. If in an agricultural 
community, photographs of the farmers at work, haying, potato 
culture, dairying, etc., may be illustrated. If manufacturing is 
carried on, this should be written up and illustrated ; the number 
of churches, their pastors, the number of school buildings, the 
number of children in schools, the location of the railway and 
trolley stations, the town hall and post office should be given; the 
sports in which children engage ; the history of the town relative 
to the recent war should find a place; a roll of honor containing 
the names of the boys who joined the colors ; a list of the members 
of the American Legion ; home organizations for the improvement 
of the national welfare while at war should be recorded. 


The Journal of Education in a recent number says : "L. D. 
Williams, superintendent. Rum ford Falls, Me., has few equals any- 
where in the United States, when it comes to the creation of the 
new school life. In his citv there is no select few, no elect 'nine' 
on the diamond, or elect 'eleven' on the gridiron to get all the exer- 
cise or all the glory while the ninety and nine do the shouting. 
At the State Association meeting at Portland his schools put on 
a recreation demonstration unsurpassed anywhere." 


While fancy lulled me in her arms 

And brought me to sleep's brink, 
I dreamed my pupils said to me : 

''Please teach us how to think. '^ 

"We are not merely cockatoos 

That simply imitate ; 
God gave us all an intellect 

That you can educate. 

"We've had too much of mem'ry work 

That gives us little thought. 
Lead us along those mental paths 

With striking problems fraught." 

Before I left the land of dreams 
That borders on earth's brink, 
I vowed unto the Lord above 
To teach my class to think. 

— Mary Christina Austin in North American 


Mrs. Percy V. Pennybacker, ex-President General Federation of 
Women's Clubs, is reported by the Journal of Education to have 
said: "If I were called upon to single out the one respect in which 


we Americans err most in our judgment of the immigrant who 
comes to us, I should say this : 'We assume the attitude that 
America has everything to give and nothing to receive from the 
foreign-born.' In reahty, every immigrant comes bearing gifts in 
his hand if we were only wise enough to see these gifts and to 
make use of them. Every nation of the old world has traditions, 
art, skill in handicraft, love of beauty in form, music and poetry, 
that would enrich our national life." 


(From the Syracuse Post-Standard) 

The board of education of Xew York has received repeated com- 
plaints that the textbooks in American history in use in the schools 
are pro-British or anti-British. A committee has gone over four 
textbooks against which objections were made and has made recom- 
mendations, which are not made public, doubtless because the com- 
mittee does not want a new shower of objections, founded more 
upon racial prejudice than upon desire to get the facts straight for 
the minds of pupils. 

The rule for writing American history for schools and colleges 
and for the reading of patriotic Americans and unreconciled aliens 
is simple, although it is not always easy to follow. The rule is to 
tell the truth, without unfair emphasis or exaggeration. 


(By Gladys E. Dow, Dover, [Maine) 

(First Prize Declamation Read at Colbv College Centennial Commencement, 


Banked on the west by mountains — snowtipped from early Octo- 
ber to May; bounded on the north by giant forests of hemlock, 
spruce and pine; embraced on the south and east by the mighty 
waters of the Atlantic, is Maine. How fit the setting for this gem 
of States— Maine, the Pine Tree State. 

The poet philosopher says : 

*Tf a man can write a better book, preach a better sermon, or 


make a better mouse trap than his neighbor, though he build his 
house in the woods the world will make a beaten path to his door.'* 

So because Maine has unparalleled beauty and art, though she 
has built her home in the woods the world is making a beaten path 
to her door. Her walls are the ever changing skies of silver, grey, 
gold, blue, and her canopy the dome of heaven itself. 

But who comes down that beaten path and why? 

From littered, busy offices whose grim cold walls say "work" — 
they come. And those who are sick in body — come and here in 
Maine find rest in the lapping of the waves upon the shores, and 
here the whiffs of pine balsam in the winds that fan them serve 
in the place of artificial tonics. 

-The friendless and the lonely come and find here the near pres- 
ence, and everlasting friendship of the hills, the mountains and sea. 

The frenzied financier, lost in the depths of our pine woods to 
his world of grafters and parasitic friends, finds here the truth of 
Robert Service's lines : ^ 

"Somehow life's not what he tho't it 
And somehow the gold isn't all." • 

And those who are weary in soul ; who perhaps have lost the 
fact of God — far from the maelstrom and rush of city life beside 
our tinkling, babbling brooks have found God a music of "cello- 
tones and satiny-violins." 

So up to Elaine they come — those tired in body, mind and soul — 
over the beaten path to the door of this great clearing house for 

- Great men, and great writers, have more adequately expressed 
how they — the lovers of ]\Iaine — remember her. 

Walter Emerson in his book, "The Latch String," says : 

"Maine is more than a state of potentialities, it is one of vivid 
realities. It arrived centuries ago and is still here. And here it 
will ever remain with its one great asset undisturbed by fluctuations 
in Wall Street, independent of the legislation of a great nation, 
unaffected by the rise or fall of any party. A stock-ticker would 
look very strange on the shores of Parmachene and no election 
can ever take the tonic out of the salt sea air. Give me a humble 
worm and a shady pool, or a fair breeze with everything set, and 
I count the rest of the world well lost." 


And Kipling knew, too, for he seems to have caught the spirit 
of the deep Elaine woods when he wrote : 

"Do you know the blackened timber — do ^'oy know that racing 
stream — 
With the raw, right-angled log-jam at the end; 
With the bar of sun- warmed shingle where a man may bask and 
To the click of shod canoe-poles round the bend? 

"It is there that we are going with our rods, and reels and traces, 
To a silent, smoky Indian that we know — 
To a couch of new-peeled hemlock with the starlight in our faces, 
For the Red Gods call us out, and we must go." 
It was Thoreau — the pioneer of summer guests — who first heard 

the call of the Red Gods, and on the banks of one of those racing 

streams spent so many summers of his life — and this is what he 

writes : 

"In the far-off }^Iaineland where still wave the virgin forests of 
the new world is the country of evergreen trees, of mossy silver 
birches, and watery maples, the ground dotted with insipid red 
berries and strewn with damp and moss-grown rocks — a country 
diversified with innumerable lakes, and rapid streams, peopled with 
trout; the forest resounding at rare intervals with the note of the 
chickadee, the blue] ay, the scream of the fish-hawk, the laugh of 
the loon, and the whistle of the ducks along the solitary streams, 
and such is the home of the moose, the deer, and the beaver. But 
who shall describe the immortal life of the green forest? What a 
place to live, what a place to die and be buried in !" 

When Spring trips over the hills in ^^laine, Maine's own sons and 
daughters hang out the latch key, and welcome these other lovers 
to Maine. We rejoice at these words of Kipling, Emerson, and 
Thoreau, that seem like bread-and-butter letters of guests returned 
to their own homes after their summer vacation, but do we not 
feel that we've a secret to thwart the poet's philosophy, for the 
world has not yet made a beaten path on snowshoes to our door 
in winter with the icicles all about it — and our winters are indeed 
the most beautiful in scenic and health-restoring values of any in 
this hemisphere. 

Yes, Maine has many lovers with the coming of Spring, but with 


the tinting crimson of the first maples and the nervous sighing of 
the October wind, duty calls them, and we, Maine's sons and daugh- 
ters, alone have the privilege of sharing her winter grandeur. 
She shares with us the wondrous silence of her first snowfall among 
the great pines ; and thrills us with ecstasy as on skates we skim 
her crystal lakes now bound with ice ; she thunders at our very 
souls with her winter storm-mad breakers from the Atlantic upon 
her bold and rocky coasts. 

In Summer and Winter she is ours — what a gift from the Cre- 
ator ! And we who know her best love her best — and this is the 
cry of many of her lovers : 

**0, Maine, your wistful cragg}' arms to me 
You ope invitingly and bid me rest 
My fretful soul by leaning on thy breast. 
I cannot stay, for I'm the sea, the sea. 

**0, Maine, your peaks are veiled in mystery, 
And purple mist their tempting lips enshrouds. 
But witchingly they smile to us — the clouds 
That round their lonely heights float lazily. 

"O, Maine, I'm not so strong as is the sea 
Whose fearless passion throbs upon the shore, 
Nor am I high like clouds — untrammeled, free, 
That I may kiss thy peaks sublime before 
I rest ; I'm just a maid. But, ]\Iaine, I'm kin 
To thee — to them — ah, ope ! and take me in !" 

A little lesson in Elaine geography might be : 
I. How many counties in Maine? 
Which is the largest in territory? 
Which the largest in population? 
What is the highest mountain? 
The largest lake? 
The largest river? 
Where is Monhegan Island? 
What two rivers join in Merrymeeting Bay? 










Nathaniel Parker ^Villis 


Among the early Maine writers and authors of note, no one is 
more worthy of study today than Nathaniel Parker \Mllis. He 
was born in Portland, Jan. 20, 1806, and died at Idlewild-on- 
Hudson, Jan. 20, 1867. He was poet, prose writer and a news- 
paper man. That brilliant writer, Fanny Fern — Grata Payson 
Willis — was his sister, born in Portland, July 9, 181 1. 

Chambers' English Literature ('Vol. 7, p. 88) says of !Mr. Willis: 
"Nathaniel Parker Willis (1806- 1867) was a prolific and popular 
American writer, who excelled in light descriptive sketches. He 
commenced as an author in 1827 with a volume of fugitive pieces, 
which w^as well received, and was followed in 183 1 and 1835 by 
two volumes of similar character. In 1835 he published two vol- 
umes of prose, 'Pencilings by the Way,' which formed agreeable 
reading, though censurable on the score of personal disclosures 
invading the sanctity of private life. On this account, Willis was 
sharply criticised and condemned by Lockhart in the 'Quarterly 


Review/ Numerous other works of the same kind — 'Inklings of 
Adventure' (1836), 'Dashes of Life' (1845), 'Letters from Water- 
ing-places' (1849), 'People I Have ]Met' (1850), etc., were thrown 
off from time to time, amounting altogether to thirty or forty sepa- 
rate publications; and besides this constant stream of authorship, 
Mr. Willis was editor of the 'New York Mirror' and other periodi- 
cals. Though marred by occasional affectation, the sketches of 
Willis are light, graceful compositions." 

His grandfather, Nathaniel Willis, was a literary man of renown 
in his day. He founded the Recorder in Boston, which was later 
the Congregationalist ; the Youth's Companion, and in 1803 the 
Eastern Argus. Nathaniel Parker was also at one time one of 
its editors. 

We cannot refrain from here observing that in our opinion it 
was almost a crime for men nearly a century and a quarter later 
to purchase this venerable newspaper and destroy its historic name. 


(From Bansror Whig- and Courier, July 15, 1861) 

James G. Blaine, Leonard Andrews, Frederick Robie, J. S. Hay- 
ford, John B. Marrow, Edwin Five, Jacob C. Smith, Christopher 
Prince, T. Harmon, S. P. Strickland, Eugene Hale, W. B. Snell, 
A. B. Farwell, Ozias Blanchard, J. M. Levermore, E. Woodbury. 


Androscoggin, E. T. Luce; Aroostook, Albion T. Ha\^vood; 
Cumberland, Samuel J. Anderson; Franklin, Luther Curtis; Han- 
cock, Samuel K. Whitney ; Kennebec, B. A. G. Fuller ; Knox, I. G. 
Allen; Lincoln, John H. Kennedy; Oxford, Mark P. Smith; Penob- 
scot, Nathaniel Wilson ; Piscataquis, Paul S. Merrill ; Sagadahoc, 
Lemuel Brown; Somerset, Albert Moore; Waldo, George B. ^^loore; 
Washington, A. F. Parlin ; York, J. O. Mclntire. 


In a visit to the historic town of Thomaston, Maine, during the 
past summer. Dr. Crockett introduced the editor of the Journal to 



Mrs. Mary Simpson of that town, who has some interesting Knox 
relics. Among them is a mirror and a cradle handed down directly 
from the Knox family. 

She also has an original letter from Lucy Knox to her husband, 
General Henry Knox, never before published as ^Irs. Simpson 
informed us, as follows : 

Boston July 2nd i/// 
My Dearest Dear friend — 

I have received yours of the 21st and 23rd of June by Mr Turner, 
but your expressions of tenderness and assurances of affection are 
very very pleasing — biit My Henry think of my disappointment 
after having flattered me with the dear hope of seeing you, in so 
short a time, you write me you are not coming and do not say a 
word to encourage me that I shall ever see you again, I am un- 
happy my love, but that I have told you so often I fear it loses its 
weight, to spend this fall and winter as I did the last I cannot will 

not think of if vou wish me too, vou do not love me I 

rejoice that the enemy have quited Xew Jersey as my fears of a 
general field battle are in some degree abated by it — am very 
anxious to hear what their next plan is, think I am wicked enough 
to hope may be in X England — we had an alarm here last evening 
- — signals being made at X^antasket, for an enemys fleet, you would 
have laughed to have seen the important Committee men bustling 
about the streets — it proved only three ships who came as far as 
Xahant rocks — and made off again — for my part I cannot see what 
is to prevent them comeing up to the town, whenever they chose 

I hope 'before this your waggon has reached you and hope the 
contents may be agreeable to you — the coat I think very elegant — 
I send Genl Greene with Bettys baggage the stocks you wrote for — 
which I am ashamed to say — cost thirteen Dollars — I should be 
pleased if in return for my presents you should send me a suit of 
muslin worked by the nuns at Bethelem, with some patterns for 
shoes. I know you can procure them if you try . . . 

My little Lucy is playing about the room, and now is asking for 
a kiss comes tottling to me and holds up her sweet mouth. Can 
anything be more pleasing — no more — Mrs Sears is one of my 
greatest intimates. I dine there once a week at least, and am very 
happy in her acquaintance — Wm proposes to sett of on ^londay 
next for the camp I fear his health is not sufficiently established 


to endure such a journey, but he will not be persuaded to to defer 
it — I shall miss him not a little. ... 

if any thing offers before the post goes I will give you another 
line in the morning if not farewell for this time my hearts best 
treasure — 

Thursday morning July 3rd 

tho I have nothing to communicate worth your attention yet I 
resume my pen — no news by the post last evening, they are very 
tedious in their riding — I wish something could be done to hasten 
them — for I am sure tis indolence and that only — Col Griffin tells 
me there is a !Mrs Poland at camp, or near it who will not be per- 
suaded to leave her husband, he is in the light horse — Genl Greene 
has wrote Livingston that he will be obliged to him to bring Mrs 
Greene — I mean this for nothing more than articles of intelligence. 

Adieu My Love may angels guard you — 

(Signed) Lucy Knox 


Again the Bells of Memory 

Are calling home to Maine, 
Her children, scattered far and near, 

O'er forest, hills and plain. 

They ring so sweetly in our ears. 

Those softly chiming bells. 
They bring us back o'er hills and dales 

To those we love so well. 

No spot on earth however fair 

Can rival smiling ]\Iaine, 
She waits to greet you, one and all, 

Her loved ones, once again. 

Her wondrous forests, lakes and streams 

Unite in glad refrain. 
Her farms, her towns, her cities call : 

"Come back ! W^ith joy we welcome 
you to dear old ]\Iaine !" 

—Mrs. C. R. Mitchell. 




Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Sprag-ue, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, S2.00. Single copies of current and previous vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 




A regrettable and almost unpardonable error occurred in the last 
number of the Journal, in the notice of ^Irs. Danforth's book, 
''Somerset County in the World War," wherein the name of Sir 
William Phips appears instead of that of Sir William Pepperrell. 

Fortunately, the readers of the Journal are so familiar with the 
histor)' of Elaine that they would instantly see what the obvious 
intention of the writer was, but this does not excuse the careless- 
ness of the Journal's proofreading in this case. 

We also believe that our readers will testify for us that such an 
error as this is of rare occurrence in our pages. 


Hon. Bllery Boix:dcn of Wintcrport, Maine, m contributing the 
following Knox item to the Journal says: I am inclosing a copy 
of the deed given by General Knox to Mrs. Treat, whose husband 
was one of the early settlers in the town of Prospect, in Waldo 
County. It shows that General Knox had a deep interest in the 
welfare of the pioneers in the JJ^aldo Patent Region. At this time 
when much is being uritten of General Knox, this may serve to 
throzu light on his many admirable qualities. 

Know All Mex by These Presents, That I Henry Knox of 


Thomaston, in the County of Lincoln Esquire and Lucy my wife, 
in consideration of one dollar paid by Huldah Treat Widow of 
i . William Treat late of Prospect deceased, and in further consider- 

ation that her late husband lost his life in an opperation to obtain 
money to pay for this lot and in further consideration of the pro- 
lific qualities of the said Huldah, she having had several pairs of 
twins, trusting that she who had so much trouble in producing the 
said children, will never forsake their interests, and further that 
she will never alienate this lot of land while she lives, the receipt 
whereof we do hereby acknowledge, do hereby give, grant, sell and 
convey unto the said Huldah Treat her heirs and assigns, 

A certain tract or lot of land, lying in said Prospect bounded as 
follows, to wit, beginning at a Spruce tree marked No. i I. S. & 
No. 2 W. T. thence running north by Jeremiah Stimpson's lot, two 
hundred ninety seven rods to a stake, thence east by H. Knox's 
land fifty four rods to a stake thence south by Joseph jNIathew's 
lot two hundred and ninety seven rods to a stake & stones marked 
No. 2 W. T. & No. 3 I. ^I. thence west by land of James Lowell 
Frye & H. Knox's land, fifty four rods to the bound first mentioned, 
containing one hundred acres of land and no more as surveyed by 
Robert Houston Esquire. It being the lot referred by her late 
husband William Treat to the Hon'ble Commissioners appointed 
by the General Court. 

To Have and to Hold the afore granted premises to the said 
Huldah Treat her heirs and assigns, to her & their use and behoof 
forever. And we do covenant with the said Huldah Treat her 
heirs and assigns, that we are lawfully seized in fee of the afore 
granted premises; that they are free of all incumbrances; that we 
have good right to sell and convey the same to the said Huldah 
Treat and that we will warrant and defend the same premises to 
the said Huldah Treat her heirs and assigns forever, agaunst the 
lawfull claims & demands of all persons. 

In Witness Whereof we the said Henry & Lucy Knox have 
hereunto set our hands and seals this twenty ninth day of Septem- 
ber in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and one. 
Signed sealed & delivered 
in presence of us 
David Fales H. Knox L. S. 

John Rynier L. Knox L. *S. 

Lincoln, ss. September 29, 1801. 

Jk'^»..',-y., >■<,:> 


Then the above named Henry Knox Esq. & Lucy Knox 
acknowledged the above instrument to be their free act and deed 
— before me, \ David Fales Just, of Peace. 

Received Aug't 8th, 1803, & entered by 

Tho's Cobb Reg'r 
(Hancock Registr}^ of Deeds, Book 13, page 132. 

Copied into Waldo Registry: and compared.) 

Camden, Jan. 16, 1922. 
Hon. John F. Sprague, 
Dover, Me. 
Brother Sprague : — 

I am reading "Sprague's Journal" just received. It contains 
much of interest. I note on page 189 the town of ^lorrill is located 
"in Knox County, near Belfast." jMorrill is in Waldo County, and 
always was, and the people of the town will not wish it read out 
of that old county. 

We all expect, too, that, if Maine History is taught in our 
schools, Sprague's Journal will be, at least, a copious source of 
reference, accurate as well as ''Truth." 

The Journal is always well written, and contains valuable and 
instructive historical data, and many current events which will 
hereafter become instructive. 

This is not to appear critical, but more to show how early and 
thoroughly the Journal is read. 

It, too, gives me an opportunity to wish you many good things 
this year. Very sincerely, 

J. H. Montgomery. 

What Hon. George C. Wing, Sr., one of Maine's, ablest lawyers 
and eminent public men, says of Sprague's Journal of Elaine His- 
tory : 

Auburn, Maine, July 4, 1920. 
Dear Editor: 

I want you to know of my great appreciation of what you have 
done for your State and for your County In your tireless research 



into the history of Elaine, and your carefully written accounts of 
the same, — impartial, accurate and reliable. Wliat you have writ- 
ten should not only be in every public library in Maine, but in every 
j. schoolhouse so that its access should be for every child of school 

age. Nothing tends more to stimulate ambition and desire to excel, 
than to read of the success of our own progenitors. Every right- 
thinking man and woman in Maine is your debtor. If in any way 
and at any time I can render you any assistance of any kind, you 
have only to command me, and I assure you that I am always 

Yours truly, 

Geo. C. Wing. 


(Piscataquis Observer) 

The Dover-Foxcroft friends of Samuel J. Guernsey, who has 
been curator of the Peabody ^Museum of Harvard University for 
several years, will be glad to know that the president and fellows 
of Harvard College have elected him assistant director of the mu- 
seum, which puts him in line for the office of director. 

Mr. Guernsey's advancement is the natural result of his interest 
and efficiency in the work of the museum. In 1914 and 191 5 he 
was one of the two leaders of expeditions sent into northeastern 
Arizona by the museum for the purpose of studying the relations 
between the clift-houses of that district and those of the north side 
of the San Juan river. The records of these investigations were 
so important that the Smithsonian Institution of Washington pub- 
lished them. In 1916 and 1917 ^Ir. Guernsey headed expeditions 
to the same country where the explorations were continued in the 
Basket-Maker caves. The report on these explorations was pub- 
lished by the ^luseum and makes a copiously illustrated book of 
over 100 pages which must be of great value to the student of our 


For many years past travelers through the town of Willimantic 
in Piscataquis County, Elaine, situated at the head of Sebec Lake, 


have ever been familiar with what is known as "Norton's Corner." 
This little hamlet is on the southerly side of Wilson river, near 
where Alexander Greenwood, the famous land surveyor of three- 
quarters of a century ago, and who lived in the adjoining town of 
Monson, lost his life by the falling of a tree. It was thus named 
in honor of Charles C. Norton, who moved there from the town 
of New Portland in 18S9. For many years he had a store there 
and before the days of "rural delivery,'' when these little country 
and cross-roads post offices were real community centers and meet- 
ing places for country people for interchance of views, barter and 
trade, ^Ir. Norton was postmaster. He yet resides there, but the 
little store and post office of a quarter of a century ago went out 
of existence under the changed conditions. He is a grandson of 
Henrv Norton, one of the tirst settlers of New Portland and who 
was a member of the Constitutional Convention when ]^Iaine became 
a State. Nash's history of the proceedings of this convention says 
of him : 

"Henry Norton, New Portland, son of Samuel and Molly Davis 
Norton, was born in Edgartown, ]\Iass., June 7, 1770. Married 
Jan. 29, 1795, Hannah, daughter of Robert and ]\Iary (Henry) 
Gower, of Farmington. He probably came to the District of Elaine 
about 1794. He purchased of his father, Feb. 17, 1794, lot number 
3 in the first range of lots in New Vineyard. He erected the first 
grist-mill in Industry. Air. Norton carried the provisions for his 
workmen and a portion of the mill irons on his back a distance of 
nearly six miles, following a spotted line over the mountain. His 
father (son of Peter Norton of Revolutionary fame) was one of 
the original purchasers of the township of New Mneyard. Henry 
moved to New Portland, where he was first town clerk and held 
various other town offices. He died ^lay 7, 1844. His wife (born 
in Topsham, Feb. 2.^, 1775,) died May 5, 1864." 

Postmasters in Maine in 1843 

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Paris, Simeon Norris. 
Skowhegan, Llewellyn Kidder. 
Bangor, Charles K. Miller. 


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Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. X April, May, June, 1922 No. 2 



f. (By John Francis Sprague) 


(An Address Delivered before the Department of History at the Maine 
Teachers' Convention in Portland, October 27, 1921) 

No enlightened people in the world question today the value and 
importance of a knowledge of history. 

Herodotus flourished nearly ^oo years B. C. He has been called 
*'the father of history" and was the father of written history. That 
is because in his day the Greeks were the first to make record of 
human events in serious prose composition. 

Prior to that, the doings of men, tribes and nations had been 
sung and recited in verse and ballad ; the manners and customs of 
people of foreign countries had been known mainly by the reports 
of travellers. The necessity of true annals of past events, that the 
errors of former periods might serve as a chart to guide men in 
the pursuance of present activities, had then never dawned upon 
mankind. Hence, there were no critics and no criticism. 

The first historians following in the steps of their predecessors, 
the bards, indulged in license of statement as poets and writers of 
fiction may in our time. Their mental capacity had not sensed 
the value of accurac}', or the danger of inaccuracy to those who 
were to follow in their steps : or that they owed their descendants a 
duty to preserve for them the truth regarding what had transpired 
in their generation. 

A desire for farts reorprding events of the past increased as 
civilization advanced. People wanted actual knowledge in tl;is 
respect, thpt they miijht better understand the law of cause and 
efiPect. Thus the value of historical research began when human 
beings commenced to inquire about the mistakes and faults of 
their ancestors, whether or not they could have been avoided, and 


what was better still : could the best work of the past generations 
be improved upon or surpassed by themselves ? 

When this thought became paramount in the human mind, the 
grotesqueness of what had been said of the past, the inaccuracies, 
the fantastic exaggerations of the epic, while yet pleasing to their 
fancy, did not entirely satisfy their new longing for knowledge. 
Facts, however stubborn and revolting, were sought after rather 
than fiction, fanciful and pleasing. Thus historic learning budded 
forth, blossomed, and became essential to man. 

It has kept pace with the expansion of every phase of human 
enlightenment. Its evolution has been slow, but through all the 
centuries it has gathered to itself the tragedy, the sorrow, the op- 
pression and the degradation, as well as the glory, the joy and the 
happiness and all the good and evil of humanity, and made an im- 
partial and imperishable record of it for all of the children of men. 

This evolution from the time of ]Moses to the present hour has 
brought to the world its knowledge and appreciation of history. 
We now know its full meaning. Our vision is clear ; we see that 
it has been the sign-posts of the ages, guiding civilization in its 
darkest hours, ever directing the march of human progress down 
ihe avenues of time. 

From the fascinating pages of history we learn of great and 
wonderful leaders of men. such as Moses, St. Paul, Constantine, 
Luther, Cromwell, Napoleon, \\'ashington and Lincoln, and we find 
that history has been made by a few inspired leaders and saviors of 

The foregoing is, of course, only a brief and fragmentary view of 
the importance of the study of world histor>\ 

Maine History an Essential Study 
If a reasonable part of the course of study in our schools should 
of a necessity embrace the study of historv' generally, if a compre- 
hension of the evolution of civilization is essential in laying the 
foundations of education in its broadest sense, then there is abso- 
lutely no argument from any angle whatsoever in opposition to 
the study of local history in the public schools of Maine. 

Obviously, the history of the units of our nation, of its hamlets, 
towns, counties and states, is equally as necessary for the youth 

■•.t- ■-■'^ •■'/■ r 


in the dawn of their educational development and while laying 
the foundation for manhood and womanhood. 

The importance of a knowledge of the course of the progress of 
civilization from pre-historic times is no longer a mooted question 
among the educators of the world. 

The early history of the explorers, colonizers, missionaries and 
first settlers of that part of the New World which is now the State 
of Maine, reaches back into some of the most momentous chapters 
of the history of the world's mighty contest between despotism 
and freedom. Since the Barons with drawn swords on the meadow- 
field of Ruddymede wrested from King John the Magna Charta, 
liie Anglo-Saxon race has led in this great struggle. 

The very roots of the history of ]\Iaine begin in the history of 
that splendid dream of the French nation, a new France in the 
Xew World. 

In studying it, the child learns that the ambitious statesmen of 
that powerful Latin nation began the work of founding this new em- 
l-ire on the little island of St. Croix in Passamaquoddy Bay in the 
year 1604, when Henry I\^ of France sent forth as colonizers on 
the coast of Maine, De ^lonts, a Protestant, and Champlain, a 
Catholic. And when the child inquires why a Catholic king of 
France selected both a Protestant and a Catholic as joint leaders 
in founding an American colony, the answer to this question leads 
him into one of the most notable periods in the world's long strug- 
j:rle for religious freedom. 

Maine was one of the battlegrounds in the protracted contest 

between the Anglo-Saxon and the Latin for supremacy in North 

America, and which did not cease until Wolfe captured Quebec in 
1759. - ■ - ' 

.■\nd here the scholar possibly obtains his first view of the intrepid 
Jesuit missionaries, and if not, quite surely a new view of the 

They proved beyond cavil their ardor and sincerity in the work 
which the government of France and its Church had sent them to 
this vast wilderness to do — converting an almost boundless country 
of savag^es to Christianity. The tale of the sufferings and per'ls 
which they endured, their mingling with the Indians and the al- 
riiost miraculous success which they had in Influencing and con- 
trolling them Is inspiring and fascinating. 


While the original colonizers and first settlers of Maine under 
Gorges were of the Church of England, the scholar cannot under- 
stand the history of Elaine as a district and as a state without a 
knowledge of his Pilgrim and Puritan ancestors. Historians never 
have and probably never will fully agree as to all of the facts re- 
lating to their strange, wonderful and complex story. No romance 
ever came from the hand of genius more enthralling than is this. 
Its beginnings reach back to the reigns of the Tudors and the Stuarts 
in England. 

The student of Maine historv is delvins^ in the davs of Ouecn 
Elizabeth ; of the civil war in England, when King Charles wis 
beheaded; of Cromwell and the Long Parliament, the restoration. 
James II, the revolution of 1688 and William and Alary; he is 
in the times Avhen the doctrine of the divine right of kings M'as 
unassailable in the minds of the people of the world; when "a good 
man but a bad king,'' as paradoxical as it may now seem, was a 
common phrase among leaders and politicians ; when great states- 
men believed it a self-evident truth that no people ever ought to 
be free until fit to use their freedom, which maxim reminded Ma- 
caulay of the fool in the old story, who resolved not to go into the 
water until he had learned to swim ; when, again quoting Alacaulay, 
the caresses of harlots and the jests of buft'oons regulated the policy 
of the state. 

The fact that an intelligent study of the founding of Maine and 
its founders, requires that it should be pursued In connection with 
European historv, that each illuminates the other, is an unanswer- 
able argument in favor of the proposition that it should ever be 
a cornerstone in our educational foundation, assuming, of course, 
that all are agreed that history in its broadest sense is essential. . 

It Exgexders PATRIOTIS^[ 
. The fires of patriotism must be kept burning in America If the 
American nation is to endure. What is patriotism but an ever- 
lasting love for one's own place of nativity, for one's own hom.e, 
town, state, or country" 

The Standard dictionary defines It: "Love of and devotion to 
one's country: the spirit that, originating In love of country, prompts 
obedience to Its laws, to the support and defense of its existence, 
rights, and Institutions, and to the promotion of Its welfare." 


I have long held to a firm belief that local history if brought 
forcibly to the attention of the youth of our state would not only 
inculcate in their minds a desire for knowledge of world history, 
but would also intensely promote patriotism. 

For the past nine years as pubhsher and editor, my own convic- 
tions upon this subject inscribed at the head of my editorial page 
are expressed in these few words, which is my message to you 
to-day : 

"First teach the boy and girl to know and love their own town, 
county and state, and you have gone a long way toward teaching 
them to know and love their countrv." 

Professor James A. Woodburn before the American Historical 
Association at Chicago, December 31, 1914, in an address on ''Re- 
search in State History at State L'niversities," in a few words pic- 
tured the deplorable condition of a state which should sink so low 
as to have entirely lost its interest and pride in the history of its 
past and its ancestry when he said : 

"But a state is a people under some form of political organiza- 
tion, and every organized society, and more especially the state, 
owes something to its history. A state entirely indifferent to its 
history would be a sorry spectacle. Such a state is hardly known 
in the record of human life, because should a state sink to that 
low level or fail to attain above it, it would cease to have a history 
and would drop from view. Having lost all interest in its own 
ancestry it would cease to be of interest to its posterity. The state 
is under obligation, for its own sake, not only to preserve its his- 
tory, as found in its materials and memorials, its archives and docu- 
ments, but to celebrate that history, to publish it, and to make it 
available to its students ; its historians and its people." 

It is self-evident that Professor Woodburn's thesis is true. If 
so, it is a corollary that the growth of. and appreciation of and love 
for all that pertains to the beginning and future progress of our 
state potentially sustains the development of patriotism and the 
formation of good citizenship. 

It Creates Good Citizexstiip 
In these days when the world is shuddering because of the ad- 
vancement of the lurid doctrines of Karl ^Vlarx in manv wavs and 



devious forms ; when loyal men and women everywhere are striving 
and yearning for a new birth in Americanism; when they are ex- 
perimenting in new and strange regulatory enactments regarding 
foreign immigration, thus, as I believe, violating some of the most 
sacred of American traditions, is not the indifference to the vital 
importance of teaching Maine history to the youth of ]\Iaine, .^o 
manifest among a great number of our people, if such teaching 
nourishes patriotism, a wrong, if not a suicidal course to pursue? 

The critics of our public school system have often urged that 
its teaching is not practical enough, it is contended that while the 
scholars have superficial knowledge of the ends of the earth and 
the islands of the sea, they know practically nothing about the 
things with which they come in daily contact ; that they know much 
about Homer's heroes and their doings and but little about the man 
they meet on the street; that they have profound knowledge of the 
forum of ancient Rome and are as profoundly ignorant of how 
their own town meeting or city council is managed ; that while they 
know a great deal about Grecian mythology' they are lamentably 
deficient in the history of the town, county or state of their nativity. 

In a word, that the scheme of school teaching is not wholly in 
touch with the progressive spirit of the times, which is a relentless 
search for the truth and for practical results ; results which will 
be beneficial to the bny and girl of today when they shall become 
the men and women of tomorrow ; which will equip them with 
durable, efficient and immutable weapons in the strife of everyday 
warfare, and in meeting the flood of human problems ever rushing 
in upon each generation. 

In order to arrive at a correct conclusion as to whether or not 
Maine historv should be tau2:ht in our school, it is in nowise neces- 
sary to consider the educational problems now engrossing the at- 
tention of leading educators of the country. \^ery much of this 
contention seems to revolve about the word "vocational" — how 
much time should be devoted to vocational and how much to cul- 
tural training. I have no interest in any war between advocates of 
these two systems. One proposition, however, both groups un- 
doubtedly agree to, and that is that the public school is the greatest 
safeguard for democracy in America. 

If American democracv is to endure, then our school svstem 


must in reality be a preparation of the child for citizenship in a 
republic of democracy where every citizen is a sovereign. ■ 

It is quite apparent that the tendency of education at the present 
hour, that the trend of thought among eminent educators is from 
the theoretical to the practical; from dreamland and its passive- 
ness to action and service. 

One of the books of an eminent educator bears this title : "All 
the Children of All the People.'' This is truly significant language. 
And it is no less the truth that all the school children of x\merica 
should have the opportunity to learn to love their country and to 
adhere to the ideals and fundamentals of such American leaders as 
Washington, Andrew Jackson, Lincoln, Cleveland and Roosevelt. 

Dr. Leonard P. Ayers of the Russel Sage Foundation is authority 
for the statement that only 12 per cent of the children who enter 
the public school remain until they are sixteen years of age and 
that most of these leave during the next two years. And thf>se 
who are strong in emphasizing the superiority of vocational train- 
ing tell us that St, per cent of the children of the country are study- 
ing Latin, French and other langtiages other than English, when 
less than 5 per cent will ever have occasion to use them. 
Pope said : 

" 'Tis education forms the common mind ; 
Just as the twig is bent, 
The tree's inclined." 

And right here, the point that I would make, the seriousness 
of which impresses me deeply, is that the 88 per cent — or whatever 
it may be — of children who do not long remain in the schools, 
many of whom do not even graduate from the high school or 
academy, should be taught the fundamental principles of democ- 
racy; that in the graded school those twigs should at least be bent 
towards the patriotism of democracy, and that interesting them 
in the history of the highway over which they daily travel, of the 
pioneers of their own town, of the things with which they are fa- 
miliar, is a first and long step in its accomplishment. 

If the public school is the safeguard of democracy, then a grave 
responsibihty rests upon you who are teachers and all school offi- 
cers as well, for vou hold the kevs to its wise maintenance. To a 


great extent, the future citizenship of the State of Elaine is in your 
hands. Whether that citizenship and the patriotism and the ideals 
of tomorrow shall be noble, strong and enduring, whether they 
shall ring true through future years, depends in a large measure 
upon your judgment, your wisdom, firmness and discretion to-day. 

False: Ideas Regarding IMaixe History 

In my opinion two false ideas relative to the importance of a 
knowledge of Maine history are more or less prevalent among 
Maine people: (a) That because the ancient Province of Alaine 
became a District, that for a time was under the political jurisdic- 
tion of ^lassachusetts, we have no distinct place in early Ameri- 
can history; (b) That even if we have a history, it is not of conse- 
quence, interest or value to any but lovers of anything that is antique 
and venerable ; its usefulness in the work of to-day being, at most, 
only negligible. 

A plain statement of the first proposition refutes itself. From 
the time of Weymouth and the Pophams to this day of Oakley 
Curtis, Milliken, Pattangall and Baxter, what is now the State of 
Maine has had a continuous record of potential events in the history 
of democracy in the world. 

From the early years of the seventeenth century, when explorers 
and colonists first began the making of American history, people of 
the old world were coming to the New World, and coming here 
to Elaine, for a shelter from tyranny and oppression. They sub- 
dued a wilderness and replaced it with homes, fortresses and fertile 
fields. Thus they came here to Maine, as to other parts of the 
North Atlantic coast, with bare hands but with hearts full of long- 
ings for freedom that was then only a dream, and for liberty that 
they knew not how to use. 

The development of representative government was a slow pro- 
cess. It was, at best, only an experiment. It was a political ideal 
that startled and amazed the greatest statesmanship and most pro- 
found philosopher of the entire world. Our plan was unlike any 
other that had ever before been known. It was a governmental 
svstem outside of nil known precedents, 'Svithout an example, 
ancient or modern." 

The que<=tion of its success or failure centered arotmd one single 
problem; whether or not man was capable of self-government. 


In this way did the roots of democracy commence to sprout in 
this strange soil; a thirst for individual liberty. For many former 
centuries man had had a sovereign to direct him in his religious 
duties, and blood and treasure had flowed continuously to force 
him to pursue w hat his rulers conceived to be the right course. This 
new undertaking allowed him to choose his own religion and his 
own prayer book, or none at all, as his own conscience might dic- 
tate, and he was to be his own sovereign. 

In 1782 the highest and shrewdest judgment of the world sin- 
cerely believed that this scheme was doomed to collapse. Its suc- 
cess could only be demonstrated by actualities; the day of theories 
was done ; the hour of facts had struck. The leaders in this ma- 
jestic adventure in freedom constituted the most glorious band of 
patriots that humanity has ever known. But Washington, and 
Hamilton, and Jefferson, and Adams and all their great compeers 
were themselves alone powerless to solve the problem of self- 
government. The men who built log houses and cleared up farms, 
who run stores, taverns, saw-mills, stages and cooper shops, ware 
the only ones who could prove to the world that man could govern 
himself without a king. 

And so, in all parts of the American colonies, from the Caro- 
linas to the Penobscot, it was in the homes of these grim old 
pioneers that we find the real roots of democracy. It was these 
first settlers and their descendants, here in ]\Iaine, whose sacrifices 
and toil laid the foundations for a great state, and for its prosper- 
ous towns and cities, who helped to work out this problem for all 
mankind ; and the rays from its resplendant light is to-day pene- 
trating every corner of European darkness. 

The story of their lives is a part of the glorious record of man's 
supreme achievement in finally making himself sovereign. Their 
history is a part of the history of the world's struggle between 
despotism and freedom ; it is the tale of the progress of humanity. 
And yet. there are many in IMaine today who do not appear to per- 
ceive that such a history is of worth and an inspiration to the 
present generation. It is full of fascination, but they see it not. 
It inspires patriotism and a love for their state, but they know it not. 

Until very recently many people of Maine have apparentlv never 
realized that their educational system disregarding the teaching of 


town and state history in their schools, was doing a flagrant in- 
justice to the youth of our state. Their indifference in this respect 
has been discouraging and saddening. 

But the pessimist concerning tliis subject can now retire, his 
place may be filled by the optimist. Our able and progressive state 
superintendent of schools. Dr. Thomas, and his efficient staff* of 
assistants are working along more advanced lines in this respect. 
They are now making the study of Maine history an important 
feature in the regular course of study in the schools of ]\Iaine. 
It is a fact. It is an encouraging and joyous fact. Dr. Thomas 
rs entitled to the sincere thanks and most hearty congratulations 
of all of us who for years have longed for this epochal event to 
actually occur in the State of Elaine. 

Has Maine no history worthy of attention and of preservation? 
Has she no history the knowledge and love of which will act as a 
stimulus for patriotism for the children of to-day and tomorrow? 
Too many, perhaps a majority of Elaine people, by their careless 
thinking and utter indiff'erence regarding it, do positively negative 
the proposition. 

^ Maine's 250 miles of natural front of seacoast (multiplied as 
General Chamberlain estimated it) to an extent of not less than 
2500 miles of salt water line, contains some of the most historic 
ground on the North Atlantic coast. 

She has had three periods of political history, as a Province, as 
a District and as a State. During these periods great characters 
have wrought here and great events have occurred on these shores. 
The view presents such strong types having world-wide fame as 
Baron De St. Castin, Sebastian Rale, Sir William Phips, Sir Wil- 
liam Pepperel, Col. John Allan, Gen. Knox, Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow, Hannibal Hamlin, Dorothea Dix, Sir Hiram Maxim, 
Nordica, James G. Blaine, Emma Eames and Thomas B. Reed. 
Are there any natives of ^Maine living anywhere who should not 
be proud of this history and of these world-renowned names? 

It is not insignificant or unimportant as many by their treatment 
of it appear to believe. You are all familiar with Sir Walter Scott's 
picture of the person who had no love for his native land : 


"Breathes there the man Avith soul so dead. 

Who never to himself has said, 
'This is mv own, mv native land'." 

And Scott had a clear conception of what would be the end of 
the ^'klaine man or any other man so bound up in self or selfish 
interests as to take no pride in the land of his sires or its history. 

* * * *'The wretch, concentrated all in self, 

Living, shall forfeit fair renown. 

And, doubly dying, shall go down 

To the vile dust, from whence he sprung, 

Unwept, unhonored. and unsung." 

History of ^Iaine Towns 

The history of the towns of Elaine is of itself a broad field for 
research and learning. It is said that more than 800 histories and 
historical sketches, reports of centennial celebrations, town and 
county histories have been published and are available in the pub'ic 
libraries of the state. Several years ago. Judge Clarence Hale of 
Portland read before the Maine Historical Society a valuable paper 
on Elaine Town Histories, in which he well said : "Although their 
study has great historical value, the student of Elaine history need 
look no further to find a reason for his study of them than to sim- 
ple human interest. They are the plain story of human life; of 
our own life. We find a type of the simple, earnest, independent 
character and get a glimpse of how that character has been welded 
together by three centuries of human activity.'' 

The student has now vastly more at hand to guide him In his 
research than ever before. During recent years the Maine His- 
torical Society in its volumes of the Documentary History of 
Maine has been publishing the so-called "Baxter Manuscripts," be- 
ins: documents and manuscripts rescued from the musty archives 
of two continents, gathered from the capitols of three governments 
and several American states and Canada, by the late James Phinney 

These relate to the very dawn of our histor}-. to all of its sources, 
the oriein of its land titles, its colonization and its progress until 
1^ took its place in our union of sovereign states. 


I would enter no protest against the boy or girl aspiring to the 
attainment of a so-called "liberal" or classical education, but I 
would not have the educational system cast in an ironclad mold 
of ancient classics. 

I would have him care something about the history and legends 
of the red men in !Maine of 300 years ago, as well as the mythology 
of the ancient Greeks. 

I would have him desire to have knowledge of Baron De St. 
Castin and his beautiful wife, "The Lady of the Pyrenees," the 
proud daughter of the renowned Indian chieftain who dwelt on 
the banks of the River Penobscot, ^Madcoowando, as well as to know 
all about Nestor's chariot. 

I would have him care something about the history of that emi- 
nent sachem of the Tarratines, Orono. for whom was named the 
University town of our state, or the brave Norridgewocks who 
went to death in defense of Father Rale, as well as to be familiar 
with Neptune, Vulcan and ^'enus. 

I would have him as much interested in the thrilling story of 
Arnold's expedition through Elaine, as in the question of whether 
or not the Spartans betrayed their allies. I would have him knew 
something of what a deed of land means when it says that a farm 
"lies north of the Waldo Patent," as well as to know all about 
Demosthenes' speech on the embassy. 

I would impress upon scholars the importance of knowing who 
Martin Pring was as well as to know whether Alexander died of 
poison or disease. 

If they cannot have knowledge of both, I would prefer that they 
know something of the landing of the Popham colony at the mouth 
of the Kennebec, than to know all about all the gods who have dined 
with the Ethiopians. 

I would that they could talk as learnedly of the tale of George 
Waymouth's landing on the coast of Maine in 1605, as of the classi- 
cal Tale of Troy divine. 

I may be somewhat imbued with the spirit of the muse which 
inspired Maine's charming poet, David Barker, in his stirring and 
patriotic poem, "Old Willey," when he said : 


"W^ho cares in this crowd what a Homer says. 

Of the warring men in the ancient days ; 

What matters it now to you or me 

Though the IHad or Odessey 

May tell of the time when a Trojan corse 

Was trampled by the feet of a Grecian horse; 

Though the epic song of the bard may state 

How Achilles fell at the Scaen gate. 

But it startles the world that I am come down 

To tell of a man from my native town ; 

Of a man, unknown, obscure and plain, 

But who once belonged to the nth of Elaine." 

Perhaps no man of our day other than Theodore Roosevelt, 
ever breathed more of the spirit of true Americanism into Ameri- 
can life than did \\'alt Whitman. He said that '"'Other states indi- 
cate themselves in their deputies . . . but the genius of the L^nited 
States is not best or most in its executives, or legislatures, nor in 
its embassadors, or authors, or colleges, or churches, or parlors, 
nor even in its newspapers or inventors . . . but always most 
in its common people. And ... a live nation can always cut 
a deep mark and can have the best authority, the cheapest . . . 
namely from its OWX SOLX. This is the sum of the profitable 
uses of individuals, or states and of present action and grandeur 
and of the subjects of poets." 

And he exclaims . . . "as if it were necessary to trot back 
generation after generation to the eastern records ! As if the beauty 
and sacredness of the demonstrable must fall behind that of the 
mythical ! As if men do not make their mark out of any times ! As 
if the openings of the western continent by discovery and what has 
transpired since in Xorth and South America were less than the 
small theatre of the antique or the aimless sleepwalking of the mid- 
dle ages!" 

I am much in accord with the thought thus expressed by this 
great and inspired American. And I would plead to-day for all nf 
the public and parochial schools in Elaine to g:et into complete 
harmonv with the soul of the State of Maine, imbibe inspiration 
from its past, and succor and nourish its present and its future. 


There was a beautiful illustration of tlie thought which I have 
in mind at the centennial proceedings of Colby College last fall 

A man born in the State of Elaine, and a graduate of that insti- 
tution was 83 years before a martyr in the righteous cause of for- 
ever destroying human slavery in America and in defense of the 
freedom of the press in the world. His name, inscribed in letters 
of gold on the scroll of the world's immortals, was, here in the 
state of his nativitv, nearlv lost from view bv the dark shadows 
of negligence and cold indifference. 

Norman L. Bassett and Judge Wing, communing and in unison 
with the soul of the State of Elaine and all of its best and highest 
attributes, rescued from darkness the name of that noble American, 
Elijah Parish Lovejoy, and gave it a new birth, a reincarnation upon 
the pages of Elaine history and the history of that school as well. 


. . (Rev. Henry O. Thayer) 

■ ~"~~ I. — The Elder : Robert LiTHGow 

In Scottish annals, the name, sometimes Linhthgow, has been 
traced back to 1225 ; one branch holding the grange lands of Milrcse 
Abbey 400 years. ^ 

On Scotland maps can be found Linlithgow and Lanark, tvro 
towns some forty miles from Edinburg. Emigration largely caused 
by wars flowed into Ireland from 1630 onwards. In it from Lana"k 
was Robert with brothers, a son of Thomas Lithgow, who made 
a home in the County of Derry. A second emigration from Ireland 
gave to America those sturdy settlers called Scotch-Irish. Among 
them was Robert Lithgow, the grandson of the former Robert, 
who sought a home in New England. The time of arrival at Boston 
must remain uncertain. The opinion of a great-grandson, L. W. 
Lithgow,^ declaring it was previous to the birth of his son (1715), 
invites discredit, for his memory^ shows itself faulty in adding a tarry 
for a time at Halifax, a town not then existing. At that time the 

1 N. York Geneal. Record Vol. 29. 

2Collec. Me. Hist. Society Set 1, Vol. 5-421; 8-283. 


Scotch-Irish emigration was very slight, but much increased two 
years later. Also long delay to secure land was unwise and unusual, 
for Robert Lithgow made agreement in 1717 for his lot, and it is 
reasonably presumed within a year of arrival. That by all circum- 
stances could have been not earlier than 1716 and probably early 
in 1 717. His lot lay in Topsham on ^lerrymeeting Bay and ex- 
tending back north-west so as to comprise 100 acres. This ill- 
shaped lot about two miles in length shows the intent of the Com- 
pany to give to the largest number of settlers the benefit of the 
water front. On the Company's plan of lands can be seen the house 
of ''Robert Lithgood," on an arm of the bay which extends towards 
the Falls at Brunswick.^ 

Without warrant would be an assertion that Robert Lithgow 
was by vocation a weaver, yet spinning was done by him or wife 
for other families. ^lany Irish m that period were workers at the 
cloth-making trades. 

The wife of ^Ir. Lithgow had borne the name ^IcCurdy, and 
was not of Scottish race but of true Irish stock. In his family 
coming over were three children, two daughters and a son. A 
third daughter came to them in 1721. \\'e can presume that the 
new settler hastened construction of his first log cabin and was able 
to make his family feel at home at their fireside in it by the bay 
shore in the winter of 1717-18. 

Very little is known of their subsequent years. Several went by 
prosperously, we will assume, for a frontier family, but soon they 
were aware of the disquieting attitude of the Indians ; then sud- 
denly came upon them the terror of the murderous raid in June, 
1722, and they fled as other families of Topsham to the fort at 
Brunswick for safety. There was no prudent return to the farm 
till the "Three Years War" ended by the peace of 1726: it is pre- 
sumed Mr. Lithgow did so, having there his home and work for 
some twenty years, but how long is uncertain, as he disposed of his 
land, perhaps in 1746, to William ?vIalcolm and no record shows 
the date of the transaction. 

In the rolls of the soldiery such as are preserved, Robert Lith- 
?ow's name appears from 1723 to 1739. In one he is gunner at 
the fort. 

•'' Pejepscot Papers ^le. Hist. Soc. 



In the last war it is told that he with a half dozen men were 
in 1/57 abroad scouting at some work and were attacked by a party 
of Indians and though two were wounded, they killed two Indians, 
wounded others, causing the foe to tiee/ ^Ir. Lithgow at this 
time must haye been seyenty or more years of age. It is said that 
he and wife passed their last years with their son at Fort Halifax. 

The daughters married men of note in those towns :' — The eldest 
— no name — married Capt. Adam Hunter of Topsham. The second, 
Margaret, born 1706, married Lieut. Samuel Howard. Died 1797. 
The youngest, Jean or Janet, married (i) October 24, ^IcFarland; 
(2) Dea. Samuel Stanwood. 

2. — The Younger : William Lithgow 

The immigrant's only son, William, grew up to early and life- 
long distinction, holding a superior position in the operations during 
the Indian wars, and in ciyil life equal stations of honor in the 
affairs of state. 

"Born in Boston'' is an opinion deriyed from a grandson, who 
so "understands," a beHef lacking support. Statements by himself 
assure his birth in the last half of 1715. The coming oyer of the 
Lithgows preyious to that date is yery improbable. Until such eyi- 
dence appears, the son's birth must be written County of Derry, 

Only one eyent stands out in twenty years: written by himself 
it tells the terror at six years of age, flight to the fort with his par- 
ents, when burning houses and bloodshed were proofs of sayage 
hate. After hostilities ceased with 1725, we assume that the home 
and the farm claimed the youth's actiyities for seyeral years, or in 
the later part, at seyentcen. seeking outside employment as desir- 
able. His neis^hbor in his latest years, Hon. Mark L. Hill, wrote 
that "by profession he was a gunsmith."*' Formal apprenticeship 
to the trade must come into the young man's years then if eyer, 
but it is more likely that inclination and aptitude with natiye skill 
and insrcnuity required slight instruction to fit him to make all 
ordinary repairs on guns, and he was so employed at Brunswick. 
"A turn for military affairs," as his neighbor remarks, suggests 

4 ppi>psrot Papers. 

s N. V. Ofn<=-«i. Perord A'ol. ?0. — North's Hist, of Auprusta. 

«Coll. :Me. Hist. Soc. 1 Ser., Vol. 5. 417-19. 


that he made tlie most of opportmiities offered for training in tlie 
town military company into which he would be enrolled at sixteen 
and was fitted for actual service, which he entered on at the fort 
at the St. George River in 1734. Here his mechanical skill availed 
to give him the post of armorer, thus serving several years before 
1740, and again in 1743. ^leanwhile he was commissioned Lieuten- 
ant in 1736; and in 1744 gained the rank of Captain and remained 
at St. George till June, 1748. In that year he was given the com- 
mand of Fort Richmond. 

This most suitable point for defence at the division and bend of 
the Kennebec had been held from 1719 by a camp and guardhouse, 
and from 1723 by a well equipped fort. The place became Lith- 
gow's home for six years ; was the birthplace of some of his chil- 
dren; its lands made him a farm which he made useful, mentioning 
in letters his cattle and farm materials and from which in his last 
year he sent a barrel of potatoes to Boston to Secretary Willard, 
as did Lieut. Howard from Fort Western to the Governor. 

His character and ability were attested here by difficult tasks in 
dealing with Indians. The reckless murder of a chief and wounding 
two of his men at W'iscasset, required Lithgow's tact and judicious 
action to allay the tribe's anger because no proper punishment fol- 
lowed, and also to comfort the widow by kindness and gifts and 
the relatives as well. 

Yet in 1750 their requital of the crime by the raid upon Swan 
Island and capture of thirteen out of sixteen of the W'hidden-Noble 
family, which they followed by a violent attack upon the fort, which 
Capt. Lithgow repelled with his small force, the cattle and property 
were destroyed and a captive was taken at a distance away. 

A rumor, or a purposed story, of a French fort at the head of 
Kennebec waters and the consequent need to protect future settle- 
ments, brought the government's decision to build a strong fortifi- 
cation for defence of the Kennebec. Gov. Shirley by a tour of 
observation in the summer of 1754 selected for the purpose, the 
\xjmt at the mouth of the Sebasticook. Possession was at once 
taken in August 1754, by the erection of a small blockhouse by Gen. 
Winslovv on return from a search for the rumored fort far up the 
river. To it the name Fort Halifax was given and the formidable 
project was put in charge of Capt. Lithgow. 



In October 1754, he received his appointment, as Gov. Siiirley 
announced it "Capt. \\ iiham Lithgow, Commander of His ^^lajesty's 
Fort Hahfax.'' On him was laid the burden of construction. He 
wrote, "I was building Fort Halifax from Dec. 1754, to Alay 1756." 
As if a business contractor for the government and builder, he had 
the immense amount of timber cut, hewed, transported, and htted 
into strong walls. A delicate and trying duty fell on him as he put 
forward the work according to plans furnished him from Boston. 
His discernment and practical judgment perceived serious defects. 
Plainly, dutifully, modestly, he stated his views, offered his own 
adapted to the stage of progress, showing it would give a stronger 
fortification at less cost. 

Delays vexatious to his urgency, by him lamented for holding 
workmen waiting, were not ended till June by the full adoption of 
his plan. The history of this fort' admits the adverse situation, — 
near the river, a height of 100 feet behind, — which required redoubts 
to protect it. — 

Emphasis must be laid on Lithgow's manifold services, — orig- 
inator of the actual plan ; purveyor of all materials and requisites 
w^th personal oversight of transportation with frequent trips dov/n 
and up the river; watchful builder and assiduous superintendent of 
construction; above all and through all for a dozen years its force- 
ful commander with authority and a firm grasp on a multiplicity 
of details. He was the superior officer in the defense of the Ken- 
nebec, holding command over Richmond till dismantled, and over 
Fort Western — now at Augusta — the storage station for supplies 
at the head of the tide. 

Nor should notice fail how his post and duties put him into close 
relations with the Indians. He gained acquaintance with their lan- 
guage ; he knew them well as friends or foes ; dealt with them justly, 
kindly. By confidence in him they sought years after his aid in 
differences with the government. They knew well at the fort that 
he was not to be trifled with. He relates an incident as late as 1764. 
Some among them were not pleased with the peace just made and 
one came to him asserting their dislike and rejection of it, — would 
hold the river and shut in the fort, and behaved with insolence till 
Lithgow's fist knocked him off the chair. The fellow arose full 

T Me. Hist. Soc. Con. Series 1, Vol. 8. 


of fight with yells and insulting gestures, but Lithgow took him 
by the throat, bumped his head against the chimney so his nose 
bled, then by the hair of his head pulled him to the door and with 
a kick, behind, told him that more bad talk would get worse treat- 

During the last French and Indian war, 1755-59, ^^^^ enemy in 
force attacked St. George, but along the Kennebec only a skulking 
foe singly or in small bands, was active hunting for scalps or cap- 
tives as elsewhere on the Elaine frontier. The terror ceased with 
the fall of Quebec. 

With movements toward peace signed in 1763, the military forces 
were reduced and the garrisons at Fort Halifax and at Fort 
Pownal on the Penobscot were given but twenty-five to thirty men 
under a lieutenant. Capt. Lithgow remained with that nominal 
rank. He had oversight of the Indian trade and in 1766 was chosen 
truckmaster. That year has been given for the erection of his 
house at Georgetown, but not completed till the next year. Capt. 
Lithgow's command at the fort terminated with July, 1767; in a 
month or two the family must have been established in the new 
home. The house, called by some "a mansion, — a large and ele- 
gant structure," doubtless surpassed any in the town at the time 
and had a sightly situation on the high land, now the extreme north 
of the town of Phipsburg, which gave a wide prospect, including 
the fine view up Long Reach of the Kennebec, by which grew up 
the city of Bath. 

The farm had been the property of Col. Arthur Noble and at the 
original purchase contained 800 acres extending across the town, 
but now depleted by sales was held by Capt. Lithgow, the son-in-law, 
by right of his wife, and purchase of rights of the Noble heirs. 
This with other lands granted by the Ph-mouth Company made him 
a large landholder. 

I have no date for the demolition of the former Noble house-fort 
situated some distance south near Pleasant Cove and about 80 yards 
from the Kennebec on the east. The site of the house within pali- 
sades is now marked by a heap of stones and brick. 

After twenty years in the up-river forts, the commander removed 
to Phipsburg bearing a new title, — Colonel William Lithgow. The 
new county, Lincoln, was incorporated June 1760, and it appears 



that in its separate militia system, Captain Lithgow was appoinced 
colonel of its regiment. He bore that title in official papers of that 
year. His life had come into that anxious and disastrous era of 
New England history, the final Indian wars. The boy had shared 
the flight to safety and the subsequent years of watchful defence 
till he took his part in it as an officer in the three forts. 

Coming to the comforts of home and farm, Col. Lithgow lipd 
still distinguished service in civil life. Previously as he was about 
to take up duty in his new post at Fort Halifax, he obtained ap- 
pointment September 1754, Justice of the Peace for York County, — 
as was then the entire state. At the formation of the new Lincoln 
County, he was one of the Justices of the Peace and Quorum for 
1760 and 1761, and of the Court of Common Pleas, and continued 
in succeeding years. 

He stood firmly with the colonies in their struggle for liberty, 
but took no military service yet. After the Constitution of 1781, 
he became Justice of the Court of Common Pleas in 1781. and 
probably onward to 1790 or later. At that time he had reached 
seventy-five years. 

In 1771 he was elected Selectman of the town, and in the ye'irs 
1782-84 he was a member of the Legislature, and during the session 
served on the important committee on state valuation, in 1781. 
These notes sufficiently show the general confidence in him and 
appreciation of his administration of justice. 

In those years lotteries were approved for public benefit and his 
name, as if a most prominent man, stands first on a petition for 
one to obtain funds to build a road from Wiscasset to the Kenne- 
bec at Pittston, a project in 1789. Bath had sought a lotter)' in 
aid of a bridge over Whizgig. Slavery had not then been repudi- 
ated and for a man in his position requiring servants it may be 
no surprise that at Richmond a slave is enrolled as his servant. 
Again he is first anions^ fifty-five signers from Lincoln county, 
chiefly of Bath, to a petition for a lighthouse on Seguin. Plainly 
his fellow citizens believed that his name was weighty in projects 
for public benefit. 

His neighbor wrote, — "he never made an open profession of 
religion." In Georgetown circumstances, even bevond choice, 
H^'^ught him into close relations with Episcopacv. Some settlers 


nad attachments to the Church of. England, and at a time when 
religious services were almost suspended, a petition brought to 
them a missionary for three years. A house of worship was erected 
upon Arrowsic but never completed for use. A second ministry 
began in 1768 and Rev. Air. Wheeler dwelt for a time in Col. Lith- 
gow's family. Again a church was built and upon Lithgow's land 
at no great distance from his dwelling. It appears to have been 
situated on the spot where was erected in 1736 the original Presby- 
terian church on land given by Arthur Noble. By disuse it had 
reverted to his heirs. Now Lithgow shows similar favor, and evi- 
dently with his family was an attendant on that worship. So far 
he gave aid and sympathy — how much more none can know, — for 

It may be presumed that Col. Lithgow was as happy in his family 
life as in his public station and activities he was successful and 
honored. Of his marriage the only information is derived from a 
single line in the Georgetown records showing the entry of ''Inten- 

"1744/5, Februarv- 16: William Lithgow of St. 

Georges and Sarah Noble." 

The young captain was not yet thirty and the bride may have 
been nineteen. We may presume on a wintry voyage from the 
St. George River to the Kennebec. A main and decisive reason 
for marriage at this repellent season was found in the impending 
departure of Col. Arthur Noble in the expedition against Louis- 
burg. The fortunes and uncertainties of war were before him 
and most desirable was it that this event in his daughter's life 
should not be delayed, and should occur while he could be present. 
The force and the fleet were getting into readiness for departure 
and did sail from Nantasket Roads on the 24th of March. The 
wedding would be brought by all the circumstances into the first 
week of Alarch. 

For a few years previous to 1748, no ministry of any order can 
be discovered in Georgetown. Rev. William MacClenachan hnd 
been first minister to the new Presbyterian church of 17.^4 in the 
house of worship, for which Arthur Noble gave the land. 
he came to the people in 1742 and continued till Julv, 1744, and 
in the following spring when the Cape Breton expedition was de- 


termined, he was by Xoble's influence- appointed chaplain to Waldo's 
regiment, of which X'oble- was lieutenant colonel. In view of such 
intimate relations for ten years with the Noble family, it is not con- 
jecture but near certainty that Rev. Mr. MacClenachan had rhe 
privilege to solemnize the marriage, and with the customary rites 
of "The Kirk of Scotland," to which Col. Noble was deeply at- 
tached. From this hopeful entrance upon their united life, Capt. 
Lithgow and bride went away to such a home as could be offered 
durinof twentv-two vears in the forts he commanded. 

- When from that auspicious day, fifty years had passed by. Col. 
Lithgow had reasons for eminent satisfaction in review of his life. 
Soldier, magistrate, citizen, honored in all for character and 
achievements of high worth to the state, having a large family com- 
mended for attainments and larger promise, possessed of a large 
property for the time, — why should he not say — IMy cup runneth 
over. His more than fourscore vears included momentous events 
in the historv of North America. He had lived to see a new nation 
there established. ^ -■ 

His death came September 20, 1798, at the age of 83 years and a 
few months. 

- Bom abroad, he became by adoption through excellent service 
to the state, a son of the Kennebec; and for six score years Ins 
gravestone has looked out over the tides of the river on whose 
banks the man himself had spent fifty years, a part in its defence 
against the Indian foe, a part in maintaining justice by courts of 
law, a part in town and home supporting truth and right by action 
and integrity. 

The Lithgow family consisted of eleven children, but the order 
of birth is not clearly shown by the few sources of information, 
imperfect and not in agreement. All give to Sarah the eldest place, 
to take the mother's name. Of five, no dates are given; of four, 
dates of birth are derived, from age at death. It is said that Robert 
was the oldest and Arthur the youngest son, — the later Charles 
omitted. One only had a full record given. • . 

On such a basis the names are adjusted to form a probable fam- 
ily record nearly correct.- - • 

I. Sarah Noble, 1746; Mar. ^larch 4, 1766, Samuel How- 
ard, Lieutenant at Fort Halifax. 


2. Robert, 1748; sea-captain; sailed during the Revolu- 
. . . ^ tion for West Indies; no more known. . , 

3. William, Jmiior; 1750; soldier, lawyer; d. 1796, aged 
:..--, . 46. - --.,... ^ . . . . _ 

. -- 4. - Susannah, 1752; ]Mar. Rev. John ^lurray of Booth- 
bay; died at Xewburyport. 

5. Mary, 1754; Mar.. James Davidson of Bath, Brit. 
. . . Major. 

6. Jane, 1756; died 1787, aged 29. . 

7. Charlotte, 1762; died 1823, Xov. 15, aged 61. . . .- j 

8. James Xoble ; born at Georgetown, Oct. 10, 1763; d. 

Dec. 20, 1819, aged 44. . ^lar. .\nn Gardiner of 
Dresden. Sons: Llewellyn W. of Augusta; x\l- 
fred G. of Dresden. - . 

9. Arthur, 1755; died in Charlestown, Mass.; Mar. !Mar- 
. . tha Bridge of Dresden; Sheriff of Lincoln County; 

High Sheriff of the Kennebec Counties. 

10. Nancy, 1767; died 1786, age 19. . . . . ' 

11. Charles, born 1773; died 1802. 

The mother, Mrs. Sarah (X'oble) Lithgow, of Scotch-Irish par- 
entage, born in Boston, 1726, dau. of Ensign Arthur Xoble and 
Sarah ^^lacHn, married Dec. 14, 1725. She was married ^larch, 
1745, and shared with her husband the anxious life of the forts 
during twenty years and then returned to the home of her child- 
hood, and to the enjoyment of her own home and her children. 
Forty years still remained to her, as death came X^'ov. 11, 1807, at 
the age of 81. . . 

• 3. — The Juxior: General William Lithgow 

Xot more, not less, distinction did the son gain than the father 
in their associated lines of action, though a fair comparison fails 
with the younger's years cut short one half. 

Born in 1750, in Fort Richmond, all impressions from without 
on William Lithgow's childhood were military; soldiers, sentinels, 
guns, drills, watch against surprise ; such environment would form 
ideals of life. Boys have always loved to play at soldiering. In 
the narrow life of Forts Richmond and Halifax the boy Lithgow 


drew into breath and blood soldierly tastes and inclinations. Then 
at eight years of age an actual soldier, listed nominally perhaps 
in the roll by a father's allowance; at ten years, 1760-61, a drummer 
boy, and a corporal one year previously; and later a private in his 
father's company while at Halifax; he was trained in a soldier's 
duty and spirit. 

What means and extent of education Col. Eithgow provided for 
his children during fort life, I have not a word, yet the eldest 
reaching twenty-one while there had passed the common school 
period. All of them certainly had better education than his own 
had been. Air. Hill wrote of him, — "a good common school educa- 
tion," This must mean, an equivalent — for school opportunities 
at Brunswick must have been scanty for anyone during the first 
dozen years with threatening war and a rude beginning of settle- 
ment. School at home was a chief reliance. He did become 
through years an educated man by continued use of stinted means 
with application, and was well able to meet the demands of the 
positions of trust in which he was placed, as his many reports and 
other papers show. Yet there is evidence that the spellingbook 
did not have due attention to comport with the clear and forcible 
English used in his business papers. For his children he could 
teach at home, if not an abundant class, and also could send them 
to tutors and schools abroad. 

However, the main student years of the junior Lithgow lay be- 
tween removal from Fort Halifax and the early events of the Revo- 
lutionary War. Of him also Air. Hill wrote "a good academic edu- 
cation," yet by him or others no hint at tutors or schools. But 
into that period must have come study of law. Urgent, forging 
ahead as was the manner of the man, he may have taken an early 
step upon the opportunity in 1768-9, for some study with 
Sullivan, then his neighbor across the river at Arrowsic. But it is 
known that he did later up to 1773 read law with Sullivan at Bidde- 

With 1774-75 came precursors of the great conflict: Boston Port 
Bill, Provincial Congress, Conventions and town meetings voicing 
sentiments of the people, tory action at Portland; in the spring 
the war-call at Lexington, people aroused and the militia responding 
for defense, Portland burnt. So far to the end of 1775 in no 


source have I met detinite data of William Lithgow, Jr. Surely 
at such events the drummer boy, the soldier youth of Fort HaHfax, 
had not failed in martial spirit and patriotism. Indeed, he had 
somewhere found duty and promotion. 

In 1776 he appears in Portland as Captain Lithgow in command 
of one of the five companies called to the defense and fortification 
of the city. In December came to him an unsolicited appointment 
to be ^lajor of a regiment then forming under Col. Ebenezer Fran- 
cis. He replies that no private interest at so critical a time could 
permit him to decline, and he accepts "not without a most humiliat- 
ing sense of inexperience and want of military knowledge." 

The regiment, nth ^Massachusetts, included four companies from 
Maine and shared in 1777 the campaign of the Northern Army 
against Burgoyne from Ticonderoga down to Stillwater and Sara- 
toga, until his surrender, in October. 

At Saratoga ]Major Lithgow received a serious wound in the 
elbow, resulting in a partially but permanently, disabled arm. Such 
an injury must have obtained for him release to go home; thereby 
he was spared a share in that following terrible winter at \'alley 

The summer of 1779 brought on the "Bagaduce" Expedition, 
as always called in Elaine. I do not learn that any unit of the 
Continental Army to which Major Lithgow was then attached 
made a part of the force ordered to Penobscot. Till further in- 
formed I must believe that he went there by the soldier impulse to 
be present at the confident attempt to expel the enemy from the 
state, and that he attended his near neighbor, Col. Samuel ^IcCobb, 
who had a very prominent part in the entire afifair. I must think 
that by McCobb's suggestion he found a post of duty. On the 
transport Sally before the force debarked, he was honored "bv 
appointment to act as volunteer Aide de Camp to General Lovel:.'' 
and he is named holding that place in the advance upon Castlne 

Not dismayed by the shaming disaster, the leaders with resolute 
energy took up their duties. Gen. Lovell, not lost nor captured 
as some feared, hastened from Camden far up the Penobscot Tto 
Orono?), to confer with the Indians lest now amity might be 
weakened. By their guides he crossed over to the Kennebec and 


down to send dispatches to Boston, which he wrote at Georgetown, 
August 28^ and of course tlie guest of Col. Lithgow and Maj. Wil- 
liam, his late aide. Thence he went to Camden, as had already 
Gen. W'adsworth to Thomaston, — to learn tlie situation. x\lready 
General Gushing at Pownalboro had urged on the Board of War 
at Boston, how essential that no more of the coast should be seized, 
asserting the great value of the Kennebec and Sheepscot on the west 
and Camden on the east. Agreeably it was determined that those 
coast towns be formed into a military district, and upon Cushing's 
strong recommendation, ^laj. Lithgow was put in command. 

He made reply, September 13, with a grateful sense of the honor 
and his sincere desire to serve his countr\- in the present crisis, and 
accepts, neglecting private concerns "when wounds at Saratoga but 
ill permit of the fatigues of a camp." 

The plan called out 300 men for the Kennebec and vicinity and 
Cox's Head was selected for main defense. Lithgow chose two 
lower points to place batteries and the summit for a small fort. 
Jackson's regiment was then at Boothbay, and a force of 300 men 
later increased from the towns was stationed at Camden, where 
were Lithgow's chief headquarters. 

Just now most inopportune, he was obliged to make a hard jour- 
ney on horsebock to Boston by summons to all officers who had 
been at Penobscot to attend an inquiry into that deplored failure 
to be held at Faneuil Hall, September 22. He reports in the middle 
of October a long march with a large force up river from Camden 
in aid of the distressed inhabitants ; details their poverty, hard- 
ships, not able to get away, plundered of their property, compelled 
to labor on the fortifications; and asserts that he would be callous 
to suffering if he did not make known their condition under such 
losses and terrorism. 

The forces for seacoast defense had been detached to serve till 
November. The withdrawal terminated Lithgow's command, and 
was the end of his militarv- service in the Revolution, with high 
repute for ability and character, and worthy of the honor bestowed 
as he entered civil life. Subsequently in public life no less honor 
did ability and character win for him, even if one opinion were in 
excess,— "the Province had no more popular man." True it seems 
in his own county for at once the popular voice called him to the 
Legislature, in which he was a member in the sessions of 1781 and 


1782, and in the following year advanced him to the Senate. Here 
an important duty was given him with two others, to treat with 
the Indians at Penobscot in respect to their claims on lands. Again 
elected to the Senate he sends to that body from Georgetown, 
October 19, 1785, his resignation, asserting that he was conscious 
that his duty would demand at least a general application to public 
business during the sessions, but private engagements and the busi- 
ness of his profession obliged him by motives of justice to his 
constituents to resign his seat. It appears that for the vacant seat 
his father, Lithgov; Senior, was put forward as a candidate. 

At this time the military system of the state made Lincoln County 
the eighth division, and in June, 1786, Major Lithgow was chosen 
Major General of that division. 

A dozen years previously he had entered upon his chosen pro- 
fession, the law. His admission to the bar, — the date or the place, 
I have not learned, but in respect to that step and subsequent years, 
some presumptive views are allowed. His studies with Judge Sulli- 
van must have terminated in 1773 or previous winter. Admission 
to the bar would not be long delayed and with the approbation of 
Sullivan can be assigned to that autumn or winter at any convenient 
term of court. Evidence seems clear that he opened his first law 
office in Fort Western, then in Hallowell but now Augusta. By 
his last years at Ft. Halifax he was well acquainted with that stor- 
age fort and officers and the few people of the vicinity. There, 
therefore, beyond question Lithgow spent his first two years (1774- 
75) in the practice of law. 

When came Concord and Lexington, the people through New 
England astir and ready, then the young lawyer was fitted to be 
a leader of volunteer militia at the Kennebec, employing for the 
instruction of others his knowledge of the military art derived from 
ten youthful years at Fort Halifax, Activity there I believe opened 
the way for him to be captain in Portland in 1776, and his Revolu- 
tionary^ service began. 

After Maj. Lithgow*s command of the sea-coast defense ended 
at Camden, he returned to the practice of law even while a legis- 
lator, thou2:h iealous of his honor in permitting no infringement on. 
his duties during sessions. Attachment to his profession was one 
reason to decline the senatorship, but a young man of thirty-five 


would regard prudently the aim to secure a competency while he 
might, 'ihe question of his residence after release from the army 
has no definite answer, but records covering several dates from 
1783 to 1788, shou" him acting as attorney and justice of peace at 
Georgetown, and hence the opinion that was his home, as we as- 
sume it of course would be after returning and suffering with 
vv'ounds. A statement worthy of all confidence asserts that in 17S8 
he opened a law othce at Fort Western, presumed to be his location 
till illness obliged him to reHnquish practice. 

It may be regarded creditable to a lawyer to form and maintain 
a good style of handwriting. It would be more than commendable 
if it were always true that handwriting reveals character. Gen- 
eral Lithgow's chirography was exact and elegant ; it was praised 
as almost equal to an engraver's work. Education and literary 
attainments, as well as business abihty, may be indicated in a sister 
who could make out a legal paper as well as her lawyer brother. 
The position he held as an able attorney of Lincoln County is 
indicated by appointment as Attorney General for Elaine in 1789, 
held five years to 1794, which must be taken as the date of retiring 
from his profession. By one report he was seized with illness 
while in court or busily engaged upon a case, and at once he retired 
to his father's house. The attack is said by one to have symptoms 
of apoplexy; by another was occasioned by disease of the liver. 
It appears, therefore, that more than a year of sickness was en- 
dured before his death. 

The- record is preserved on a plain solid stone in the Lithgow 
burying place at Phipsburg not far from the location where stood 
, the family mansion. 

WHO DIED FEB. 16, I796, AGED 46 

This Lithgow family stands so alone as to appear to be the only 
one of the name entering Elaine or probably New England, though 
the assertion can have no warrant. If there have been others thev 
have moved along so retired and humble lines, that the name has 
had no recognition. 

A single instance is worthy of notice.* 

«» Baxter :MSS VoL 11. — 217. 


While Capt. William Eithgow was in service at St. George 
River, a letter reached Gov. Belcher from Capt. Thomas Sanders of 
the Sloop ^lassachusetts, the Province dispatch boat and trans- 
port, informing that when near Boston, a boat from a British man- 
of-war had put men on board who "took two men, Wm. Eithgow 
mate and John Elder seaman; — that in spite of his protests and 
the showing of his Commission, their Captain, — Scott declared, "He 
had no regard for Commissions and must have men and would." 
This occurred in June, 1741. 

Hence one more immigrant, another William Eithgow, whether 
original Scotch or Scotch-Irish, and probably not representing a 
family, had come to Boston and had found employment as seaman 
for the Province. 

Our historian, Williamson,^ writes that in March of the same 
year, Capt. James Scott of His ^Majesty's Ship Astraee, impressed 
from a wood-sloop two men, and from a coaster, the Captain and 
men. He inclines to believe that those were the first to be im- 
pressed on this coast. He says, "Capt. Scott fearing a big blaze" 
discharged them. If so, he took up the game three months later. 

Here appears to be the beginning of the odious and reprobated 
system as^ainst which more fiercely blazed popular resentment three 
score and more years after. 




(By John C. Stewart) 

Abbott, Xehemiah, a Representative from Maine; born in Sid- 
ney, March 29, 1S06; studied law, admitted to the bar and began 
practice in Belfast; member of the state house of representatives 
in 1842 and 1843; elected as a Republican to the thirty-fifth Con- 
gress (March 4, 1857-March 3, 1859) ; resumed the practice of 
law in Belfast and died there July 26, 1877. 

Alexander, De Al\a Stanwood, a Representative from New 
York; born in Richmond, July 17, 1846; served three years in the 

oVol. 2; 208. 


Union army in the Civil War; prepared for college in die Edward 
Little Institute, Auburn; graduated from Bowdoin college in 1870; 
located in Indianapolis, Indiana; studied law, was admitted to 
the bar and practised 1877-1S81 ; delegate to the Republican na- 
tional convention in 1872; appointed fifth auditor of the Treasury 
in 188 1 and served until 1885 ; served one term as commander of 
the Department of the Potomac, Grand x\rmy of the Republic; 
removed to Buffalo, X. Y., in 1885 '> appointed United States attor- 
ney for the northern district of New York in May, 1889, ^^^ served 
until December, 1893; elected as a Republican to the Fifty-fifth, 
Fifty-sixth, Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth and 
Sixty-first Congresses (IVlarch 4, i897-]March 3, 191 1) ; resumed 
the practice of law in Buffalo, N. Y. 

Allen, Amos Lawrence, a Representative from Elaine; born in 
Waterboro, March 17, 1837; educated in common schools and 
Whitestown seminary, Whitestown, New York, and graduated 
from Bowdoin college in i860; studied law in the Columbian law 
school, Washington, D. C, and was admitted to York county bar 
in 1866; served as clerk in the United States Treasury Depart- 
ment about three years; elected clerk of courts of York county in 
1870 and was three times re-elected, serving until January i, 1883; 
member of Maine house of representatives, 1887-1888; private sec- 
retary to Speaker Reed in three Congresses ; delegate at large to 
the Republican national convention in St. Louis in 1896; elected 
as a Republican to the Fifty-sixth Congress, November 6, 1899, 
to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Thomas B. Reed; re- 
elected to the Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth and 
Sixty-first Congresses fNovember 6, 1899-March 3, 1911) ; died 
in Washington, D. C, February 20, 191 1. 

Ames, Adelbert, a Senator from Mississippi ; born in Rockland, 
October 31, 1835; graduated from L^nited States military academy. 
West Point, N. Y., May 6, 1861 ; commissioned second lieutenant 
of the second artillery; first lieutenant of the fifth artillery May 
14, 1861 ; colonel of the twentieth Maine infantry August 20, 1862 ; 
brigadier general of volunteers ^May 20, 1863 ; honorably mustered 
out of the volunteer service April 30, 1866; commissioned captain 
of fifth artillery June 11, 1864; lieutenant colonel of the twenty- 


fourth infantry July 28, 1866; brevet major July 21, 1861, "for 
gallant and meritorious service in the battle of Bull Run, Va."; 
lieutenant colonel July i, 1S62, "for gallant and meritorious service 
in the battle of Malvern Hill, Va.''; colonel July i, 1863, "for gal- 
lant and meritorious service in the battle of Gettysburg, Pa."; brig- 
adier general ]\Iarch 13, 1865, "for gallant and meritorious service 
at the capture of Fort Fisher, N. C"; major general March 13,. 
1865, "for gallant and meritorious service in the field during the 
war"; major general of volunteers January 15, 1865, "for services 
at Fort Fisher"; resigned February 2;^, 1870; awarded a medal 
of honor for heroic conduct upon the field of Bull Run, Va. ; ap- 
pointed provisional governor of Mississippi June 15, 1868; ap- 
pointed to the command of the fourth military district (department 
of Mississippi) ^larch 17, 1869; elected to the United States Sen- 
ate and served from April i, 1870, until January, 1874, when he 
resigned, having been elected governor ; resigned as governor March 
29, 1876, and removed to ^linnesota; major general of volunteers 
in the war with Spain, 1898. 

Anderson, Hugh Johnston, a Representative from Maine ; born 
in Wiscasset, ]\Iay 10, 1801 ; educated in preparatory schools and 
college; clerk of Waldo county courts 1827-1837; studied law^* 
elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Con- 
gresses (March 4, 1837-March 3, 1841) ; governor of Maine 1834- 
^^37 ' presidential elector on Cass and Butler ticket ; Commissioner 
of Customs in the Treasury Department 1853-1858; sixth auditor 
of the Treasury 1866-1869; died in Portland ^lay 31, 1881. 

Anderson, John, a Representative from Elaine; born in Wind- 
ham, July 30, 1792; graduated from Bowdoin college in 1813; 
studied law, was admitted to the bar and practiced ; member of 
the state senate in 1824; elected as a Republican to the Nineteenth, 
Twentieth, Twenty-first and Twenty-second Congresses (March 
4. 1825-March 3, 1833); mayor of Portland 1833-1842; United 
States attorney for the State of Elaine 1833-1837; collector of cus- 
toms port of Portland 1837-1841 ; and 1843-1848; died in Port- 
land, August 21, 1853. 

Andrews, Charles, a Representative from Maine; born in Paris 
in 1814; studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1837, and began 


practice in Turner; member of the state house of representatives 
1839-1843, and served as speaker in 1842; elected as a Democrat 
to the Twenty-second Congress, and served from Alarch 4, 1851, 
until his death in Paris, April 30, 1852. 

Averill, John Thomas, a Representative from Minnesota ; born 
in Alna, ^larch i, 1825; graduated from Maine ^^'esleyan universi- 
ty; moved to St. Paul, Minnesota, and engaged in manufacturing; 
member of the state senate 1858-1859; lieutenant colonel of the 
sixth regiment Minnesota volunteer infantry August 22, 1862; 
colonel November 22, 1864; brevet brigadier general of volunteers 
October 18, 1865, '"for meritorious service in the recruitment of 
the Army of the United States''; honorably mustered out Septem- 
ber 28, 1865 ; elected as a Republican to the Forty-second and 
Forty-third Congresses (^larch 4, i87i-!^Iarch 3, 1875) ' ^'^^^ ^^ 
St. Paul, ^Minnesota, October 3, 1889. 

Ayer, Richard Small, a Representative from Virginia ; born in 
IMontville, October 9, 1820; attended the common schools; enlisted 
in the Union army as a private in the fourth ]\Iaine volunteers in 
1861, and was mustered out as a captain; settled in A'irginia in 
1865 y elected a delegate to the \'irginia constitutional convention 
in 1867; elected as a RepubHcan to the Forty-first Congress and 
took his seat January 31, 1870; served until March 3, 1871 ; died 
in Liberty, Maine, December 14, 1896. 

Barker, Abraham Andrews, a Representative from Pennsylva- 
nia; born in Lovell, ^larch 30, 1816; attended the public schools; 
moved to Pennsylvania in 1854 and engaged in the lumber trade; 
delegate in the Republican national convention in Chicago in i860; 
elected as a L'nion Republican to the Thirty-ninth Congress (March 
4, i86^-March 3, 1867) ; died in Ebensburg, Pennsylvania, March 
14, 1898. 

Bates, James, a Representative from Maine; born in Greene, 
-September 24, 1789; attended the common schools; studied medi- 
cine at Harvard medical school in Boston, ^lassachusetts ; served 
as a surgeon during the war of 1S12 and was present at the sur- 
render of Fort Erie: in chargfe of the general military hospital near 


Buffalo, New York, until his resignation in May, 1815; settled 
in practice in Hallowell but moved to Xorridgewock in 181 9, where 
he continued practice ; elected as a Republican to the Twenty-second 
Congress (March 4, 1831-March 3, 1833) ; superintendent of the 
insane hospital 1845-185 1; practiced in Gardiner, Fairfield and 
Yarmouth, where he died February 25, 1882. 

Belcher, Hiram, a Representative from IMaine ; born in Augusta, 
June 10, 1790; attended Hallowell academy; studied law, admitted 
to the bar and began practice in Augusta in 1812; member of the 
state house of representatives several terms ; elected as a Whig to 
the Thirtieth Congress (^larch 4, 1847-March 3, 1849) 5 ^^^^ ^^ 
Augusta, May 7, 1857. 

Bennett, Hiram Pits, a Delegate from the Territory of Colorado; 
born in Carthage, September 2, 1826; attended the public schools; 
studied law, was admitted to the bar and began practice in western 
Iowa; elected judge of the circuit court there in 1852; moved to 
Nebraska Territory in 1854 and was elected a member of the Ter- 
ritorial council the same year; in 1858 was elected to the state 
house of representati\es and was chosen speaker; went to Colorado 
Territory in 1859; elected delegate as a Conservative Republican 
to the Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth Congresses (^larch 4, 1861- 
March 3, 1865) ; appointed secretary of state of Colorado in March, 
1867; postmaster at Denver, Colorado, 18701875; senator in the 
first state legislature in 1876; appointed "state agent" in 1888 and 
served Until 1895 ^" recovering lands belonging to Colorado but 
wrongfully disposed of; retired from active duties and was a resi- 
dent of Denver, Colorado, in 191 1. 

Benson, Samuel Page, a Representative from Maine ; born in 
Winthrop, November 28, 1804; graduated from Bowdoin college; 
studied law and began practice in Winthrop ; member of the state 
legislature in 1834 and 1836; secretary of state 1838-1841 ; elected 
as a Whig to the Thirty-third Congress ; re-elected as a Republican 
to the Thirty- fourth Congress; served from March 4, 1853, to 
March 3, 1857; resumed the practice of law and became one of the 
overseers of Bowdoin college; died in Yarmouth, August 12, 1876. 

Benton, Charles S., a Representative from New York; born in 


Maine (town not given) ; moved to !Moha\vk, New York; elected 
.as a Whig to the Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Congresses 
(March 4, 1843-AIardi 3, 1847) l died May 4, 1882. . 

Bisbee, Horatio, Jr., a Representative from Florida; born in 
Canton, May i, 1839; graduated from Tufts college; served in 
the Civil war as a private three months in the Fifth Massachusetts 
infantry; mustered out in July, 1861 ; captain in Ninth Maine in 
-September, 1861 ; lieutenant colonel and colonel; mustered out in 
March, 1863 ; removed to Jacksonville, Florida, and began the 
practice of law February 10, 1865 ; United States attorney for the 
northern district of Florida 1869-1873, and for a short time was 
attorney general for the State of Florida ; presented credentials 
as a Republican-elect to the Forty-fifth Congress and served from 
'March 4, 1877, to February 20, 1879, when he was succeeded by 
"Jesse J. Finley, who contested his seat ; successfully contested the 
-election of Noble A. Hull to the Forty-sixth Congress and served 
from January 22, 1881, to !March 3, 1881 ; successfully contested 
"the election of Jesse J. Finley to the Forty-seventh Congress and 
served from June i, 1882, to ]\Iarch 3, 1883; re-elected to the 
Forty-eighth Congress (^larch 4, 1883-March 3, 1885) ; resumed 
•tlie practice of law in Jacksonville, Florida. 

Black, Frank Swett, a Representative from New York; born in 
Limington, March 8, 1853 ; attended district schools and Lebanon 
academy. West Lebanon ; graduated from Dartmouth college in 
1875 » editor of Johnstown, New York, Journal ; moved to Troy, 
New York, studied law, was admitted to the bar and began prac- 
tice in Troy; elected as a Republican to the Fifty- fourth Congress, 
and served from ^larch 4, 1895, to January 7, 1897, when he re- 
signed, having been elected governor of New York ; at the expira- 
tion of his term as governor he resumed the practice of law in 
New York city. 

- Boutelle, Charles Addison, a Representative from Maine ; born 
in Damariscotta, February 0, 1839; attended the public schools 
at Brunswick and Yarmouth academy; became a shipmaster, and, 
in the SDrinc: of 1862. volunteered and was appointed acting master 
in the United States Navy; served in the North and South At- 


laiitic and West Gulf squadrons; took part in the blockade of 
Charleston and Wilmington, the Pocotaligo expedition, tlie capture 
-of St. John's Bluff, and occupation of Jacksonville, Florida; while 
an officer of United States steamer Sassacus was promoted to lieu- 
tenant "for gallant conduct in the engagement with tlie rebel iron- 
clad' ^/^t';7?ar/(7/' ^la.y 5, 1864; afterwards in command of United 
States steamer A'3'o;2ca; participated in the capture of jNIobile and 
in receiving the surrender of the Confederate fleet; assigned to 
command of naval forces in ^Mississippi Sound ; honorably dis- 
charged January 14, 1866; engaged in business in Xew York; be- 
came managing editor of Bangor (]\Iaine) Whig and Courier in 
•1870 and purchased controlling ownership of it in 1874; a delegate 
to Repubhcan national convention in 1876; elected as a Republican 
to the Forty-eighth, and to the nine succeeding Congresses ; served 
irom i\Iarch 4, 1883, until he resigned ^larch 3, 1901 ; died in 
Waverley, Massachusetts, May 21, 1901. 

. Bowman, Thomas, a Representative from Iowa; born in W^is- 
casset, ^lay 25, 1848; moved to Council Bluff's, Iowa, in 1868 and 
engaged in' business; elected treasurer of Pottawattamie county in 
1875 ^^^ re-elected in 1887 and 1889; mayor of Council Bluffs 
in 1882; postmaster 1885-1889 when he resigned; purchased a con- 
trolling interest in the Council Bluffs Globe in 1883 ; elected as a 
Democrat to the Fifty-second Congress (March 4, 1891-March 3, 
^893)1 again postmaster at Council Bluffs 1904-1908; engaged in 
railroad contracting. 

Bradbury, George, a Representative from the District of Elaine 
before its separation from ^lassachusetts ; born in Falmouth, Octo- 
ber 10, 1770; graduated from Harvard college in 1789; studied 
law; was admitted to the bar and practiced in Portland ; member 
of ^lassachusetts house of representatives 1806-1810, 181 1 and 
18 1 2'; elected as a Federalist to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
Congresses T^Iarch 4, 1813-^Iarch 3, 1817) ; resumed the practice 
of law; associate clerk of the Portland court 1817-1820; member 
of the state senate in 1820; died in Portland, November 7, 1823. 

• Bradbury, James W^are, a Senator from Elaine; born in Parsons- 
field, June TO, 1802 ; graduated from Bowdoin college in 1825 ; prin- 




cipal of Hallowell academy and founder of the first normal school 
, in New England at Effingham, New Hampshire; studied law, was 

^ admitted to the bar in 1830, and practiced in Augusta; county at- 

torney 1834-1838; presidential elector on the Polk ticket in 1844; 
elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate for the term 
beginning ^larch 4, 1847, ^^^ served until ]\Iarch 3, 1S53 ; declined 
to be a candidate for re-election; died in Augusta, January 7, 1901. 

Bradford, x\llen Alexander, a Delegate from the Territory of 
Colorado; born in Friendship, July 2^, 1815; moved to Missouri 
in 1841 ; studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practiced ; clerk 
of the circuit court of Atchison county, Missouri, 1845-1851; re- 
moved to Iowa; judge of the sixth judicial district 1852-1855 ; 
moved to the Territory of Nebraska and was a member of the 
legislative council 1856, 1857 and 1858; removed to the Territory 
of Colorado in i860; appointed judge of the supreme court of 
that Territory by President Lincoln June 6, 1862; elected as a 
Republican Delegate to the Thirty-ninth Congress (March 4, 1865- 
March 3, 1867) ^"^ to the Forty-first Congress (^larch 4, 1869- 
March 3, 1871) ; resumed the practice of law^ in Pueblo and died 
there March 12, 1888. 

Brooks, James, a Representative from New York ; born in Port- 
land, November 10, 1810; graduated from W^aterville (now Colby) 
college in 1828; taught in Portland until 1830; edited the Portland 
Advertiser; member of the state house of representatives one term; 
removed to New York City in 1836 and established the New York 
Daily Express, of which he was editor-in-chief the remainder of 
his life; member of the state legislature in 1847; elected as a Whig 
to the Thirty-first and Thirty-second Congresses f^Iarch 4, 1849- 
!March 3, 1853) ; elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-eighth, Thirty- 
ninth, Fortieth, Forty-first, Forty-second and Forty-third Con- 
gresses, and served from March 4, 1863, until his death; appointed 
a director in the L'nion Pacific railroad in October, 1867 ; died in 
Washington, April 30, 1873. 

Brown, James S., a Representative from Wisconsin ; born in 
Hampden, February i, 1823; attended the public schools; moved 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1840; studied law, was admitted to the bar, 


I and began practice in ^lilwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1844; prosecuting 

t attorney for ^^lilwaukee county in 1846; attorney general for Wis- 

I consin in 1848; mayor of ^Milwaukee in i860; elected as a Demo- 

■^ crat to the Thirty-eighth Congress (]\Iarch 4, 1863-AIarch 3, 1865) ; 

I died in Chicago, Illinois, April 16, 1878. 

Buck, Alfred Eliab, a Representative from Alabama; born in 
Foxcroft, February 7, 1832; graduated from Waterville (now Col- 
by) college in 1859; entered the Union Army in 1S61 as captain of 
company C, thirteenth Elaine infantry; appointed lieutenant colonel 
• of the ninety-first United States colored troops in August, 1863 ; 
transferred to the fifty-first United States colored troops in Octo- 
I ber, 1864; brevetted colonel of volunteers for gallant conduct; mus- 
\ tered out of service at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, June, 1866; mem- 
I ber of the Alabama constitutional convention in 1867; clerk of 
the circuit court of ^Mobile county, 1867-1868; presidential elector 
in 1868; elected as a Republican to the Forty-first Congress (]\Iarch 
4, 1869-March 3, 1871) ; president ]\Iobile city council 1873; clerk 
of United States circuit and district courts in Atlanta, Georgia, 
1874-1889; appointed minister to Japan by President McKinley in 
April, 1897, ^^^ served until his death in Tokyo, Japan, December 
4, 1902. 

Burleigh, Edwin Chick, a Representative and Senator from 
Maine; born in Linneus, November 2y, 1843; attended the com- 
mon schools and. Houlton academy ; largely interested in timber- 
lands of ]Maine; elected treasurer of state in 1885 and re-elected 
in 1887 i the same year secured a controlling interest in the Ken- 
nebec Journal, pubHshed at Augusta; governor of Maine 1889-1892; 
delegate to Republican national convention in St. Louis in 1806; 
elected as a Republican to the Fifty-fifth Congress, to fill the va- 
cancy caused by the death of Seth L. Milliken ; re-elected to the 
Fifty-sixth, Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth and 
Sixty-first Congresses, serving from July I, 1897, ^^ March 3, 191 1 ; 
elected to United States Senate 1913. 

Burleigh, John Holmes, a Representative from Maine; born in 
South Berwick, October 9, ivS22 ; pursued preparatory studies • mem- 
ber of state house of representatives in 1862. 1864, 18^8 and 1872 : 


delegate at large to the Republican national convention at Baltimore 
in 1864; elected as a Republican to the Forty-third and Forty- 
fourth Congresses (^larch 4, 1873-March 3, 1877) i ^^^^ i^ South 
Berwick, December 5, 1877. 

Burleigh, \\^alter Atwood, a Delegate from Dakota Territory ; 
born in Waterville, October 25, 1820; attended the public schools; 
studied medicine in Burlington. \^ermont, and in New York citv, 
and began practice in Richmond, ]\Iaine ; moved to Kittanning, 
Pennsylvania, in 1852; declined a foreign mission tendered by 
President Lincoln in 1861 ; Indian agent, Greenwood, Dakota Ter- 
ritory, 1861-1865 ; elected a delegate to the Thirty-ninth and Fortieth 
Congresses (]\Iarch 4, i865-]\Iarch 3, 1869) ; elected to the upper 
house of the territorial legislature in 1877 and served two terms ; 
moved to ]\Iiles City, ^lontana Territory; member of the conven- 
tion that framed the state constitution of IMontana ; served in the 
first state legislature; prosecuting attorney for Custer county; state 
senator from Yankton county in 1893; ^^^^ ^^ Yankton, South 
Dakota, March 8, 1896. 

Butman, Samuel, a Representative from Maine; date and place 
of birth not given; member of the state house of representatives in 
1822, 1826 and 1827; elected as a Federalist to the Twentieth and 
Twenty-first Congresses (March 4, i827-]\Iarch 3, 1831) ; county 
commissioner of Penobscot county in 1846; served in the state 
senate and was president of that body in 1856; died in Dixmont 
in 1864. 

Cameron, Ralph Henry, a Delegate from the Territory of Ari- 
zona ; born in Southport, October 21, 1863; received a common 
school training; went west and became interested in mining and 
stock raising; locator and builder of Bright Angel trail into the 
Grand Canyon of the Colorado in Arizona; moved to x^rizona in 
1883; sheriff of Coconino county three terms and served one term 
as member and one as chairman of the board of supervisors of 
that county; elected as a Republican delegate to the Sixty-first 
Congress (March 4, 1909-March 3, 191 1). 

Carr, James, a Representative from the District of Maine while 


a portion of Massachusetts; born in Bangor, September 9, ij"/"/ ', 
member of ^lassachusetts house of representatives 1806-1S11; 
elected to tJie Fourteenth Congress (March 4, i8i5-2vlarch 3, 1817) ; 
drowned in Ohio river August 24, 1818. 

Carter, Luther Cullen, a Representative from New York; born 
in Bethel, February 2^, 1805 j nioved to Xew York and engaged in 
mercantile pursuits; several years on the board of education of 
New York city; retired from business and moved to Long Island, 
where he became interested in agriculture; elected as a Union Re- 
publican to the Thirty-sixth Congress (March 4, 1859-March 3, 
1861); died in Brooklyn, New York, Januar}- 3, 1875. 

Carter, Timothy Jars'is, a Representative from Maine ; born 
in Bethel, August 18, 1800; studied law, was admitted to the bar 
and practiced in Paris; secretary of the state senate in 1833; county 
attorney 1833-1837; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-fifth 
Congress and served from September 4, 1837, until his death in 
Washington, D. C, ^vlarch 14, 1838. 

Chamberlain, Ebenezer Mattoon, a Representative from Indi- 
ana; born in Orrington, August 20, 1805 ; attended the public schools 
and studied law ; moved to Connersville, Indiana, in 1832, where 
he completed his studies ; admitted to the bar and began practice 
in Elkhart county in 1833 ; member of the state house of represen- 
tatives 1835-1837; judge of Elkhart circuit court nine years; elected 
as a Democrat to the Thirty-third Congress (March 4, i853-]\Iarch 
3' ^^55) 'y resumed the practice of law in Goshen, Indiana, and 
died there ]March 14, 1861. 

Clapp, Asa William Henry, a Representative from Maine ; born 
In Portland, IMarch 6, 1805 ; graduated from the militar}- academy 
at Norwich, Vermont, in 1823 ; engaged in business ; elected as a 
Democrat to the Thirtieth Congress (March 4, 1847-March 3, 
1849) ; died in Portland, March 22, 1891. 

Clark, Franklin, a Representative from Maine; born in Wis- 
casset, August 2, 1801 ; attended the public schools; engaged in 
business in Wiscasset ; member of the state house of representa- 


tives; elected as a Democrat to the Thirtieth Congress (March 4, 
1847-^Iarch 3, 1849) '> member of the executive council of Elaine 
in 1855 ; died in Brooklyn, New York, August 24, 1874. 

Cobb, Stephen Alonzo, a Representative from Kansas ; born 
in ^ladison ; attended the common schools ; moved with his father 
to ^Minnesota in 1850; entered Beloit college in 1854; remained there 
two years and transferred to Brown university, where he graduated 
in 1858; settled in \\Vandotte, Kansas, in 1859, and began the prac- 
tice of law ; enlisted in the Union army in 1862 ; captain and com- 
missary sergeant of volunteers ^lay 18, 1864; brevet major August 
* 16, 1865 ; mustered out September 21,, 1865 ; mayor of Wyandotte 
1862 and 1868; member of the state senate 1862, 1869 and 1870. 

(To be Continued) 


Many a tree is found in the wood 
And every tree for its use is good; 
Some for the strength of the gnarled root, 
Some for the sweetness of flower or fruit; 
Some for shelter against the storm, 
And some to keep the hearth-stone warm ; 
Some for the roof and some for the beam. 
And some for a boat to breast the stream ; — 
In the wealth of the wood since the world began 
The trees have offered their gifts to man. 

But the glory of trees is more than their gifts: 

'Tis a beautiful wonder of life that lifts, 

From a wrinkled seed in an earth-bound clod, 

A column, an arch in the temple of God, 

A pillar of power, a dome of delight, 

A shrine of song, and a joy of sight! 

Their roots are the nurses of rivers in birth ; 

Their leaves are alive with the breath of the earth ; 

Thev shelter the dwellincfs of man ; and thev bend 

O'er his grave with the look of a loving friend 



I have camped in the whispering forest of pines, 
I have slept in the shadow of oHves and vines; 
In the knees of an oak, at the foot of a pahn 
I have found good rest and skimber's bahn. 
And now, when the morning gilds the boughs 
Of the vaulted elm at the door of my house, 
I open the window and make salute : 
"God bless thy branches and feed thy root ! 
Thou hast lived before, live after me, 
Thou ancient, friendly, faithful tree." 

— Henry Van Dyke. 






^^;^^^'* s >-^^^i'"'^ ' -'' ' ^ ^' w >ij si ! ? ' ^ ^'; f ^^'^ 



Camden. Maine 





\ < 





*^ ■■ ^' 

Rockland, Maine 

Mr. Robinson is the author of a most excellent and interesting 
History of Camden and Rockport, Elaine, published by the Cam- 
den Publishing Co. in 1907. He has written many other valuable 
Maine historical .sketches, which have been published in maga- 
zines and newspapers. 

Judge Miller has done much along these lines. In 1892, the 
Maine Home Journal of Portland, published a monograph, "Chron- 
icles of Cushing and Friendship, Containing Historical, Statistical 
and Miscellaneous Information of the Two Towns," of which he 
was the author and principal compiler. 


This idea was expressed by Mrs. Roselle Huddilston of Orono, 
in a recent address on "\\'omen's Duties in Polities'* before the 
B. & P. W. Club in Bangor, who among other things said : 

"I am convinced that as women beginning the new role of voters 


and public workers there is no one thing tliat we need more than 
a deeper appreciation of what our state has stood for and what 
it has achieved through its devotion and endowment of its leaders. 
Work, without enthusiasm, lapses into drudgery and lacks fruits. 
This is highly true in public life and we women of Elaine have 
the greatest reason to take heart for the future if we but fill our- 
selves with the history of ]^Iaine and her great men. Leaders you 
must be, and leaders you can be, if you once catch the spirit that 
fills the spirit made splendid by Elaine men. I have observed that 
when prominent men from other parts of the country come to 
Maine to make addresses, especially if it be a political speech, they 
invariably preface their remarks by highly eulogistic reference 
to such men as Blaine, Tom Reed, Dingley, Boutelle, Hale, Frye, 
and Hannibal Ham.lin, men of nation-wide glory, a glor}' reflected 
in turn upon Elaine. 

"I venture to say there are few of us who cannot find time for 
a brief course of studv in civics, in state historv, and in constitu- 
tional government as it obtains today in our state and in the United 
States. Right here I want to suggest to your president that it 
would be a fine thinsr to ask vour citv librarian to recommend and 
have published in the Bangor papers a list of books bearing upon 
the histor}^ of Elaine, and her great men, and on civic questions in 
general, for the use of those who desire to inform themselves on 
these questions." 


Frank Hamlin, a distinguished lawyer of Chicago, died at his 
home in that city, May 3, 1922. He was 55 years of age, having 
been born in Bangor, ^Maine, September 26, 1867. 

He was the son of Hannibal Hamlin, who was vice president with 
Abraham Lincoln, and one of America's greatest statesmen, noted 
for his purity of character and high integrity. Like all of the fa- 
mous Hamlin family of Maine. Frank Hamlin was closely allied 
^Mth the Republican party, and high in it^ councils, but never in- 
clined to hold official positions. He was a man of culture, a lover 
of books and a student of the world's best literature. He never 
lost his love for his native state and was deeply interested in its 
historv. He had been a "bound volume subscriber" to the Journal 
from its first issue, and an occasional contributor. 




An address ddiicrcd before the Gardiner Post-0 ffiee employees, by George 
E. Hathdzcay, January soth, iq2J. 

At the regular meeting of the Council of Post-Office Employees 
held in the "Swing room" of the Government building Saturday 
evening, George Hathaway, at the request of Acting Postmaster 
Smith, gave an interesting talk regarding the early days of the 
Gardiner post-office, of which the following is a part : 

"Barzilla Gannet was the first postmaster in Gardiner and he 
kept the office in a small store on what is now lower Water street, 
where he traded. Later he moved it to the house at the foot of 
Vine street, which is now occupied by Judge H. E. Cook. The 
following year the office v/as moved to the house of Frederick Allen 
on ^lain avenue, where for over 45 years C. T. Stackpole made his 

"In 1790 there was not more than one mile of road in Gardiner 
where a carriage could travel and the mail was carried on horse- 
back to Portland, through Monmouth. In 1809 Seth Gay became 
postmaster and moved the office to what was then known as the 
North house, which was built by Dr. Gardiner in 1763, and sold 
to Mr. North 10 years later. It stood in the heater piece north 
of where the Farmers' Union building now stands and was torn 
down 40 years ago. At the time Mr. Gay took the office there 
was one mail a week from Portland. The postmaster's salary was 
$37.50 a year and the entire proceeds from the office amounted to 
about $125 per annum. 

"The first stage coach came to Gardiner from Brunswick in 
181 1. ^Ir. Gay served as postmaster until April, 1835, and was 
succeeded by William Palmer, who remained until October i, 184T, 
and Thomas Gay was appointed in his place. June 30, 1845, ^^• 
Joseph ]\Ierrill became postmaster and removed the office to what 
is now the work-room of Charles A. Davenport's jewelry store. 
The entrance was from Depot Square through an arch some 12 
or i^ feet wide. This arch was closed up years ago and the space 
is noH' occunied by Charles E. Taylor's barber shop. 

"About the vear i860 the office was moved to where the Music 
Shop is now located, and Hon. John P>crry appointed postmaster. 
In 1896 it was moved to the Patten block and five years ago the 
eighth of this month to its present site. 


"It was while Dr. Merrill was postmaster that envelopes first 
came into use. Prior to this the written sheet was folded and sealing 
wax used to stick the edges together. Xo stamps were used, but 
an impression made with an iron hand stamp with the words 'Post- 
age paid' and the amount of postage required filled in with pen 
and ink. 

"We can' hardly realize what a great change has taken place 
.*:ince 1822. At that time my grandfather was a master of a sailing 
packet that transported freight, mail and passengers between Ban- 
gor and Boston. When I entered the service 22 years ago the num- 
ber employed in this post-office was five, including the postmaster. 
Since that time eight small post-ofiices have been discontinued in 
this vicinity, namely. Gardinerville, \\'est Farmingdale, Chelsea, 
Xorth Pittston, Joyce, South and East Pittston and Randolph. 
These places are now served by this office and rural carriers. The 
number of people now employed in the office is 24. The rural car- 
riers Trom this office cover more than 172 miles every day deliver- 
ing mail. The post-office system of the United States is the greatest 
in the world. In 1900 it had one-quarter of the post-offices on 
the globe. In the year 1800 there were less than 1000 offices in 
the United States; today there are 52,188 and 320,000 workers are 
employed. The annual cost to the government is $600,000,000. The 
last count kept by the department showed that in every single hour 
in the 24, 1.400,000 letters are mailed. In making up each letter 
is handled five times ; it is collected, faced up, stamp cancelled, 
postmarked, sorted and tied into packets before landing in the 
pouch. It is not generally known that there are stamps of $1, $2 
and $5 denomination. The adhesive quality of the stamp comes 
by virtue of the sweet potato. Two kinds of gum are used, one 
for winter and another for summer. To transport the mail 6^,- 
000,000 sacks are in constant use and more than 800.000 miles of 
twine are used for the packages of letters, or more than enough to 
encircle the earth at the equator 32 times. 




In the first part of the 19th century, and until years after the 
Civil War, the farmers of 2^Iaine kept large flocks of sheep on 
their farms. In those days each had to select a sheep's mark to 
distinguish tliem from their neighbor's flocks. Copies of this mark 
with the name of the owner of the flock and a description of the 
same had to be recorded in the records of the town where the 
owner with his flock of sheep resided. 

Mr. Charles E. Washburne of Foxcroft has an old record book 
of the sheep owners and their marks in the old town of Foxcroft, 
before and since 182S. Just when this record commenced is uncer- 
tain, because on its third page, Xath'l Chamberlain, town clerk of 
Foxcroft, makes this entry under date of January 24, 1828 : "the 
foregoing was copyed carefully and correctly from the original 
record on a loose paper by me this day." 

The first one is John Bradbury, the mark is a Swallow's tail in 
the right Ear. Then follows Richard ^lorse ; a crop oft' of the 
right ear. Xathaniel Buck; a Swallow's tail in the left Ear. Joel 
Pratt; a Crop oft" the Left Ear and a halfpenny the under side of 
the right Ear. X"athaniel Carpenter; a Crop off of the right Ear 
and a Slit in the same. Benjamin Hearsey; a Crop off of the Left 
Ear. Jesse Washburne ; a Slit in the left Ear and halfpenny the 
under side of the right Ear. 

Other owners of flocks of sheep were: Eliphalet Washburne, 
Abel Turner, William Buck, Bela Hammond, Bela Hammond, Jr., 
William ]\Ierrill, Isaac A\>ston, Elijah Buck, Benjamin Buck, Xoal 
Hersey, Jr., William Thayer, Aaron Tucker, Moses Buck. Samuel 
Chamberlain, Salmon Holmes, Isra Deane, AVilliam Shaw, Isaac 
Thayer, Xathan Tobie, Xathaniel Chamberlain, Samuel Pierce, 
Amos Morse, Cyrus Holmes, Thatcher Blake, William Pratt, Moses 
Bolster, Josiah Pratt, Xathan Gould, William Pratt, Thomas Went- 
worth, Pely Weston, Ichabod Chandler, Josiah Chandler, Ichabod 
Chandler, Jr., Joseph Crooker, Isaac Trambly, Rushbrook Thayer, 
Francis Towne, Silvanus Chandler, Isaac Allen, Ellis Robinson, 
Nathaniel Snow, Daniel Buck, Ira Taunce, Ira x\llen, Jacob Jones, 
James Hone, Calvin Crooker, Charles Thayer, Joseph Crooker, 
Seth Sanborn, Thomas Williams, Hiram Stedman, Jonathan Palmer, 
David H. Crafts, Reuben Tucker, Cyrus Dwinal, A. F. Chandler, 
Daniel Wvman. 


This Department is open to con- Conducted by Augustus O. 
tributions from all teachers and Thomas, State Superintendent of 
pupils. i Schools, Augusta, Me. 


[Brooklyn Eagle] 

Dean West of Princeton has elaborated for the New York 
World the ideas of education which he outlined to the Princeton 
students the other day, on which sympathetic comment has already 
been made in these columns. 

The fuller statement, of course, sticks to the main point that 
the colleges, instead of insisting upon thorough knowledge of the 
fundamentals try to teach too much and teach it superiicially in 
consequence. But the order of arrangement of fundamentals is 
new and it lays less emphasis upon the classics than the original 
talk seemed to do. This order of importance, from a teacher of 
Dean West's experience, is worth emphasis. He puts first "the 
studies relative to nature,'' including mathematics and the elements 
of the sciences ; second, "the studies relating to collective man- 
kind," first history, our own and "the origins of civilized democracy 
and justice in Greece and Rome," with "political science and eco- 
nomics, so far as needed" ; third, "the studies relative to man indi- 
vidually. These are primarily just two — language and literature. 
This means English, to be well mastered as an instrument of 
thought. And for those who want the best mastery of English 
it means and must mean the classics both of Greek and Latin, but at 
least Latin." The Dean's championship of the classics is put in 
an epigram : "The fact that a boy can't and won't study Latin does 
not prove that he is another Lincoln. Lincoln sent his son to study 
Latin and Greek, too." 

The concentration upon essentials instead of permitting lazy boys 
to choose "snap courses from a lot of pleasant sounding electives, 
cannot be too much emphasized. It is as important for. the public 
schools, which Dean West leaves out of the discussion, although he 
Ws of them : "Here our national illiteracy is at its worst." As for 




secondary schools and colleges, the result of such concentration 
would, in Dean West's view, "strongly increase the intellectual 
and mental vigor of our colleges, increase the directive intelligence 
of our country to its enormous benefit and banish a lot of irresolute, 
ill-formed habits of thought and action." 

The mind is a machine for thought. It can only think feebly 
until it has been trained to think. The fact of training is more 
important than the method, as the success of thousands of men 
who have never been to college proves. Once trained, the more cul- 
ture the mind receives the better, but the substitution of a mushy 
and vague general acquaintance with the names of things, times 
and seasons is no substitute for the training for which Dean West 
pleads. That substitution has been too much encouraged by the 
multiplication of electives and the willingness to let our youth pick 
up a little learning here and there before their minds were fitted 
to digest and correlate it either to the whole field of knowledge 
or to the scheme of life which they were planning for themselves. 

W'e should study history, not for the time of events, but because 
it gives you a picture of ZK.'Iiat people have been. In other words, 
history is nothing more than psychology, finished psychology. It 
is the product of the human race, what it has done. It does not 
make any difference what day any of those battles were fought, or 
who was the boss on either side. The important thing is that they 
were fought then, the same as they are fought now, and for the 
same reason that people are fighting now — because of egotism. If 
we will begin to look at history from the standpoint of its relation- 
ship to the present day, we shall realize that most of the conclu- 
sions which we might make from the great subject of history are 
never reached. We pass history examinations to-day by knowing 
how to answer the question, "In what year was the war of i8i2?" 
Just as Important as that. — Journal of Education. 

Millions of young people quit school early because of some physi- 
cal handicap. Millions of others are retarded in their school work, 
finally graduating with indifferent grades, illy equipped for the 
battle of life, and these two classes go out as recruits in that great 
army of misfits, the square peg in the round hole, which is responsi- 


I . ble for most of life's misery.; — R. L. Augustine in Journal of Bdu- 
t cation. 




To The Hon. Senators and Representati^■es of the State of Maine 
in Legislature assembled. The undersigned, your petitioners, be- 
ing desirous of improvement in our public schools, and having 
known difficulties to arise in some schools on account of a dif- 
ference in opinion in relation to the legal rights of teachers, ask 
your Hon. body to point out, definitely, by statute the legal rights 
and duties of teachers, as in duty bound will ever pray. 

Names Names 

Hiram Kxowltox Harvey Whitcomb 

James Chapman Albert M. Williamson 

Selden Gil\y David W. Smith 

S. C. HoLBROOK A. H. Smith 

S. B. Walton John B. Hayfield 

Nath'l Jones Frank Richardson 

Otis Richardson Harvey Young 

Eben'r Nickerson Andrew Pinkham 

Wm. Harlon S. H. Willard 

Amos Pattee C. J. Smith 

John Pike M. Frizzell 

Daniel Elliot, Jr. R. H. Kimball 


THE COMMITTEE on Education 
TO WHICH WAS REFERRED the petition of Hiram Knowlton 
and others of fiercer praying for a law more clearly defining the 
Quties and powers of school teachers 


M. B. TOWN SEND, Chairman 


IN SENATE, June 17, 184S 


DANIEE T. PIKE, Secretary. 


This department desires to hear from schools which are now 
teaching Elaine History. Write freely to us. All will be interested. 

Splendid Material for Scholars in Maine Schools Studying 

Maine History 

An especially fruitful and valuable subject for historical study 
and research are the old houses of ]\Iaine. These houses may be 
found in nearly e\ery locality, although they are, of course, more 
numerous in the older settled sections of our state. Teachers and 
pupils of local ]\Iaine history in our public schools may here find 
an abundance of subject matter, \\'hich in point of interest amounts 
to a well-nigh absolute fascination. Such a study, too, is extremely 
valuable in that it may be made the means of perpetuating historical 
facts which might otherwise be lost. The local newspaper is always 
ready to publish such material when presented in an interesting 
manner, and thus valuable historical data may be preserved. 

Owing to the fact that these old houses are nearly all built of 
wood, the ravages of fire are severe, and every year witnesses the 
destruction of far too many of these interesting old places, which 
no amount of wealth can ever replace. 

Only a few months ago fire completely destroyed the old Mustard 
Tavern, so-called, a building rich in historical associations, which 
for considerably more than a century had been a land-mark on rhe 
old Post Road from P>runswick to Gardiner. 

Occasionally we find these old houses torn down and demolished, 
either to make place for a new residence, or for more vulgar com- 
mercial considerations. The beautiful old mansion known as ^font- 
pelier, the stately residence of General Henry Knox in Thomaston 



was thus destroyed, to the lasting sorrow and regret of the present 
<lay residents of that fair old town. Here is a building, which, if 
still standing, would have possessed much the same mterest for 
Elaine, that Alount \'ernon does for \'irginia. Here General Knox 
made his home after he had retired from his duties as Secretary 
of War in Washington's Cabinet, on the vast estates formerly be- 
longing to General Samuel Waldo. It was his intention to estab- 
lish a baronial estate after the custom in England. He entertained 
with almost regal hospitality, and every visitor to that region found 
a welcome at his hospitable hearth. To make amends for the de- 
struction of this fine old house, there is a movement on foot among 
the people of Thomaston to raise funds to reproduce it, — an indeed 
worthy object, — but of how much greater interest would have been 
the original mansion. 

Until within a comparatively few years a most interesting old 
building stood in South Sanford, on the old road running from 
Wells to Shapleigh. This house, too, was torn down to make place 
for a more modern structure. It was known as the Emery Tavern, 
erected by Colonel Caleb Emery shortly after the Revolution. Here 
the gallant Colonel dispersed hospitality to man and beast, and many 
an important personage found his way thither. Colonel Emery was 
a most important person in the community, the first postmaster of 
the town, the village merchant and tavern keeper, justice of the 
peace, colonel of the militia and deacon of the church. He was 
also the first representative to the General Court from the district 
in 1785. He had also taken part in the French and Indian wars 
and the Revolution. 

This old tavern possessed a peculiar interest In that in 1797 Louis 
Philippe of France, accompanied by his two brothers, and by the 
Duke of Talleyrand, on their way to Portland, were for two days 
entertained here. At this time Louis was not King of France, nor 
was it known that he was destined for the throne, but he was travel- 
ing incognito under the name of the Duke of Chartres. So ^^ar 
•Ts may be learned these important personages visited at this time 
Dr. Benjamin \'aughan at his beautiful home still standing in 
Hallo well, and were also entertained at Montpelier by General 
Knox. The old building possessed further distinction from the 
fnct that the famous Lafavette was entertained there on his visit 


to America in 1825. For many years the house was known as :'-e 
Lafayette Tavern. It was a large, square building, two-stontd, 
with immense chimneys, which must have contained huge £re- 
places ; a most imposing structure for its day. From this ramb'rng 
account of several of the old houses of Elaine, it is hoped that teach- 
ers and pupils in some of our schools may gain an incentive to in- 
vestigate and study in this interesting fi^ld of historical research. 

Bertram E. Packard. 
Sanford, ^le., ^lay 18, 1922. 

I know in the strife of the battle of life 
It's easy to fight when you're winning : 
It's easy to slave, and starve and be brave, 
When the dawn of success is beginning. 
But the man who can meet despair and defeat 
With a cheer, — there's the man of God's choosing 
The man who can fight to Heaven's own height 
Is the man who can fight when he's losing. 

But to labor with zest, and to give of your best, 
For the sweetness and joy of the giving; 
To help folks along with a hand and a song: 
Why, there's the real sunshine of living. 

— Service. 


"One great defect of the American people to-day," says Lucy D. 
Slowe, principal of a \\^ashington, D. C, school, "is that they do 
not make worthy use of their leisure. Attending a dance or looking 
at a moving picture is the only way in which most American people 
spend their leisure. As a result our art galleries, our libraries, our 
great out of doors are unexplored; our dramatic and our musical 
taste undeveloped or vicious. It is the sacred duty of the school 
to teach children some other way of spending their leisure than 
in dancing. America is frivolity mad." 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by 
John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, S2.00. Single copies of current and previous vol- 
umes, 50 cents. Bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 




The first number of the Journal was issued April i, 1913, and 
is now in its tenth volume. 

In our prologue we said: "The Colonial period of IMaine is a 
field of immensity as yet only partially explored. Everything per- 
taining thereto as well as its annals since, the history of our growth 
as a State, of our towns, cities and counties, our religious, political, 
social and industrial development altogether comprise a subject not 
only vastly important but fascinating as well. 

"We believe that the public interest in these matters is increasing 
and it is our purpose to endeavor to do an humble part in accentuat- 
ing the same. 

"Also it is apparent that there has been in recent years an awaken- 
ing to the importance of a more thorough, systematic and practical 
study of vState and local history among the educators of Maine 
and the teachers of schools and colleges. It is our hope that we 
may be able to sustain a publication that will be of help in pursuing 
such subjects." . . 

And those of our readers who have followed its humble career 
■ — and such are quite numerous — will confirm our statement, that 
we have ever since, worked along this line. \Ve have constantly 
insisted that Maine people from the youth to the aged, as a mat- 
ter of promoting patriotism and state pride, if for no other reason, 


should know more about !Maine history from the times of 1604 
until to-day. Then our leading^ educators in JMaine were shvinar 
at its being taught in our public schools. At the present time it 
is in the library of every college and normal school in our state, 
and in nearly all of the grade and high schools where it is used 
as a reference work. The newspapers of Alaine have, without ex- 
ception, been our strong alHes in these endeavors, and co-operated 
with us. 

Dr. Thomas has in his department at Augusta, a large collection 
of Maine town histories, written by scholars in the schools of 
Maine during the past two or three years. We understand that 
he designs to have these assembled and published in a monograph. 
It will, if done, certainly be a unique and valuable addition to the 
historical literatvire of our state. 

Mr. True C. ^lorrill, the' wide-awake superintendent of schools 
in the city of Bangor, a few months ago, sent questionnaires to 
teachers of schools in Eastern Elaine, asking that they be answered 
by their scholars. 

The columns of the Bangor Daily News have been open to Pro- 
fessor True for the publication of installments of the answers to 
these questionnaires. 

The frequent appearance of these has deeply interested all of its 
readers and infused in the public mind more love for their own 
state and history. 

These, if published in book form, would also be of vital interest 
to all, and accentuate this good work now in progress in !Maine. 

Another leading newspaper, The Portland Sunday Telegram, has 
for some time been running: in its columns a "Know Your Own 
State" department. Prizes are weekly offered to boys and girls, 
for answers received each week. 

It is evident that it is doing a most important work for the pub- 
lic, teachers and scholars of Portland and vicinity. 

It may appear slig^htly egotistical on our part, but we trust that 
our readers will pardon us for indulging in a belief that the Journal 
has done its "bit" towards this awakening of the people of Maine 
to the importance of knowing something about their own history. 

EDITORIALS ' ' ^: iii 


One of the Journal's esteemed friends and contributors, Dr. W. 
Scott Hill of x\ug-usta, Maine, writes us as follows : 

"In the last number of the Journal in the article on the Miller- 
ites in Maine, you say 'The popular notion that the ^lillerites pre- 
pared ascension robes and wore them when they were expecting 
to be caught up, was as far as I know, entirely false.' At that 
time my boyhood home was near the village of Sabattersville, as 
it was then called. I distinctly remember hearing my father's 
hired man telling my parents how a few in the village prepared as- 
cension robes and wor.e them, on the appointed day. Of this, fact 
I have no doubt." 

This question was from the time the writer was ten until past 
twenty years of age, a subject of more or less controversy m IMaine. 
Newspapers would occasionally print stories regarding the Aliller- 
ites using ascension robes, which would soon be vehemently denied 
by some Adventist correspondent. 

While there may have been rare cases when some silly and ig- 
norant ones did this, yet we feel very confident that as a sect, at 
least, the leaders did not advise or sanction it. The Adventists 
whenever such statements were made branded them false and the 
work of "scoffers." 

The frontispiece of the last number of the Journal was a picture 
of Boarstone Mountain in Elliotsville in Piscataquis County, Maine. 
It is from a painting by Samuel J. Guernsey of Cambridge, 
Mass., done when he was a boy about the time he graduated from 
I'oxcroft Academy. Mr. Guernsey is a Dover (Maine) boy, and 
I now holding a high place in the Peabody Institute. He is a brother 
of Hon. Frank E. Guernsey, ex-congressman, and now a candidate 
i for the U. S. Senate. 


"I received the last number of the Journal, and as usual have read 
it with much interest. The article on the Cumberland and Oxford 
Canal interested me particularly, for I often walk along what once 
^vere its banks." 



Sprague's Journal Publications For Sale 

Piscataquis Biography and 

Frag-ments .... Spragrue $1.00 

Accidental Shooting- in the 

Game Seaj^on . . . .Sprag-ue .25 

The North-Eastern Bound- 
ary Controversy and the 
Aroostook War. .Sprague 1.50 

Sprague's Journal of Elaine 
History. Bound vols. 2-4- 
5-6-7-8, each 2.50 

Reprints from the Journal 

Genealog-y of the Simmons 

Family Simmons 2.00 

Maine Revolutionary Pen- 
sioners. .. .Flagg-'s Index 3.00 

Baron De St. Castin 

Sprague .75 

Maine One Hundred Years 

(bound) Sprague .75 

Sir Hiram ^laxim. .Spracue .75 

Robert Bayley, the First 
Schoolmaster in Fal- 
mouth (Portland) Maine, 
and Some of His De- 
scendants Talbot .75 

Colonel John Allen, a Maine 
Revolutionary Patriot. . . 
Sprague .75 

David Barker Sprague .75 

Engagement of Enterprise 

and Boxer (1813), Thayer .75 

A Bibliog-raphy of Piscata- 
quis County Sprai:ue .50 

Loyalists of the Kennebec 

Thayer .75 

Any of the above named books will be sent postpaid upon the receipt 
of the price. Address Sprague's Journal, Dover, Maine, or 

A. J. HUSTON, 92 Exchange Street, Portland, Maine. 

You Can't Go Wrong 

In Boosting Maine Strong 

The first real action in the state-wide industrial development for 
Maine was started by The Lincoln Worsted Company, where a fine 
brick factory is now being erected, and you can not only make a 
sound, profitable investment, but, help boom Maine by purchasing at 
this time for what you can afford of the 8^r accumulative, preferred 
stock, of THE LINCOLN WORSTED COMPANY, and receive what 
generally goes to bankers, — a fifty per cent, of bonus, in common 
stock. Par value of both classes of stock $10.00 per share. 

For further particulars address THE LINCOLN WORSTED 
COMPANY, LINCOLN, MAINE, L. J. Coburn, Vice President. 

Coin and Stamp Collectors 


Prices I Pay— of every U. S. Coin 
iTOrth over face — 15 cts. 

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Mount Ktaadn Sointrtimes Mount Katahdin 115 

The Pettingills I37 

O Men o-f Maine ( Poem ) 139 

Biographical Sketches of Xatives of Maine Who Have Served in the 

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The Crowning Jewel ( Poem ) 156 

Hescendants of Thomas Loring in Maine 156 

A Canadian Lightening Bug — The "Torj-" Soules 159 

Maine History in the Schools 162 

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Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

\'oL. X July, August, September, 1922 No. 3 


(By Georg^e C. "Wing, Jr.) 
A True Relation of an Excursion to ;Mount Katahdin 

Friday afternoon, August 26, 1921, a company of seven men and 
two women left Staceyville to make the ascent of Mount Katahdin 
and to inspect the boundary of the Katahdin Park Game Preserve. 
The party was headed by W'ilhs E. Parsons of Foxcroft, Commis- 
sioner of Inland Fisheries and Game, and consisted of ^Ir. Parsons 
;tnd the following named individuals — David F. Brown, Game 
Warden, Green\ille Junction ; Hov.ard \\'ood. Chief Warden, Pat- 
ten ; \\\ S. Parsons, Game Warden, Foxcroft; ^Nlyrtice ^I. Oakes 
of Foxcroft; Lorita W . Brown of Greenville Junction; Leroy Dud- 
ley, Katahdin Guide, Staceyville, and W'ilHam Cunmiings, Team- 
ster of Staceyville, and George C. W ing, Jr., of Auburn. As inti- 
mated, one object of the expedition was to inspect the marking of 
the boundary of the Katahdin Park Game Preserve. To make the 
region of the Game Preser\e and the reasons for its existence 
definite, the rules and regulations of the Katahdin Park Game 
Preserve are shown in a foot note.^ The company assembled at 


In conformity with the provir:ion.« of Chapter 219 of the Public Law? of 
I'M', a.s amendf-d. and denmingr it for the be.«t of the State, the 
Conimi.<.«ionf'r of Inland Fisheries and Came hereb\' promul^irat^s the fol- 
lowinir regrulations r»latinL:- to the time.~ and place.s in which and the 
circum.«tance.s und»-r which wild bird.- and wild animal.s may be taken in 
the ffdlowiner de.=;cribed tract or tei-ritory in Piscataquis County, the .«ame 
b«-in;r in unoreranized town.^hips. to wit: 

To\vnpliij)s :] nnd 4 in th(^ 'Jth Ran£?e, W. E. L. S.. and the easterly part 
of To\vn.<hips .3 and 4 in the I'nh Rang:«^\ W. E. L. S., the complete bound- 
arie.< of which are {riven below, .«aid tract or territory to be known a.s 
the Katahdin Park Game Preserve. 


Sf-ction I. For a period of four year.>j from the day of August, A. D., 
l'*-l. it .shall be unlawful for any person to hunt, chase, catch, kill or 
''e.-^troy any wild bird or wild animal within the •limits of the fol- 


Elmer Davenport's hotel and store at Staceyville and started for 
the farm house of ]M. ^I. Tracey. On the way we picked up Eeroy 
Dudley. Wt left the Tracey Farm about one o'clock for the Hunt 
Farm in the region called ^lattagamon the East Branch of the 
Penobscot River. The trail was through the woods and over an old 
logging road about seven miles. Saturday morning, x\ugust 27th, we 
left the Hunt Farm about eight o'clock and at this place the party 
divided. We had a wagon with a pair of horses and two saddle 
horses. Howard Wood took the wagon and the supplies and de- 
parted for Katahdin Lake Camps, which was also our destination, 
with the teamster by the way of Lunksoos and the Wissataquoik. 
Leaving the Hunt Farm we were carried down the East Branch 
perhaps one half mile or a mile to a ford at which point the East 
Branch was crossed. At this point we entered the Gilpatrick Trail 
for Katahdin Lake Camps. Wq walked down the East Branch a 
few miles then turned west. The trail was entirely through the 
woods and by old logging operations. We ate dinner at noon in 
the Third Town in the Seventh Range or the northwest corner of 
the Eighth Town in the Seventh Range. W^e continued our walk 
all the afternoon and at nightfall we arrived at Katahdin Lake 
Camps which we found occupied by two men — one Ralph E. Dorr 

lowing described tract or territory situated in the county of Piscataquis, 
the same being in unorganized townships, to wit: 

Townships 3 and 4 in the [nh iCanue. W. E. L. S., and parts of Town- 
ships 3 and 4 in the inth Ran^re, W. E. L. S., bounded as follows: — 

Commencing- at the northeast corner of Township 4. Ranue 9 on the east- 
erly line of said county of Piscataquis: thence southerly on said easterly 
line of the county of Piscataquis twelve miles, more or less, to the south- 
easterlj- corner of Township 3. Range 9: thence westerly on the southerly 
line of said Township 3. lianue 9 and the southerly line of Township 3. 
Range 10, to the wagon road leading from Millinocket to Sourdnahunk 
Lake. Thence northwesterly and northerly by said wagon road to where 
It crosses Sourdnahunk Stream: thence northerly on said Sourdnahunk 
Stream to where said wagon road recrosses said stieam to the easterly 
side thereof; thence on .<aid waj-'^on road to the northerly line of Township 
4, Range 10: thence easterly on the northerly line to Township 4, Ranue 10, 
and the northerly line of Township 4, Range 9, to the point of beginning, 
including 85,000 acres, more or less. 

It shall al.^o be unlawful for any person to have in possession at any 
time any wild bird or wild animal, or part or parts thereof, taken within 
the above described territory. 

Section 2. So much of the rules and regulations of the Department of 
Inland Fisheries and Game previously promulgated prohibiting^ the hunt- 
ing or having in po.'^.session any wild birds or wild animals on anv lands 
in said Township 3, Range 10, lying westerly of the above describ^^d terri- 
tory are hereby revoked. 

Section 3. Whoever violates any provi.sion of these rules and reerula- 
tions shall be subject to the same penalties as are provided by statute for 
the unlawful takiner of or having in possession like wild birds and wild 
animals durinir closed season in this state. 

Dated at Augusta, Maine, this 1st day of August, A. D., 1921. 

, Commissioner of Inland Fisheries and Game. 



of Orland and a helper. The distance covered was about twelve 

miles. Soon after our arrival Wood and Cummings arrived with 

the wagon and supplies. At Katahdin Lake we had a view of 
Mount Katahdin to the west. Sunday morning, the 28th of August, 
I the day appeared dull, overcast and threatened rain. We started for 
Chimney Pond seven miles distant. At Katahdin Lake Camps we 
I left Cummings the teamster, packed the supplies and necessary arti- 
cles of comfort on the two horses which had come with the party 
?^ over the Gilpatrick Trail. We lunched at Sandy Pond Stream and 
went into camp at Chimney Pond in the Great South Basin of 
Mount Katahdin about four o'clock. The walk from Katahdin Lake 
[ Camps to Chimney Pond was through a level, boggy, swampy coun- 
f try, the greater portion oi which appeared to be burnt over lands, 
I although in certain places we walked on ridges which had good 
[ growth on them. At several points we passed and crossed Roaring 
I Brook and at other points the trail was rough and difficult. This 
! trail crosses the easterly line of the Game Preserve which is also 
the easterly line of Piscataquis County. This line was marked 
with red paint and ^Iv. Parsons devoted considerable time in fol- 
lowing it and giving it careful inspection. ]\londay, the 29th, we 
made an early start. The day was somewhat overcast. Our desti- 
nation was Pamola Peak which is a high peak in the northeast end 
of Katahdin Ridge. We climbed steadily, made Pamola Peak, 
ascended the Chimney, crossed the Knife Edge, passed to the South 
Peak and to the Monument Peak. We then walked from the ^lon- 
ument Peak across the broad land on the top of the mountain 
to a point I should say in the center of the table land where we 
had our lunch. We then walked northerly until we reached the 
Horse Back which divides the Great South Basin from the Xorth 
Basin. We descended this Horse Back to a point below timber 
hne and here we entered the timber and walked through blow 
downs and with hard tra\elling to the Chimney Pond Trail over 
^^hich we returned to our camp. The day continued overcast. 
From Pamola we could distinguish certain lakes and rivers but 
clear atmosphere was lacking and the view which I had so much 
anticipated from the top of Katahdin was not obtained. However, 
what one misses in one direction is made up in another. On our 
return to Chimnev Pond the Great " South Basin was filled with 


roiling, billowing clouds ; the wind was high and piercing. Pamola 
Peak was washed and bathed in great drifts of mist and the Great 
South Basin presented a picture of wild and majestic grandeur 
unsurpassed. We estimated that we walked between ten and 
twelve miles in our trip about the mountain. Tuesday we returned 
to Katahdin Lake Camps and Wednesday we returned over the 
Gilpatrick Trail to Hunt's Farm v.hich we passed and continued 
to Kunkasoo where we spent the night, and Thursday, September 
1st, we returned to Staceyville. 


fr^^Up^ »,,^p,^.^i 

t-i/-<i ^ ^^Tii'^isJ i.,:t.,i--'.*^''-»i 

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■ "> > 


This excursion somewhat cursorily described and during which I 
experienced the delightful solemnity of the forest, the exhilaration 
of a difficult mountain climb, the freedom of the wind and the sky, 
made a deep impression on me. a dweller in cities and an admirer 
of industrial life. I had beheld lakes and rivers hidden in the 
woods. I had climbed a mountain which is strikingly indixidualistic, 
austere, isolated in the landscape and with all most alluring. I be- 
came interested in its historv, and such details as I ha\e been able 
to collect I now present in the form of brief notes, to such as may 



be interested in Katahdin, because, as it is said in Williamson's 
History- of Elaine, \'olume i, Page c;o, "Of the mountains in this 
state the first for magnitude and height is The Katahdin." 

Gexerai. Descriptioxs axd Statemexts 

The first mention of Mount Katahdin appears in IMontresor's 
Journal, 1775, printed in \'olume i, Page 456, in the Maine Histori- 
cal Society's collection. ^Montresor speaking of the view of the 
mountains from ^loosehead Lake says, "As we passed along we 
had the pleasure of beholding at the same time the most considerable 
mountains in this part of the v.'orld. The Onegnla which I 
formerly mentioned, the Panavansot Hill, higher, at the foot of 
which runs the Penobscot." In a note, page 466, the Reverend ]vlr. 
Ballard says — "The Panavansot Hill is Katahdin at the foot of 
which runs the Penobscot." 

Williamson's History of Elaine, \^olume i, page 90, describes the 
ascent of the mountain as follows : — "Prior to the year 1816 the 
ascent was on the west or southwest and equal to the hypotenuse of 
an angle generally from 35 degrees to 46 degrees with the horizon, 
ragged, difficult and fatiguing, and the distance from the upper 
margin of the table lands was not less than two miles in direct 
course to the summit, though tract travelled was somewhat spiral 
and zigzag. But sometime in that year an enormous declivity about 
midside of the mountain slid into a distant vallev ... an event 
however, which has rendered the ascent in one of its difficult places 
altogether more tolerable and in others more easy." 

The description in "Gazeteer of the State of Maine" George J. 
\^arney, 1881, is evidently taken from Williamson. 

Moses Greenleaf's "A Survey of the State of Elaine" 1829, page 
47, describes Katahdin as follows : — "Between the eastern and 
western branches of the Penobscot, lies the Katahdin.* This 
mountain is famous in the traditionary legends of the aborigines, 
for the residence of supernatural beings; but in modern times is 
remarkable only for its physical features; its almost isolated situa- 

• "The name of this mountain ha? been variously written. The Indian 
pronunciation would probablv be better expressed by the letters Ktaadn, 
all in one syllable with the sound of a as in father, but this pronunciation 
•s nt'xt to impossible for ortcans ao^-ustomed only to English: it is written 
therefore in such a manner as will most naturally express in English form 
the nearest approximation to the Indian Sound." 


tion, the steepness and ruggedness of its sides, and its great eleva- 
tion. Various estimates of its height have been made by different 
persons, none of which perhaps are perfectly accurate. ]Mr. Loring. 
United States surveyor under the treaty of Ghent, deduces the 
height from a series of barometrical observations in 1820. taken by 
himself and ]\Ir. Odell, surveyor on the part of Great Britain, and 
gives the result as 4,685 feet from the level of the west branch of 
Penobscot River, at the confluence of the Abuoljokomegassic. This 
is distant about 5 or 6 miles in a horizontal line from the summit 
of the mountain, and would make its average ascent from the river 
to the summit to be about 500 feet per mile. The elevation of the 
surface of the Penobscot at this place, Mr. Loring computes at 
650 feet, making the whole height of Katahdin from the level of 
the sea, 5,335 feet. — From a series of observations made in 1828, 
from ]\Iount A\^aldo, in Frankfort to \\'illiamsburgh. and thence to 
Katahdin, its height is computed to be 5,623 feet. Other reported 
accounts, but from what data is not known, give it from 6,000 to 
6,400 feet." 

Record of Ascents 

Williamson states that the first ascent of the mountain was in 
August, 1804 and was made by seven gentlemen from Bangor and 
Orono with two Indians for guides. They ascended the Penobscot 
to head of boat navigation in a limpid stream "which received its 
principal supply from the sides of the mountain and a gully towards 
its top." They found wild fruits, ate freely of them, attained the 
summit at five P. M. Were there two hours. It is stated in 
Williamson that the elevation affected their respiration. They de- 
scended to spruce where they passed the night. Several 
were sick, owing to the fruits. They thought the mountain must be 
10,000 feet in height but the surveyors under the Fourth Article 
of the Treaty of Ghent made its altitude from the bed of the 
River Abalajackomegus and its foot to be only 4,685 feet. Xote on 
page go of Williamson states that "General Joseph Treat supposes 
Katahdin is about as high as the white Hills. M. Greenleaf, Esq., 
computes the height at 5,623 feet. Survey, Page 47." This refer- 
ence in Williamson to the ascent in 1804 is undoubtedly to the 
excursion made by Charles Turner, Jr., Esq. Charles Turner, Jr., 
Esq., is described in Massachusetts Historical Society proceedings, 


1879- 1880, Volume 17, Page 206, as "being born in Duxbury, June 
20, 1760. His father was for twenty years Alinister of Duxbury. 
Charles Turner, Jr., is described as a general favorite — First Post 
Master of Scituate, ^^lember of both branches of the Legislature; 
in 1808, Congressman ; 1824, Steward of the U. S. Alarine Hospital 
at Chelsea. He died at Scituate, May 16, 1839 — 79 years old. In 
1802, Charles Turner, Jr., was a surveyor and in this capacity en- 
gaged in locating the grants and sales of what were known as 
Eastern Lands. The summer of 1804 was one of the seasons in 







which he was employed in the interior and north of the District of 
Maine as surveyor. The summer of 1804 he ascended Katahdin. 
His description of his excursion is printed in the ^Massachusetts His- 
torical Society collection. Second Series, Volume 8, Page 112, and it 
is believed that this description of Charles Turner, Jr., is the first 
printed description of an ascent of Mount Katahdin. So interesting 
is it that I quote it in full. 

"A description of X'atardin or Catardin Mounting — Being an ex- 
tract from a letter, written by Charles Turner, Jun., Esq. in the 



summer of 1804, which was one of the several seasons in which 
he has been employed in the interior, and north of the District of 
Maine, as a Surveyor. 

"On Monday, x-\ugust 13th, 1804, at 8 o'clock A. M., we left our 
canoes at the head of boat-waters, in a small clear stream of 
spring water, which came in different rivulets from the mountain, 
the principal of which (as we afterwards found) issued from a 
large gully near the top of the mountain. Catardin is the souther- 
most and highest of a collection of eight or ten mountains, extend- 
ing from it northeast and northwest. Round this mountain, on the 
west, south and east sides is a table land extending about four miles, 
rising gradually to the foot of the mountain. This table land is 

much elevated and overlooks all the country except the mountains ; 
when viewed from the mountain however, it appears like a plane. 

Leaving the table land, and following a ridge, we endeavoured to 
gain the summit, at the west end, which appeared most easy of ac- 
cess. From the head of the table land, which we considered as the 
base of the mountain, we ascended on an elevation, making an 
angle with the horizon of from 35 to 46 degrees, about two miles. 
This mountain is composed of rocks, which appear to have been 
broken or split. The rocks, except at and near the top, are of a 
coarse grain, of light grey colour, and most of them are crumbling, 
and of these crumbles the soil, if such it may be called, is composed. 
The rocks near the top are of finer contexture and of a bluish 
colour. The table land was formerly covered with wood of 
various kinds ; with hard woods near the streams where the soil 
was good; but with spruce in other parts, the trees lessening in 
height as we approached and ascended the mountain, until they 
became dwarfs of only two feet in height, and finally came to 
nothing at about a half mile from the summit. The rocks and 
soil in the ascent were covered with a deep green moss. The table 
land and mountain on the south and east have been burnt over, and 
are entirely bare, except near the springs and streams. The ridge 
between the streams on the west seemed to have escaped the fire, 
and this circumstance enabled us to ascend with great facility. The 
south and east sides were from their steepness inaccessible. Having 
reached the top, we found ourselves on a plane of rocks with 
coarse gravel in the interstices, and the whole covered with a 
dead bluish moss. This plane, the westerly part of which was very 


smooth, and descending a little to the northward, contained about 
eight hundred acres. The elevation was so great as sensibly to effect 
respiration. The day was very calm and sultry, and our toil so 
great, that when we had found several springs of very clear, cold 
water, our company were inclined to drink of them too freely. 
Some felt the ill effects immediately, and others were taken with 
vomiting in the course of the night following; indeed our whole 
company, which consisted of eleven, found, on the following morn- 
ing, our throats sore and inflamed. Whether this arose wholly from 
some ill quality in the water, or partly from eating a variety of 
fruits, such as raspberries, blue whortleberries, black currants, box- 
berries and bog cranberries, which we found in abundance from 
the place where we left our boats to near the top, we could not 
determine. Though to us, in our thirsty and fatigued condition, 
the pure spring brought to our minds the fabled nectar of the 
poets, yet we found that it had a very perceptible astringent quality, 
and appeared to be impregnated with minerals. 

"Having arrived at the highest point, which is towards the east 
end, we found ourselves above all the mountains within our horizon. 
We could not determine our actual elevation, not having instru- 
ments, nor being otherwise prepared to measure the height of the 
mountain. From this point our view was enchanting; the air, 
however, had, during the day, become a little smoky, which pre- 
vented our distinguishing distant objects with that clearness which 
we could have wished. The plane or the top of the mountain, being 
nearly a mile and a half in length, would have afforded a base or 
leg, by which, with correct instruments, we might have determined 
with a great degree of exactness, the situation and distances of all 
the principal highlands and mountains in the District of Maine, and 
the situation and extent of the principal lakes. Here we could see, 
due north from us, the lake or cross pond, which is the main reser- 
voir of the Aroostook branch of St. John's River, and several 
smaller lakes. Here we could see, bearing N. \V. the lake at the 
head of St. John's River (the lake that is sketched on our maps of 
the District of Maine, N. W. from Moosehead Lake.) West from 
us, we could see the south end of Moosehead Lake, and N. N. W^ its 
north end, a chain of small mountains lying N. of Piscataquis ^foun- 
tains, preventing our seeing its centre. Near the westerly part of 


the mountain, which is connected with the Catardin, we could see 
Cheesauncook Lake, extending N. N. E. and S. S. W. about twenty 
miles long and live miles broad, which empties into the Penobscot ; 
and south of it, a large lake N. of the E. end of the Piscataquis 
Mountains, which empties into the Piscataquis River. We counted 
sixty-three lakes of different dimensions which discharge their 
waters by the Penobscot. S. \V. from us lay the Piscataquis 
Mountains, extending E. and \\\ nearly, from the Penobscot to the 
Kennebec; and N. of the lands surveyed, lay a small ridge of 
mountains, about twenty miles N. of the Piscataquis Mountains. 
Amongst the collection of mountains near the Catardin, is one 
lying N. N. W. called by the English Fort Mountain, from its 
shape ; its base being an oblong square or parallelogram, extending 
N. E. and S. \V. and ascending at the sides and ends in an angle of 
about 45 degrees to a sharp ridge ; which ridge is about one mile 
in length, and is covered with verdure. North of Fort ^lountain 
appears an irregular mountain, on the S. side of which, and near 
the top, appears an extensive ledge of smooth white rock which 
glittered like isinglass. We could clearly discern the high lands, 
from the Bay of Chaleur westerly, which divide the District of 
Maine from the Province of Quebec. E. N. E. from us lay Peaked 
Mountain, over which Bingham's easterly line runs. Blount Desert 
was also distinctly in view. W'e could discern the range of high 
fertile lands extending N. and S. between the Penobscot and Scoodic 
waters ; and those between the Penobscot and Aroostook waters, and 
St. John's River. But the sun was now declining in the west, and 
we took leave of the summit of the mountain, after having deposited 
the initials of our names (William Howe, Amos Patten, Joseph 
Treat, Samuel Call, William Rice, Richard W^inslow, Charles Turn- 
er, Jun.) and the date, cut upon sheet lead, and a bottle of rum 
corked and leaded, on the highest part. We descended the mountain 
with cautious steps, until we came among the low spruces, and the 
next dav at noon we reached our canoes. 

"It is difficult by any orthography, precisely to express the name 
of this mountain, and convey the nasal sound which the natives 
give. No-tar-dn or Ca-ta-din is as near perhaps as the powers of 
the letters will admit. 

"The Indians have a superstition respecting this mountain, that 


an evil spirit, whom they call Pamola, inhabits it, at least in the 
winter, and flies off in the spring with tremendous rumbling noises. 
They have a tradition, that no person, i. e., native, who has attempted 
to ascend it, has lived to return. They allege, that many moons ago, 
seven Indians * resokitely ascended the m.ountain, and that they 
were never heard of afterwards, having been undoubtedly killed by 

k." ■».^ -;" '»'■. A, " * - ... 

,,, A. • ■:. ..^^ - 

m7 '^ ^* .' - 

1 ■- ' . VJ 


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-^> )^'-S4.: 







Pamola in the mountain. The two Indians, whom we hired to pilot 
and assist us in ascending the mountain, cautioned us not to pro- 
ceed if we should hear any uncommon noise; and when we came 
to the cold part of the mountain, they refused to proceed ahead— 
however, when they found that we were determined to proceed, 
even without them, they again went forward courageously, and 

i^.'- '■ 


seemed ambitious to be ifirst on the summit. On our return to In- 
dian Old Town, it was with difficuky that we could convince the 
natives that we had been upon the top of Mount Catardin, nor 
should we have been able to satisfy them of the fact, so supersti- 
tious were they, had it not been for the Indians wKo had accom- 
panied us.". 

The State of Alaine has had two geological surveys ; the first sur- 
vey authorized by Act of the Legislature, Alarch 21, 1836, resulting 
in three reports — the first December i, 1836, the second, February 
22, 1837, the third February 13, 1839. The second survey author- 
ized by Act of the Legislature, ^vlarch 16, 1861, the report of which 
is in the report of the Secretary of the Board of x\gTiculture, Sixth 
Annual Report of the Elaine Board of Agriculture. In 1890, the 
geological department of Colby L^niversity published a catalogue of 
Elaine Geological Collections with a brief outline history of the 
two surveys of the State by W. S. Bailey, Ph. D., Professor of 
Geologv' in Colby University, and T. P. King, student in geolog}-. 

The next recorded ascent of Katahdin is by Dr. Charles T. Jack- 
son, employed in the first geological survey above referred to. The 
report of Dr. Jackson's ascent of Katahdin is not found in the three 
reports above referred to, but is found in the "Second Annual Re- 
port of the Geology of Public Lands belonging to the two states of 
Massachusetts and Maine" by C. T. Jackson, Geological Surveyor, 
and is addressed to his Excellency, Edward Everett, Governor of 
^Massachusetts. This report was also published in ^Maine under the 
same title and is addressed to his Excellency, Edward Kent, Gov- 
ernor of Maine, and was printed in Augusta, in 1838. In this 
report Dr. Jackson records that "on the 9th of September, 1837, Mr. 
Larrabee and myself returned to Bangor where v.e found ^Ir. 
Hodge, the Assistant for Massachusetts awaiting our arrival, after 
having made his excursion through the public lands to Canada. We 
there made preparations for a journey to Mount Katahdin by the 
route of the West Branch of the Penobscot River through ?vlilli- 
nocket and Parmidumcook Lakes to the base of the Mountain. 
The objects of this survey were to make a sectional view of the 
banks of the Penobscot and to measure the altitude of Blount 
Ktaadn which, as its aboriginal name signifies, is the highest moun- 
tain in the state." The report describes the employment of the 


Indian, Peol ]\Iichael, the provisions of hard bread and pork, the 
purchase of a birch canoe and a hght bateau. The 13th of Septem- 
ber, the party camped at X"o-ma-ka-nock Island. At this place the 
Indian, Peol ^lichael cut his leg with a hatchet and was taken to 
Matanawcook Island, where an Indian, Louis Neptune, was em- 
ployed to take his place. The 17th of September, the party was 
at Xichatow — the Forks — and the i8th the party began the ascent 
of the West Branch. From Alillinocket Lake a view of Ktaadn is 
thus described — 'AMiile I was engaged in noting the bearings of 
this Mountain, the clouds suddenly darted down upon its summit and 
concealed it from view while we could observe that a violent snow 
storm was paying homage to Pamola, the demon of the mountain. 
Presently the storm ceased and the clouds having paid their tribute 
passed on, and left the mountain white with snow. This took place 
on the 20th of September." On the 22nd of September the party 
prepared for ascending the mountain. The course was directed 
towards second western side. They were clad in red flannel shirts 
and camped half way up the mountain. The 23rd the party started 
for the summit. "Snow and sleet drove fiercely against us and 
our clothing being wet began to freeze." Two of the party turned 
back. The Indian, Louis X'^eptune, placed stones along the path, in 
order to more readily find the way down the mountain. At 10 
A. M. they reached the table land "where the wind, driving snow 
and hail rendered it almost impossible to proceed, but at length 
reached the central peak." They estimated that the true altitude of 
Mount Ktaadn above the level of the sea is 5,300 feet. "When the 
operation (ascertaining the altitude) was completed, finding it was 
impossible to make any geological researches amid such a furious 
northeast snow storm, we set out on our return from this region of 
clouds and snow. Louis declared that Pamola was angry with us 
for presuming to measure the height of the ^lountain and revenged 
himself upon us by this storm." The descent was made by the 
path previously marked by Louis. "Clouds and darkness hung upon 
the mountain's brow and the cold blast almost deprived us of 
breath." Encrusted with snow the party made its descent, sliding 
carefully upon the surface of the rocks. "Our boatmen upon 
reaching the head of the slide tumbled down large blocks of granite 
that descended with a tremendous fracas, dashing the rocks into 


fragments as they bounded along." Upon returning to their moun- 
tain side camp, I\Ir. Larrabee and two men pushed on to the river 
and the rest of the men encamped on the mountain side without 
food, amid a driving snow storm. On the morning of the 24th the 
descent continued, the company enfeebled by hunger, privation and 
fatigue. At the base they found chokecherries and blueberries 
which they ate and later found relief from an exploring party of 
two young men of \\-hom they bought twenty biscuits, a ration of 
two biscuits to a man. 

The next recorded ascent of Katahdin resulted in literature, a 
permanent and famous contribution — that of David Henry Thoreau 
in September, 1846, reported in his A'olume "The ^^laine W^oods". 
"The Maine Woods" is the classic description of an ascent of 
Katahdin. In that volume Thoreau says — ''Ktaadin whose name is 
an Indian one signifying highest land was first ascended by white 
men in 1804. It was visited by Professor J. W. Bailey of \\^est 
Point in 1836, by Charles T. Jackson, the State Geologist in 1837, 
and by two young men from Boston in 1845." 

I have already discussed the Jackson and Turner ascent and 

Professor Bailey's ascent mentioned by Thoreau is described as an 

"Account of an excursion to ]\Iount Katahdin, Maine, by J. W. 

Bailey, Acting Professor of Chemistry, U. S. ^Military Academy, 

West Point," printed in Elaine Monthly Alagazine. \'olume i, page 

544, a foot note to which states that the article is extracted from 

Silliman's Journal. The Bailey account is valuable with relation to 

the geolog}' and botany of Katahdin. Mr. Bailey experienced rain. 

like many other adventurers upon the mountain and did not, like 

his companions, attain the top. It has an interesting contradiction 

of Williamson as to the effects of the altitude. The article is 

dated August 31, 1836, and the excursion was made in that month 
and year. 

As a result of the legislation providing for a second geological 
survey Resolve, March 16, 1861, we ha\'e the record of an interest- 
ing ascent of Katahdin by C. H. Hitchcock, Geologist, in that year, 
reported p 3^3, Sixth Annual Report of the Secretary of the Maine 
Board of Agriculture al.-o known as Board of Agriculture Scientific 
Survey, and also entitled Agriculture and Geology of Elaine, Sec- 
ond Series, 1861. The report records that the party left Mr. Hunt's 



August 13, and proceeded via \\'issataquoik. At noon of the 
fourteenth they were at Katahdin Pond in Xo. 3 R 8, 790 feet 
above Hunt's farm. They ascended the valley of Avalanche Brook 
on the south side of the mountain. Passing up this valley the 15th. 
they went up a great slide. At the top of the slide they gained the 
great ridge called the "Horseback" and came to the Chimney. 
"This is a steep conical peak rising suddenly from the ridge of 
towards 80 feet in height but is so steep that we were obliged to 
assist one another in climbing . . . Having gained the top we 
found ourselves upon the ridge constituting the highland of the 
mountain. Its top is undulating, there being several 'chimneys' 
to pass over before finally arriving at the very highest point. \\'e 
traveled at least three fourths of a mile along a very narrow ridge 
whose top was often only a foot wide, while on both sides we 
could look down for 3,000 feet over precipices too steep to be 
descended with safety." "The general course of the ridge com- 
posing the top of r^Iount Katahdin as seen from the summit is that 
of nearly a complete circle which is broken on one side. The in- 
terior of this arc is called the Basin which is a hollow 3,000 feet 
deep, on one side of which is a pond directly under the chimney, 
and for this reason called 'Chimney Pond.' They descended into 
the Basin, camped at Chimney Pond, and thence proceeded via 
Roaring Brook to Katahdin Pond and thence to Hunt's farm, 
where they arrived the afternoon of August 17th. The mountain, 
according to the best observation, is 5,385 feet above the ocean." 

A noteworthy and memorable excursion to Katahdin took place 
in August, 1920, and is reported Lewiston Journal, ^lagazine Sec- 
tion, issue of October 2, 1920. The party consisted of the follow- 
ing: "A. G. S.", Arthur G. Staples of Auburn, editor of Lewiston 
Journal, Burt Howe of Patten, Percival P. Baxter of Portland, 
Charles P. Barnes of Houlton, Charles H. Fogg of Houlton, Xat 
Howe of Ashland, George ^I. Houghton of Bangor, Willis E. Par- 
sons of Foxcroft, Howard Wood of Greenville, Rod Dudley of 
Staceyville, E. J. Parker of Patten, Oscar Smith, John T. Mitchell, 
John Falkins, Lorenzo Hanscom, and Sam E. Connor of Lewiston. 
This newspaper story, with its pictures and its rare descriptions, 
has served to awaken and renew the interest of the public in 
Katahdin and to stimulate the project to make a state park of the 
Katahdin Region. 


Other Sketches and Accounts of Visits and Journeys to 

Mount Katahdin 

Atlantic Monthly, 1862, Volume 10, p. 686, in a contribution 
"Life in the Open Air" by the author of ''Cecil Dreeme," John 
Brent has a description of an ascent by the Abol route. 

Scribner's ^lagazine, 1850, A'olume 11, p. 499, has a description 
of the Abol ascent in an article called "The Lake Country of New 
England" and states "This narrow ridge running from cone to cone 
describes a semi-circle and Ktaadn thus encloses within its heart of 
broken rock a great gulf of awful depth". 

The Lewiston Journal in its ^Magazine Section, October 6, 1917, 
has "Climbing ]\It. Katahdin, the Sentinel of the Elaine Woods", 
by C. L. Knight. 

The Sunday Herald, Boston, November 16, 1919, has "Climbing 
Ktaadn" — "The best mountain in the wildest wild to be had on 
this side the American continent", by ^lervin J. Curl. This descrip- 
tion is claimed to be the first record of an ascent by a newspaper 
writer, and its value is enhanced by two pages of pictures in the 
rotogravure section of the same edition. 

The Evening Post, New York, October i, 1920, has a description 
of an excursion made by Mellinger E. Henry of Ridgeheld, New 
Jersey, in 1916, who with his father, a man more than 70 years of 
age, attained the summit of the mountain without guides via Hunt's 

Foreword, issue of October 2, 1020, No. 40, has a descriptive 
story with cuts "}^Iount Ktaadn" by William Francis Dawson, and 
the same periodical for April 2, 192 1, No. 14, has another sketch 
"Ktaadn Revisited" by W^m. F. Dawson, with pleasing photographs. 

The Lewiston Journal in its magazine section, July 30, 1921, has 
a description by P. G. Canham of a trip headed by "Cap" Davis of 
Greenville, a lad ten years old and five Auburn men who made the 
ascent of the mountain from the west. 

"In the Maine Woods, 192 1". a Bangor and Aroostook Railroad 
publication has "O'er Katahdin's Rugged Sides", by Sam E. Connor, 
"Mt. Katahdin's Magic Allurement", by Frederick Bulkeley Hyde, 
"Some Notes on the W'est Branch Canoe Trip and an Ascent of 
Mt. Katahdin", by R. G. Davis, "The Mt. Katahdin Country", 


The Appalachian ^lountain Club publication, Appalachia, has the 
following, "The Routes to Ktaadn", by Professor Charles Hamlin, 
Vol. 2, p. 306-331, 18S1 ; "Excursion Xorth of Ktaadn", \^ol. 3, Xo. 
3 ; "An Autumn Visit to the Sourdnahunk ^Mountains and Ktaadn", 
Vol. 4, Xo. I ; "Ktaadn Basin" Excursion, 18S6, A'ol. 5, X^o. i ; 
"Explorations in the Mcinity of Ktaadn", \^ol. 5, X'o. 2 ; "Xotes on 
Recent Visit to Ktaadn", \'ol. 8, Xo. 2 ; "An Early Ascent", by 
Edward Everett Hale, Vol. 9, Xo. 4; "A Winter Ascent of Mt. 
Ktaadn," Vol. 13, Xo. 3; "The West Branch Route to Mt. Ktaadn," 
Frederic S. Davenport, A'ol. 14, p. 340; "The Eastern x\pproach to 
Mt. Ktaadn," W. F. Dawson, \^ol. 14, p. 353. 

Hunt Farm 

The many references to Hunt Farm on the East Branch of 
Penobscot may lead the reader to be interested in the following 
description of that place. 

The Report of an Exploration and Survey of the territory on 
the Aroostook River during the Spring and Autumn of 1838, by 
E. Holmes, has the following, p. 10. 

"Around the mount of this stream ( Wissataquoik) is a large 
body of intervale 4and, while on the opposite side on the east the 
land rises gradually into a large swell covered with hard wood. 
Two settlers, ^lessrs. Hunt and Dace, have got very good farms 
under cultivation here. They are at present the highest up of any 
on this bank of the Penobscot and are the last inhabitants that the 
traveller finds as he proceeds up the river." 

Second Annual Report of the Geolog}' of the Public Lands, by 
C. T. Jackson, under date, October 6, 1837, has the following: 

"Arrived at Mr. William Hunt's, twenty-four miles above Xick- 
atow and passed the night there. This gentleman has prepared for 
himself at this place a very good farm on which he raises supplies 
of provisions for the lumber cutters. He has dwelt here five years 
and has brought the soil into a good state of cultivation and during 
the present summer has raised one hundred bushels of wheat and an 
abundance of potatoes and hay." > . 

Names— Ktaadx — Katahdix— Pamola 

William Willis, in a study of "The Language of the Abnaquies 
or Eastern Indians," published in IMaine Historical Society Collec- 


tion, \^ol. 4, p. 105, gives "Ktaadn Sockbasin, pronounced thus — 
Ka-tah-din — and said it meant large mountain or large thing." 
Sockbasin is quoted p. 103 as "an intelligent Indian of the Penobscot 
tribe, gave me the definition of several Indian terms in 1840." 

The C. H. Hitchcock description of ^It. Katahdin, before re- 
ferred to p. 39S, Sixth Annual Report of Secretary of ]\Iaine 
Board of Agriculture has the following : — 

"There is a very high peak northeast of Katahdin, near the 
northeast end of the ridge which has a very broad sloping summit. 
As this has no name, we venture to suggest that it be called ]\Iount 
Pamola from the nanie of the Indian Deity of the mountains. The 
Indians formerly supposed that Pamola would be very angry if 


. ■ - «^ - ; . -— J • jc . ■ ^- 

' •' ii:v • "* -» ■ -• '*.'•.'■ -^-"i. i* j-^ ''ilia. ''^ -i ^ 


any person attempted to climb the mountain ; hence like Mt. Wash- 
ington, the top of Katahdin was considered sacred. The Indian 
with Dr. Jackson when he visited the mountain 25 years ago, de- 
clared Pamola sent the violent snow storm upon him for presuming 
to measure the height of the mountain." 


A- G. Xorcross, C. E., Maine Forestry Department, who compiled 
Map of Mt. Katahdin Region, Piscataquis County, Maine, January, 
1920, places the mountain proper in townships 3 and 4, Range 9, 
but adds that part of its western slope is in township 3, Range 10. 
In whatever township it may be, the mountain is within the limits 
of Piscataquis County. 




^ " Elevation 

Greenleaf's Survey of ^Nlaiiie, 1S20, p. 47, gives 5,335 and 5,623. 

Second Annual Report of the Geology of the Public Lands be- 
longing to the States of Elaine and ^lassachusetts, 1838, by C. T. 
Jackson, p. 17,- gives 5,300. 

Sixth Report of Secretary of Elaine Board of Agriculture, 1861, 
2nd Series Scientific Survey, p. 358, gives 5,385. 

Geological }vlap of Xorthern Maine, by C. H. Hitchcock, 1862, 
printed in Scientific Survey, above, at p. 376, gives 5,385. 

Varney's Gazeteer, 1881, gives 5,385. 

Colby's Atlas of Elaine, 1814, gives 5,248. 

Bangor 8z Aroostook Railroad Publication "In the Maine Woods 
192 1," in a sketch map by Parker B. Field, reproduced by permis- 
sion of Appalachian Mountain Club gives 5,273. 

- f 

Pictures and PiioTOGRArns 

William F. Dawson of Lynn, ^Massachusetts, has many copy- 
righted photographs of the mountain. 

B. L. Call of Dexter, ]\Iaine, has made many splendid photo- 
graphs for the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad. 

Sam E. Connor of Lewiston, Maine, has collection of photo- 
graphs, many of which have been published in newspaper descrip- 

Frederick Bulkeley Hyde of Washington, D. C, has made photo- 
graphs which have appeared in published descriptions of the moun- 

The following rare plates and prints are of interest. 

Plate VII, ]\Iount Ktaadn, from W. Butterfield's (Oct. 8, 1836) 
near the Grand Schoodic Lake, accompanying First Report on the 
Geology of the State of ]\Iaine. Also appears in Atlas of Plates 
accompanying first report. 

Second Annual Report on the Geology of the Public Lands be- 
longing to the States of Maine and Massachusetts has 

1. V^iew of ^It. Ktaadn bearing X. 2y degrees E. from W^est 
Branch of Penobscot. 

2. View of !Mt. Ktaadn from the summit of Sugar-loaf Mt. 
bearing S. 6 degrees W. 


Kataiidix as a Public Park 

The first reference to the mountain as a pubhc resort appeared 
in Sixth Annual Report of Secretary of ]Maine Board of Agricul- 
ture, otherwise Scientific Survey, 1861, p. 399, and is as follows: 

"The path travelled by us from the Hunt farm to the top of 
Katahdin was struck out by Air. Keep, to whom the state donated 
a quarter of a township in consideration of his services upon the 
mountain lands. If a good carriage road could be built from the 
Hunt farm to Chimney Pond in the Basin, and a good foot or 
bridle path from there to the summit, an immense number of visi- 
tors would be attracted to Alt. Katahdin, especially if a Hotel 
should be built at Chimney Pond, the most romantic spot for a 
dwelling house in the whole state. As the roads are now con- 
structed, it is easier for travellers to ascend from the west branch of 
the Penobscot, because less time is required away from the wcter. 
With the roads thus constructed travellers would hardly know that 
they v/ere climbing a high mountain. With the present conven- 
iences, lovers of adventure and recreation will find a trip to Aliunt 
Katahdin invigorating and fraught with pleasure." 

Mr. Keep, above mentioned, was the Reverend Alarcus R. Keep 
of Ashland, wlio is described p. 339 of the report, as one "who has 
done so much as a pioneer explorer of Katahdin and made known to 
the public the characteristics of that grand old mountain in regard 
to the sublime and extensive prospect seen from its summit, its 
peculiar geological structure and the rugged toil required to ascent 
to its pinnacle." 

Honorable Frank E. Guernsey, AI. C, April 17th, 1916, intro- 
duced in Congress a bill authorizing the Secretary of .\g.iculture to 
examine, locate and report to National Forest Reservation Com- 
mission for purchase such lands in the region of Mt. Katahdin as 
in his judgment may be suitable for a National Park. This bill 
v/as endorsed by Alaine Sportsmen's Fish and Game Association. 
Comment was made on this Act in Sprague's Journal of Alaine 
History, Vol. 4, p. 37, and endorsed by editorial in that publ'cation. 
Vol. 4, No. I, June, 1916. 

The influence of Lewiston Journal story "Katahdin— the Highest 
Mountain in the Wildest Part of New England — The Story, of a 
Seventy-five Alile Trip to its Summit told in Plain Prose with 


^.lany Adventures" by "A. G. S." — Artliur G. Staples of Auburn, 
issue of October 2, 1920, has been noted, but attention is again 
directed to it as bearing on the project to make Katahdin a pubHc 

Percival P. Baxter, President of the Senate, gave an address 
"Mount Katahdin State Park" at the Annual Meeting of the 
Maine Sportsmen's Fish and Game Association, January 27, 1921, 
in Augusta. ^Vlr. Baxter brilliantly described the mountain, outlined 
the project for the proposed park and made an earnest appeal for 
its creation. The address was ordered printed by the Senate and 
its pages are quickened by plates from the photographs of William 
F. Dawson. ]\Ir. Baxter, as Governor, in his messages to the 80th 
Maine Legislature, February 9, and Alarch 10, 192 1, directed atten- 
tion to the purchase of the mountain for use as a State Park, and a 
measure for the establishment of a park in the region of Blount 
Katahdin appeared in the 80th Elaine Legislature, but it failed to 

In 1921-2 the citizens of Piscataquis county petitioned \\'illis E. 
Parsons, Commissioner of Inland Fisheries and Game, to establish 
a Katahdin Park game preserve, which was done. 

The boundaries of this preserve were changed somewhat, from 
the original survey. The following is an exact description of its 
tinal location : ' . . • . . 

J March 31, 1922. 

On the foregoing petition of John F. Sprague and others, after 
due notice and full hearing, it is hereby ordered and decreed that the 
j)rayer of the petitioners be granted and that due notice of the 
same be given and rules and regulations be promulgated as fol- 
lows : — 


In conformity with the provisions of Chapter 219, of the Public 
Laws of 191 7, as amended, and deeming it for the best interests of 
the State, the Commissioner of Inland Fisheries and Game hereby 
promulgates the following rules and regulations relating to the times 
and places in which and the circumstances under which wild birds 
and wild animals may be taken in the following described tract or 
territory in Piscataquis County, the same being in unorganized town- 
'*^hips, to wit : 


Townships 3 and 4 in the 9th Range, W. E. L. S. and a part of 
Townships 3 and 4 in the loth Range, W. E. L. S., and a part of 
Township 4, Range 11, W. E. L. S., the complete boundaries of 
which are given below, said tract or territory to be known as tl"ie 
Katahdin Park Game Preserve. 


Section i. For a period of four years from the ist day of ^lay, 
A. D., 1922, it shall be unlawful for any person to hunt, chase, 
catch, kill or destroy any wild bird or wild animal within the 
limits of the following described tract or territory situated in the 
county of Piscataquis, the same being in unorganized townships, to 
wit: — 

Townships 3 and 4 in the 9th Range, W. E. L. S., and parts of 
Townships 3 and 4 in the loth Range, W. E. L. S., and a part of 
Township 4, Range 11, W. E. L. S., bounded as follows: — 

Commencing at the northeast corner of Township 4, Range 9, on 
the easterly line of the county of Piscataquis; thence southerly on 
the easterly line of the county of Piscataquis, twelve miles, more or 
less, to the southeasterly corner of Township 3, Range 9 ; thence 
westerly on the southerly line of said Township 3, Range 9, and 
Township 3, Range 10 eleven miles, more or less, to Sourdnahunk 
Lake, twelve miles, more or less, to the north line of Township 4, 
Range 10; thence easterly along the northerly line of Township 4, 
Range 10, and Township 4, Range 9, twelve miles more or less, to 
point of beginning, including 90,000 acres, more or less. It shall 
be unlawful for any person to have in possession at any time any 
wild bird or wild animal, or part or parts thereof, taken within the 
above described territory. 

Section 2. Whoever violates any provision of these rules and 
regulations shall be subject to the same penalties as are provided by 
statute for the unlawful taking of or having in possession like wild 
birds and wild animals in this state. 

Dated at Augusta, Maine, this 31st day of ]\Iarch, A. D., 1922. 

Commissioner of Inland Fisheries and Game. 

Ackno\vledt?mr-nt i.s hereby made of courtesies which have made these 
notes possible rrom 

Massachusetts Historical Society. >raine Statf I^ibrarv. 

Maine Historical Society. Auburn Public Library. 

Department of Inland i-'isheries and Game. Willis E. Parsons, Com- 



(From an interview with George S. Potting-ill in the Lewiston Journal) 

"The first Pettingill to come to this country was Richard, who 
came from England to Salem while the witchcraft craze was in 
full blast. Then came his son INIatthew, and ^latthew the second, 
Abraham Pettingill was next in line and then came David and son 
David. This David Pettingill was my great grandfather and he 
was the second man to come to Lewiston, following Paul Hildredth 
within a few months. He settled on the Webster road, a short dis- 
tance out of the present city and the old house still stands. Then 
came John, and his son John was my father, my son Arthur is the 
next generation and his two daughters, Hillis and Arlette, are the 
last of the name. 

"The David Pettingill who first came to Lewiston lived here 
alone in a camp one winter. ^Irs. Paul Hildredth came to visit 
them and while she was there her house was burned. Hildredth and 
his wife then went to New Gloucester for the winter and David 
Pettingill and his wife remained in Lewiston alone. One day 
while grandfather David was gone, an Indian came to the camp and 
wanted to come in. She was a brave woman and at once gave the 
savage welcome. He proved to be a friendly Indian and a scout 
with old Joe Weir, the famous Indian fighter. In a short time Joe 
Jepson, another scout, came and the two nearly ate her out of 
house and home. Her husband soon came and the three men were 
ample protection to grandmother, had she needed any protection, 
'""nee then the Pettingills have been a numerous family until the 
present generation. 

A part of the Deputy Inspectors of Fish for the State of Maine 
in the year 1822 were : 

Portland. Anthony Fernald, Anthony Knight, Samuel Chase. 

Rath, Jonas Smith, James Foster. 

Hallowell, ]\Ioses Palmer. 

Gardiner, Aaron Perkins. 

Georgetown. James Riggs, Closes Riggs, Thomas Emmons. 

Edgecomb, Closes Jewett, Samuel Tarbox, John Hodgdon, Jr., 
William P. Harding. 

Roothbay, Renjamin Hodgdon, Tyler Hodgdon, Thomas Pierce, 
Ebenezer Decker. 



"I have always admired the sturdy character of the early men 
of business in Lewiston. Chief among them all was John P. Frye. 
He was a noble type of man, and there have been few like him. 
Among the prominent public men, William Pitt Fessenden took the 
lead. What a contrast with today ! Those men were not governed 
by the commercial spirit, as so many public men now are. 



(Contributed by Hon. C. B. Donworth of Machias) 

There is standing in Columbia Falls an ancient edifice known as 
the Thomas Ruggles house, and was built in i8 18-19. For many 
years it was conspicuous as being the most artistic interiorly finished 
house east of Bangor, and in past years has been an object of inter- 
est-to antiquarians. It still stands practically the same as when 
built over icxd years ago, although considerably dilapidated. The 
descendants of Thomas Ruggles, residing in Columbia Falls late 
last year organized a corporation known as Ruggles Historical 
Society, and the heirs of Elizabeth Ruggles have presented the 
property to the society. - . •. 

COPY OF RECITAL In deed Rebecca W. Wilson et als (Heirs 
of Elizabeth Ruggles) to Ruggles Historical Society, a corporation 
located at Columbia Falls in Washington County, which deed con- 
veyed the old Ruggles house and lot situated in Columbia Falls. 
Deed dated January 16, 1922, recorded in Washington Registry in 
book 351, page 91. 

"The described premises are part of the real estate that was con- 
veyed to Thomas Ruggles by Nathan Bucknam by deed dated Nov- 
ember 29, A. D., 18 1 7, and recorded in the Registry of Deeds for 

said county of Washington in book 10, page 255, and upon which 
said described parcel said Thomas Ruggles erected in 1S18-19, the 
said dwelling house, still standing on its original site, and which 
dwelling house v/as the residence of said Thomas during the re- 
mainder of his life, and after his death the residence of his son 


I'rederick A. Ruggles, and later of the latter's daughter, the said 
Elizabeth Ruggles. The said dwelling house has long been an ob- 
ject of historic interest. Ever since its erection it has been a 
noted structure, and earlv became famous for its stately and 

' ^ _ ml 

dignified exterior and for it artistic interior finish and elaborate 
ornamentation, standing practically unaltered for more than a cen- 
tury, a monument to the social prominence and refined taste of said 
Thomas Ruggles. The grantee, Ruggles Historical Society, having 
been organized in his honor and to perpetuate his memory, it is 
•Peculiarly fitting that the title should now rest in said Society to the 
end that said historic structure may become the home of said 
. ganization. "" " . 

RUGGLES HISTORICAL SOCIETY is a corporation organ- 
ized at Columbia Falls, on December 20, 1821, by the descendrnts of 
Thomas Ruggles, to wit: John P. Crandon," Charles F. Wilson, 
George W. Bucknam, Fred F- Crandon, Eva A. Bucknani,\Mary R. 
Chandler, Grace E. Crandon, Bertha" AI. Chandler and ^larcia E. 
Crandon, all of Columbia Falls, Jolin. P. Crandon is President, 
Fred F. Crandon, \ . President, Charles F. Wilson, treasurer, and 
Mary' R: 'Chandler, 'Clerk and Corresponding; Secretary, Certifi- 
cate of organization is- recorded in .Corporation book H, page 380, 
of Washington County Records. • ' . ' v, .■ . ,' . .^ • 



:• -'\. 


"^ ,'" 

■t ' 


O men of Maine ! we celebrate ,. "« 

A race, of honest, gifted minds; ' 
We praise the. true, the good.and great. - :-- 
.fj'o group of nobler, loyal kinds,- ~ . - - 
■With mission more predestinate • • •- 
Than men of Maine. 

O men of Maine ! three hundred years 
, Of soldiers, poets, men of state, 
Who held the coast, who conquered fears. 
Who builded sure. We venerate 
Tho.^e lives, the deeds ; those hopes and tears 
Of men of Maine. 


Women of Elaine! who shared those deeds, 
We share with thee great gratitude ; 
Still by thy help the State succeeds, 
With thy wise aid is hope renewed ; 
In work and peace with thee Elaine leads — 
Women of Maine. 

— Justin Henry Shaw. 



(By John C. Stewart) 
(Continued from Vol. 10, No. 2, p. 96) 

Speaker of the Kansas house of representatives in 1872; elected as 
a Republican to the Forty-third Congress (March 4, 1873-March 
3, 1875) ; died in Kansas City, Kansas, August 24, 1878. 

Coburn, Stephen, a Representative from Maine; born in Bloom- 
field, now Skowhegan, November 11, 1817; graduated from Water- 
ville, now Colby, college in 1839; studied law and was admitted to 
the bar in 1845; practiced in Skowhegan; member of the state 
board of education 1849- 1852; elected as a Republican to the Thirty- 
sixth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Israel W^ashburn, Jr., and served from January 2, 1861, to March 
3, 1861 ; drowned in Skowhegan, July 4, 1882. 

Comstock, Solomon Gilman, a Representative from Minnesota ; 
born in Argyle, ^lay 9, 1842; educated in Maine Wesleyan seminary 
at Kent's Hill ; studied law and was admitted to the bar ; located at 
Moorhead, Alinnesota, in 1870; attorney for Clay county 1870- 
1878; member of the state house of representatives 1875, 1876, 1878, 
1879, 1880 and 1881 ; state senator 1882-1888; elected as a Repub- 
lican to the Fifty-first Congress (March 4, 1889-March 3, 1891): 
resumed the practice of law in Moorhead; member state normal 
school board 1807-1905 ; member board of regents of the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota. 


Cutts, Richard, a Representative from the District of ]\Iaine 
before the separation from ^Massachusetts ; born on Cutts Island, 
Saco, June 28, 1771 ; graduated from Harvard college in 1790; 
studied law; engaged in commercial pursuits; member of the Mas- 
sachusetts state house of representatives in 1799 and 1800; elected 
as a Democrat to the Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh and 
Twelfth Congresses (March 4, 1801-March 3, 1813) ; defeated for 
election to the Thirteenth Congress ; appointed superintendent gen- 
eral of military supplies ^larch 4, 1913, which office he held until 
March 3, 1917, when he was appointed Second ComptroUor of the 
Treasury, which position he held until 1829; died in Washington, 
D. C, April 7, 1845. 

Davis, Samuel, a Representative from the District of Maine 
before the separation from Massachusetts; born in Bath, in 1774; 
engaged in mercantile pursuits; member of ^Massachusetts state 
house of representatrves in 1803 and 1808-1812; elected as a 
Federalist to the Thirteenth Congress ( ^larch 4, 1813-^Iarch 5^ 
1815) ; again a member of ^lassachusetts state house of representa- 
tives 1815 and 1816; died in Bath, April 17, 1831. 

Deering, Nathaniel Cobb, a Representative from Iowa ; bom in 
Denmark, September 22, 1827 ; attended the common schools and 
North Bridgton academ.y; member of state legislature 1855-1856; 
moved to Osage, Iowa, 1857; for several years a clerk in the 
United States Senate resigning in 1865 ; that same year was ap- 
pointed a special agent of the Post Office Department for the dis- 
trict of Minnesota, Iowa and Nebraska, and served until 1869, 
when he resigned ; appointed national bank examiner for the state of 
Iowa in 1872, which position he held until February, 1877; elected 
as a Republican to the Forty-fifth, Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh 
Congresses (March 4, 1877-lMarch 3, 1883) ; died in Osage, Iowa, 
December 11, 1887. . \ ' _ , ' ' 

Din^ley, Nelson, Jr., a Representative from Elaine; born in Dur- 
ham, Fcbrunn,' 15, 1832; graduated from Dartmouth college in 
t8^3 : studied law and was admitted to the bar but left the profes- 
sion to become proprietor and editor of the Lewiston Journal in 


1856; member of the state house of representatives 1862-1865, iStS 
and 1873; speaker of the house in 1863 and 1864; governor of 
Maine in 1874 and 1875 ; delegate to the national Republican con- 
vention in 1876; elected as a Republican to the Forty-seventh Con- 
gress September 12, 1881, to till the vacancy caused by the resigna- 
tion of William P. Frye; re-elected to the n-ine succeeding Con- 
gresses, and served from December 5, 1881, until his death; chair- 
man of the Committee of Ways and Cleans during the Fifty-fourth 
and Fifty-fifth Congresses; died in Washington, D. C, January 13, 
1889. --- ■- . .- ' - - :■: • .-. 

Doan, William, a Representative from Ohio ; horn in Maine but 
place and date are not given ; his residence in Ohio is not given ; 
elected as a. Democrat to -the Twenty^sixtli and ■ Twenty-seventh 
Congresses (March 4, 1839-March 3, 1843) \ <^ate and place .of 
death not stated^- ' '" .-... 

f . • - \ ^ _ • - ' — -;: -.:: V -\ 

«^ \ Dryden, John. Fairfield, a Senator from New. Jersey; born in or 

- hear Farmington, August 7, 1839 ' moved with his parents to ^las- 

sachusetts, fitted for college at Worcester, ^Massachusetts, and 

graduated from Yale college in 1865 ; made a special study of life 

insurance and, in 1875, at J\"ewark, - Ne^v Jersey, .originated and 

-L founded" the Prudential insurance company of America becoming 

it's first secretary, and,! in 1881, its president; one of the founders of 

the Fidelity trust company; identified with the management of 

various ' street railways", banks and other financial enterprises in 

'♦New' Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania; presidential elector in 

'-1896 and 1900; elected as a Republican to the United States Senate 

• to fill thfe vacancy caused b}' the death of .W^illiam J. Sewell, and 

served from January 6, 1902, to March 3, 1907; died in Newark, 

New Jersey, N'ovember 24, 191 1. 

Dunlap, Robert PInckney, a Representative from !Maine ; born i'l 
Brunswick, August 17, 1794; graduated from Bowdoin collec:c in 
181.S ; studied law, admitted to the bar in 1818 and beg?n prartice 
in Brunswick; member of the state liouse of representatives 1821- 
1823; member of the state senate 1823-1832; president of the eenate 
four years ; member of the executive council in 1833; governor 



1834-1838; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth and Twenty- 
ninth Congresses (^larch 4, 1843-jMarch 3, 1847) » collector of cus- 
toms, Portland, 1848-1849; president of the board of overseers of 
Bowdoin college; died in Brunswick, October 20, 1859. 

Dunnell, Mark Hill, a Representative from ^linnesota; born in 
Buxton, July 2, 1823; graduated from Colby college in 1849; prin- 
cipal of Norway and Hebron academies five years ; member of 
Elaine house of representatives in 1854 and of the state senate in 
1855 ' state superintendent of common schools in 1855, 1857, 1858 
and 1859 ; delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1856 
at Philadelphia; commenced the practice of law in Portland in i860; 
entered the Union armv as colonel of the fifth Maine infantrv in 
1861 ; United States consul to \'era Cruz, Mexico, in 1862 ; removed 
to Minnesota in January, 1865 ; member of Minnesota house of 
representatives in 1867; state superintendent of public instruction 
from April, 1867, to August, 1870; elected as a Republican to the 
Forty-second and to the five succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1871- 
^larch 3, 1883) i re-elected to the Fifty-first Congress (March 4, 
1889-March 3, 1891) ; located in Washington, D. C, died in Owa- 
tonna, Minnesota, August 9, 1904. 

Eastman, Ben C, a Representative from A\''isconsin ; born in 
Strong, October 24, 1812; attended the public schools, studied law, 
was admitted to the bar and practiced in Elaine and New York 
City; moved to Platteville, Wisconsin, in 1840; secretary of the leg- 
islative council of Wisconsin Territory 1843-1846; elected as a 
Democrat to the Thirty-second and Thirty-third Congresses (March 
4, 185 1 -March 3, 1855) ; died in Platteville, Wisconsin, February 
2, 1856. 

Evans, George, a Representative and Senator from Maine : born 
in Hallowell. January 12, 1797; graduated from Bowdoin college in 
1815; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1818; member of 
the state house of representatives and served as speaker in 1829; 
elected to the Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-third, Twenty- 
fourth, Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Congresses (^March 4, 1829- 
March 3, 1841) ; elected as a Whig to the United States Senate and 


served from ^larch 4, 1841, until ^larcli 3, 1847; defeated for re- 
election; member of the commission to ascertain the claims against 
Mexico 1849-1850; attorney general of Maine 1850, 1854 and 1856; 
died in Hallowell, April 5, 1867. 

Fairfield, John, a Representative and Senator from Maine ; born 
in Saco, January 30, 1797; received a limited schooling; studied law 
and was admitted to the bar in 1826; appointed reporter of the state 
supreme court in 1832; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty- fourth 
and Twenty-hfth Congresses (March 4, 1835-March 3, 1839") ; gov- 
ernor of Maine, 1839-1843 ; elected to the United States Senate to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Reuel Williams ; re- 
elected, and served from March 4, 1843, ^^i^til his death in Washing- 
ton, D. C, December 24, 1847. 

Farley, Ephraim Wilder, a Representative from Maine : born in 
Newcastle, August 29, 1817; graduated from Bowdoin college in 
1836; studied law, was admitted to the bar and began practice in 
Newcastle; member of the state house of representatives in 1843 ^^^ 
1851-1853; elected as a ^^ hig to the Thirty-third Congress (March 
4, 1855-^Iarch 3, 1857) ; defeated for the Thirty-fourth Congress; 
member of the state senate in 1856; died in Newcastle, April 3, 1880. 

Farwell, Nathan Allen, a Senator from ]\Iaine ; born in Unity, 
February 24, 1812 ; attended the public schools ; studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar and began practice in Rockland ; member of the 
state house of representatives in i860, 1863 and 1864; member of 
the state senate in 1853, 1854, 1861 and 1862; president of the 
state senate in 1862; delegate to the National Republican Convention 
in Baltimore in 1864; appointed to the United States Senate to fill 
the vacancy caused by the resignation of William Pitt Fessenden ; 
subsequently elected to fdl the \ccancy and served from October zj, 
1864, to March 3, 1865; delegate to the Philadelphia Loyalist con- 
vention in 1866; died in Rockland, December 9, 1893. 

Felch, x\lpheus, a Senator from Michigan ; born in Limerick, 
September 28, 1806; pre[)ared for college in Phillips Exeter academy 
and graduated from Bowdoin college in 1827; studied law. was ad- 


niitted to the bar and practiced iir Houlton 1830-1S33; moved to 
Monroe, Michigan, in 1833, and continued practice; represented 
Monroe county in the state legislature in 1835, ^^3^ ^"<i ^^37 > ^tate 
bank commissioner 1838- 1839, and rendered great service in stamp- 
ing out the so-called "wild-cat" banks; auditor general of the state 
in 1842; appointed associate justice of the iNIichigan supreme court 
in 1842; removed to Ann Arbor, ^lichigan, in 1843 > elected go\ernor 
as a Democrat in 1845 ; served as governor from January 5, 1846, to 
^larch 3, 1847, ^vhen he resigned to take his seat in the United 
States Senate; served as Senator from March 4, 1847, to ^larch 3, 
1853 ; president of the commission to settle Spanish and ^^lexican 
war claims 1853-1856; died in Ann Arbor, ^Michigan, June 13, 1896. 

Fessenden, Samuel Clement, a Representative from Maine ; born in 
Xew Gloucester, March 7, 1815; graduated from Bowdoin college 
in 1834, and from Bangor theological seminary in 1837; was or- 
dained and installed as pastor of the Second Congregational church, 
Rockland, the same year and served until 1856; studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar and began practice in Rockland in 1858; appointed 
judge of the Rockland municipal court; elected as a Republican to 
the Thirty-seventh Congress (March 4, 1861-March 3, 1863) ; ex- 
aminer in the United States patent office 1865-1879; United States 
consul at St. John, Xew Brunswick, 1879-1881 ; died at Stamford, 
Connecticut, April 18, 1882. 

Fessenden, Thomas Amory Deblois, a Representative from Alaine ; 
born in Portland, January 23, 1826 ; graduated from Bowdoin col- 
lege in 1845 '■ studied law, was admitted to the bar and began practice 
in Auburn in 1S48; delegate to the Rei)ublican National Convention 
in 1856; member of the state house of representatives in i860 and 
1868; county attorney for Androscoggin county 1861-1862; elected 
as a Republican to the Thirty-seventh Congress to fill the \'acancy 
caused by the resignation of Charles W. Walton, and served from 
December i, 1862, to March 3, 1863; died in Auburn, September 
2S, 1868. 

Fletcher, Loren, a Representative from Minnesota; born in Mount 
Vernon, April 10, 1833 ; attended the public schools and ^Maine A\\\s- 


leyan seminary; removed to Bangor in 1853 and was employed by a 
lumber company; moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1856, and 
engaged in mercantile and manufacturing pursuits, chiefly in lumber 
and flour; elected to the state legislature in 1872, and was seven 
times re-elected, serving the three last terms as speaker ; elected as 
a Republican to the Fifty-third, Fifty-fourth, Fifty-flfth, Fifty-sixth 
and Fifty-seventh Congresses (March 4, 1893-^Iarch 3, 1903) ; re- 
sides (1911) in Minneapolis, ^linnesota. 

Flye, Edwin, a Representative from Maine ; born in Newcastle, 
March 4, 1817; prepared for college but engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits and shipbuilding; was a member of the state house of repre- 
sentatives in 1S58 ; many years president of First National bank of 
Damariscotta ; delegate to the Republican National Convention in 
1876; elected as a Republican to the Forty-fourth Congress to hll 
the vacancy caused by the resignation of James G. Blaine, and 
served from December 4, 1876, to March 3, 1877; died 

Foster, Stephen Clark, a Representative from Maine ; born in 
Machias, December 24, 1799; attended the public schools, learned 
the blacksmith trade and became a ship builder; member of the 
state house of representatives 1834-1837 and in 1847; member and 
president of the state senate in 1840; elected as a Republican to 
the Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth Congresses (March 4, 1857-^rarch 
3, 1861) ; died in Pembroke, October 6, 1872. 

Frye, William Pierce, a Representative and Senator from Maine; 
born in Lewiston, September 2, 1831 ; graduated from Bowdoin 
college in 1850; studied law, was admitted to the bar and prac- 
ticed in Lewiston; member of the legislature in 1861, 1862 and 
1867; mayor of Lewiston, 1866-1867; attorney general of Maine, 
1867-1869; elected a trustee of Bowdoin college in June, 1880; 
presidential elector in 1864; delegate to the Republican National 
Conventions in 1872, 1876 and 1880; elected chairman of the Repub- 
lican state committee in 188 1 ; elected as a Republican to the Forty- 
second, and to the five succeeding Congresses, and served from 
March 4, 1871, to March 17, 1881, when he resigned; elected to 
the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resigna- 


tion of James G. Blaine ; re-elected in 1SS3, 1889, 1895, 1901 and 
1907, and served from March iS, 1881, until his death; elected 
President of the Senate pro tempore February 7, 1896; re-elected 
^larch 7, 1901, and December 5, 1907, and served until his death; 
member of the commission which met in Paris, France, September, 
1898, to adjust terms of peace between the United States and 
Spain; died in Lewiston, August 8, 191 1. 

Gerry, Elbridge, a Representative from ]Maine ; born in Water- 
ford, December 6, 181 3; studied law and was admitted to the bar 
in 1839; began practice in W'aterford ; clerk of the state house of 
representatives in 1840; county attorney for Oxford county in 
1842 and 1843; niember of the state house of representatives in 
1846; elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-first Congress (March 
4, 1849-March 3, 185 1 ) ; moved to Portland and practiced his pro- 
fession until his death, April 10, 1886. 

Gibson, Paris, a Senator from Montana; born in Brownfield, 
July I, 1830; graduated from Bowdoin college in 185 1 ; member of 
the state legislature; located in Minneapolis, ^Minnesota, in 1858; 
built the first flour mill in the city with W. W. Eastman ; later 
built and operated the "Xorth Star" woolen mill in Minneapolis; 
located in Fort Benton, Montana, in 1879, where he became inter- 
ested in the first flock of sheep driven into northern ^lontana ; 
founded the city of Great Falls in 1882 and was its first mayor; 
delegate to the state constitutional convention in 1889; elected to 
the state senate in 1890; elected as a Democrat to the United 
States Senate, March 7, 1901, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of William A. Clark, and served from ^larch 7, 1901, 
to March 3, 1905. 

Gooch, Daniel Wheelwright, a Representative from Massachu- 
setts; born in Wells, January 8, 1820; graduated from Dartmouth 
college in 1843; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1846; 
practiced in Boston, Massachusetts; member of the state house of 
representatives in 1852 and of the state constitutional convention in 
1853; elected as a Republican to the Thirty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, 
Thirty-seventh, Thirty-eighth and Thirty-ninth Congresses, and 

:"'•-., f • 


served from ]\Iarcli 4, 1857, to September i, 1865; did not take his 
seat in the Thirty-ninth Congress as he had been appointed navv 
agent of the port of Boston in 1865 ; President Johnson removed 
him from that office in less than a year ; re-elected to the Fortv- 
third Congress (]\Iarch 4, 1873-March 3, 1875) ; defeated for re- 
election to the Forty-fourth Congress; pension agent in Boston, 
iMassachuselts, 1876-1886; died in Alelrose, ^Massachusetts, Novem- 
ber II, 1891. 

Goodwin, John Noble, a Representative from Maine and a dele- 
gate from Arizona Territory; born in South Berwick, October 18, 
1824; graduated from Dartmouth college in 1844; studied law, ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1848, and began practice in South Berwick; 
member of the ^^laine state senate in 1854; elected as a Republican 
from Maine to the Thirty-seventh Congress (]\Iarch 4, i86i-]\Iarch 
3, 1863) ; mo\ed to Arizona Territory in 1863, having been appoint- 
ed chief justice of the territory, which position he held until 
September, 1865; appointed governor of the territory February 2, 
1864, and resigned in September, 1865 ; elected as a Republican 
delegate from Arizona Territory to the Thirty-ninth Congress 
(March 4, 1865-AIarch 3, 1867) ; resumed the practice of law in 
New York city; died in Paraiso Springs, California, April 29, 

Grovcr, La Fayette, a Representative and Senator from Oregon; 
born in Bethel, November 29, 1823; attended Gould's academy, 
Bethel, and Bowdoin college 1844-1846; studied law in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, and was admitted to the bar in 1850; moved to 
Oregon in August, 1851, and l^egan practice in Salem; elected by the 
territorial legislature prosecuting attorney for the second judicial 
district, and as auditor of public accounts for the territory, 185 1- 
1852; member of the legislature in 1852; ai)i)ointed by the Depart- 
ment of the Interior as a commissioner to audit the spoliation 
claims growing out of the Rogue River Indian war in 1854; again 
a member of the legislature in 1855 and speaker of the house; ap- 
pointed by the Secretary of War a member of the board of com- 
missioners to audit the Indian war exj)enses of Oregon and \\'ash- 
ington in 1856 ; delegate to the convention which framed the con- 

«?■ ■ v.- ^ ■•'■.•- f-. 


stitution of Oregon in 1857; elected as a Democrat to the Thirty- 
titth Congress and took his seat February 15, 1859, serving until 
March 3, 1859; governor of Oregon, 1870-1877, when he resigned; 
elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from 
March 4, 1877, to ]\Iarch 3, 1883; died in Portland, Oregon, May 
10, 1911. 

Guernsey, Frank Edward, a Representative from IMaine ; born in 
Dover, October 15, 1866; attended the common schools, Foxcroft 
academy. Eastern Maine conference seminary in Bucksport, Elaine 
W'eslevan seminarv at Kent's Hill and Eastman's business colles^e, 
Poughkeepsie, Xew York ; studied law and was admitted to the bar 
in Dover in 1890; treasurer of Piscataquis county 1890-1896; mem- 
ber of the state house of representatives 1897-1899; member of 
the state senate in 1903 ; delegate to the Republican National Con- 
vention in Chicago in 1908; elected as a Republican to the Sixtieth 
Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Llewellyn 
Powers ; re-elected to the Sixty-first Congress and ser\ed from 
December 7, 1908, to ^^larch 3, 191 1. Re-elected to the Sixty- 
second Congress. 

Hale, Eugene, a Representative and Senator from ]Maine ; born 
in Turner, June 9, 1836 ; completed a preparatory course but did 
not enter college ; studied law in Portland, was admitted to the bar 
in 1857 and began practice in Ellsworth; was nine successive years 
county attorney for Hancock county; member of the state house of 
representatives in 1867, 1868 and 1880; elected as a Republican to 
the Forty-first, Forty-second, Forty-third, Forty-fourth and Forty- 
fifth Congresses (March 4. 1869-^Iarch 3, 1879) ; declined the ap- 
pointment of Postmaster General in 1874; delegate to the Republi- 
can National Conventions in 1868, 1876 and 1880; declined a cabinet 
portfolio tendered by President Hayes; elected as a Republican to 
the United States Senate in 1881 and re-elected in 1887, 1893, 1899 
and 1905; served from March 4, 1881, to ]\Larch 3, 191 1; member 
of the National Monetary Commission ; died in Washington, D. C. 

Hall, William A., a Representative from Missouri ; born in 
Maine (date and place not stated) ; went to Mrginia and then to 


Missouri in 1841 ; presidential elector in 1844; judge of the circuit 
court in 1847 » delegate to the state constitutional convention in 
1861, elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-seventh Congress to till 
the vacancy caused by the expulsion of John B. Clark ; re-elected 
to the Thirty-eighth Congress and served from January 20, 1862, 
to Alarch 3, 1865 ; delegate to the Democratic national convention in 
Chicago in 1864. 

Hamlin, Hannibal, a Representative and Senator from Alaine ; 
born in Paris, August 2^, 1809; prepared for college but, because 
of the death of his father, was obliged to take charge of the home 
farm until he became of age ; in a printing office for a year as a 
compositor; studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1833, and 
began practice in Hampden and continued until 1848; member of 
the state house of representatives in 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 
and 1847, ^"^^ served as speaker in 1837, 1839 and 1840; elected as 
a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Congresses 
(March 4, 1843-^Iarch 3, 1847) J elected as a Democrat to the 
United States Senate in 1848. to fill the vacancy caused by the death 
of John Fairfield; re-elected in 1851 and served from ^lay 26, 1848, 
to January 7, 1857, when he resigned having been elected governor 
as a Republican ; resigned the governorship a month later, having 
been elected United States Senator as a Republican, and served 
from ]\Iarch 4, 1857, to January 17, 1861, when he resigned; elected 
Vice President on the RepubHcan ticket with Abraham Lincoln, 
and presided over the Senate from }^Iarch 4, 1861, to !March 3, 
1865 r appointed collector of the Port of Boston, ^Massachusetts, in 
1865 b^^t resigned in 1866; again elected as a Republican to the 
United States Senate in 1869; re-elected in 1875, and served from 
March 4, 1869 until March 3, 1881 ; United States ^Minister to 
Spain 1881-1882; chosen a regent of the Smithsonian Institution in 
1870; died in Bangor, July 4, 1891. 

Hammons, David, a Representative from Maine; born in Oxford 
county (town not given), May 12, 1808; attended the public 
schools, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1836, and began 
practice in Lovell ; member of the state senate in 1840-1841 ; elected 
as a Democrat to the Thirtieth Congress (March 4, 1847-March 3, 
1849) ; resumed practice in Bethel and died there November 7, 


Hammons, Joseph, a Representative from New Hampshire ; born 
in Cornish, ^larch 3, 1787; attended the pubhc schools, studied 
medicine and began practice in Farmington, Xew Hampshire ; 
elected to the Twenty-tirst and Twenty-second Congresses (]\Iarch 
4, 1829-March 3, 1833) ; postmaster at Dover, N. H., 1833-1836; died 
in Farmington, X. H., March 29, 1836. 

Harper, Joseph Merrill, a Representative from New Hampshire ; 
bom in Limerick, June 21, 1787; attended the public schools, 
studied medicine aiid began practice in Canterbury, New Hamp- 
shire, in 1811;. served in the war of 1S12 as assistant surgeon in 
the fourth infantry; member of the state house of representatives 
in 1826 and 1827; served in the state senate 1829-1830, the last year 
as president of the senate and ex-officio governor from February 
until June, 183 1 ; relected as a Democrat to the Twenty-second and 
Tweoty-third Congresses (^larch 4, 183 1 -March 3, 1835) ; died in 
Canterbury, New Hampshire, January 15, 1865. 

• '^Herrick, Aaron, a Representative from New York ; born in 
Lewistom, January' 21," 1812; attended the public schools ; became 
a prfnfer; established ''The "Citizen" at Wiscasset in 1833; moved 
to New York City in 1836; established the "New York Atlas" in 
1838, which he continued until his death; alderman -.1854-1^56; 
naval store keeper for the Port of New York 1857-1861 ; elected 
as a Democrat to the Thirty-eighth Congress (March 4, iS63-]March 
'*3,' 1865) ; delegate to the- National Union Convention In ' Philadel- 
phia in 1866; died in New York City, February 5, 1868. 

" : Herrick, Ebenezer, a Representative from Maine; born in Lin- 
coln "county •(•town not given), -'October 21, 1785; attended the 
publix:- 'schools; member of the state constitutional convention in 
1820, and of the state senate the same year; elected to the Seven- 
teenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Congresses (March 4, 1821- 
March 3, 1827); state senator 1828-1829; died in Lewiston, May 
7, 1839. 

< .. ''- 

Hersev", Samuel Freeman,, a Representative from Maine; born 
in Sumner, April 12, 1812; graduated from Hebron academy in 


183 1 ; engaged in banking and lumber business in Elaine, Alinnesota 
and Wisconsin; member of the state legislature in Elaine in 1842^ 
1857, 1865, 1S67 and 1869, and of the executive council in 185 1 
and 1852; delegate to the Republican National Conventions in i86a 
and 1864; elected as a Republican to the Forty-third Congress and 
served from ^larch 4, 1873, until his death in Bangor, February 

3> 1875- 

Hilborn, Samuel Greeley, a Representative from California ; bom 
in Minot, December 9, 1834; attended the common schools, Hebron 
academy, Gould's academy at Bethel and graduated from Tufts 
college in 1859; studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1861, and 
located in \^a]lejo, Solano county, California ; member of the sen- 
ate of that state 1875-1879; member of the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1879; appointed United States district attorney for the dis- 
trict of California in 1883 and moved to San Francisco ; located in 
Oakland in 1887; elected as a Republican to the Fift>'-second Con- 
gress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Joseph ^Ic- 
Kenna; re-elected to the Fifty-third Congress but his seat was suc- 
cessfully contested by \\'arren B. English on April 4, 1894; re-elect- 
ed to the Fifty- fourth and Fifty-fifth Congresses and served from 
December 5, 1892, to ^larch 3, 1899; died in Washington, D. C.^ 
April 19, 1899. 

Hill, Mark Langdon, a Representative from Maine; bom in. 
Biddeford, June 30, 1772; attended the public schools; served in. 
both branches of the ^Massachusetts legislature before the separa- 
tion of Elaine from that state; judge of the court of commort 
pleas in 1810; elected a Representative from Massachusetts for the 
District of Maine to the Sixteenth Congress (March 4, 18 19- 
March 3, 1821); elected from Maine to the Seventeenth Congress. 
(March 4, 1821-March 3, 1823); postmaster at Phippsburg; col- 
lector of customs at Bath ; overseer of Bowdoin college severaf 
years; died in Phippsburg, November 26, 1842. 

Holland, Cornelius, a Representative from Maine ; born in Maine 
(place not given) July 9, 1783; studied medicine and practiced in. 
Canton; a delegate to the constitutional convention in 18 19; m€m~ 


ber of the state house of representatives in 1820 and 182 1 ; member 
of the state senate in 1822, 1825 and 1826; elected to the Twenty- 
first Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
James \\\ Ripley; re-elected to the Twenty-second Congress, and 

served from December 6, 1830, to March 3, 1833 ; died in Canton, 
June 2, 1870. 

Howard, Volney E., a Representative from Texas ; born in Nor- 
ridgewock about 1808; studied law, was admitted to the bar, moved 
to Mississippi and began practice in Vicksburg; was several years 
editor of the ''Mississippian''; fought duels with Sergeant S. Pren- 
tiss and Alexander V, ]\IcXutt; moved to San Antonio, Texas, in 
1847 »' elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-first and Thirty-second 
Congresses (^larch 4, 1849-^Iarch 3, 1853) ; sent on a mission to 
California by the President and took up his residence in that state ; 
died in Santa Monica, California, May 14, 1889. 

Howe, Timothy Otis ; a Senator from Wisconsin ; born in Liver- 
more, February 24, 1816; studied law, was admitted to the bar and 
practiced; served one term in the state legislature; moved to Wis- 
consin in 1845 > elected judge of the circuit and supreme courts of 
Wisconsin in 1850 and resigned in 1855 ; elected as a Union Repub- 
lican to the United States Senate and was twice re-elected, serving 
from. I^Iarch 4, 1861, to ^larch 3, 1879; appointed one of the dele- 
gates to the International ^lonetary Conference in Paris, France, in 
1881 ; appointed Postmaster General, December 20, 1881, took 
charge of the office January 5, 1882, and served until his death in 
Kenosha, Wisconsin, February 25, 1883. 

Ilsley, Daniel, a Representative from the District of Maine prior 
to the separation from Massachusetts ; born in Falmouth, now 
Portland, ^lay 30, 1740; received a liberal schooling; became a 
distiller; major and mustering officer at Falmouth; member of the 
Massachusetts state convention that adopted the Federal constitu- 
tion ; elected as a Democrat to the Tenth Congress (March 4, 1807- 
March 3, 1809) ; <^ied in Portland, ^lay 10, 1913. 

Jewett, Daniel Tarbox, a Senator from Missouri ; born in Pitts- 
field, September 14, 1807; graduated from Harvard law school, 


admitted to the bar in Maine and practiced in Bangor; city solicitor 
1834-1837; engaged with his brother, Albert G. Jewett, in operating 
a steamboat line on the Chargres river, Isthmus of Panama, 1850- 
1853; went to California and engaged in gold mining two years; 
returned to Bangor and practiced law until 1857; moved to St. 
Louis, IMissouri, in 1857 and continued in practice; one .of the 
organizers of the Republican party in ]Missouri ; member of the 
state legislature in 1866; appointed as a Republican to the United 
States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Charles D. Drake, and served from December 19, 1870, to January 

20, 1871 ; resumed practice and died in St. Louis, October 7, 1907. 

Kavanagh, Edward, a Representative from Maine ; born in 
Newcastle, April 2'/-, 1795 ; attended Georgetown college, D. C, 
and graduated from the ^lontreal seminary in 1820; studied law, 
was admitted to the. bar, and began practice in Damaris.cotta ; mem- 
ber of the state house of representatives 1826-1828; secretary of 
the state' senate in 1830; state senator and president of the senate 
,i842-i8'43; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-second and Twen- 
ty-third Congresses (March 4, 1831-^Iarch 3, 1835) ; defeated for 
^ the Twenty-fourth" Congress; appointed ' by President Jackson 
'charge d'affaires to Portugal, March"3, 1835, and served until- 1841 ; 
one of the joint commission on the Northeastern boundary in 1842 ; 
acting: governor of ]Maine 1843-1844; died in Newcastle, Ja'nuary 

21, 1844. _ ■ - - =?'•. !;-/-'H'' " : '' - •' 

. . • (To be Continued) . - ' ' • •,.*,;/- .; .^' " 

V-' . ^ 



The Official Bulletin of the National Society, S. A. R. in its June (-1922) 
issue says: - .; _ . . ' ■ 

The Maine Society boasts among its members, Osborne T. x\llen, 
the only real son of the American Revolution now living in Maine, 
who was born when his father, James Allen, was 74 years old. 
He was the youngest of 14 children. The eldest Allen did not die 
until he was nearly 105, so that Osborne T. Allen was about 30 
years old at the time of his father's death. 


Mr. Allen has heard his father tell of incidents of the Battle of 
Trenton, of fighting at Fort Griswold, and of a seven days' march 
when he was forced to go without shoes during the latter part of 
the distance, his feet swollen and bleeding from the hardships of 
the journey; also of the War of 1812, in which he fought. 

His father was born in New London, Conn., and was only 14 
years old when he went into George Washington's army. When 
he first came to Maine he settled in Scarboro, where he married 
Abigail Berry, his first wife. He then lived eight years in Port- 
land, and from that city moved to Canton, where he has spent the 
greater part of his life. 

From his father he acquired some musical training and inherited 
in no small degree his musical talent. He learned to play the 
violin when a boy and played the horn in an army band during the 
Civil War, in which he saw active service. 

Mr. Allen was at Antietam, Gettysburg, Saint Alary's Heights, 
PVedericksburg, ^Missionary Ridge, and Chancellorsville. On the 
march from Gettysburg to Rappahannock Station he sustained a 
sunstroke, which sent him to the hospital and finally home. Two 
brothers, Charles D. and Lorenzo W., also served in the war with 

Some two years ago the Elaine Sons of the American Revolution 
appointed Justice A. M. Spear, of Gardiner; E. Converse Leach, of 
Portland, and O. B. Clason, of Gardiner, as a committee to go be- 
fore the Legislature and obtain an appropriation of $600 from the 
State for the purpose of erecting a bronze tablet on the Maine 
marker at Valley Forge in commemoration of the Maine soldiers 
who lost their lives in the Revolutionar}^ War, to replace the old 
one, the funds at the time the first was erected not being sufficient 
to place a satisfactory one there. The committee was successful 
and the money was appropriated. The Maine Society then ap- 
pointed a committee to attend to all the details, and the result is a 
beautiful memorial, bearing the seal of Elaine, a pine and a cone, 
together with a suitable inscription written by ex-Governor Cobb. 

Governor Baxter has authorized Chairman Berry to proceed with 
the work, provided it does not cost more than the amount appro- 
priated, $600. The metal to be used is regulation U. S. statuary 
bronze, which is the highest grade that there can be produced for 
the work. It is expected that the memorial will be placed in posi- 
tion some time in July. 


This year the Sons of the American Revolution and the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution participated in the ^lemorial Dav 
Exercises. The following members of the former order have been 
selected as a committee to assist in the plans for the observance 
of the day: James AI. L. Bates, \Mlliam R. Gay, and \\'alter Wood. 


I view with pride each shining state, 

I marvel at their beauty; 
Serene and glorious and great — 

My homage is love's duty. 

Each state a jewel, the whole a crown, 

Impressive, rich and vast ; 
Each state a gem of wide renown — 

From first unto the last. 

From gulf to gulf, from coast to coast, 

Each one a shining gem ; 
Forty and eight, a brilliant host — 

A royal diadem. 

A crown of states that all may share, 

A wondrous prize to gain ; 
But brightest jewel beyond compare 

Is the glorious State of Maine. 

W. S. McKee, Augusta, Me. 


(Contributed by Mary Loring Gilman of Dover-Foxcroft) 

I. Thomas Loring. Deacon in the Congregational Church at 
Axminster, Devonshire, England. Came to Dorchester, ]\Iass., 
Dec. 2^, 1634. Married in England, Jane Newton, who died Aug. 
25, 1672. He died at Hull, Mass., x-Xpr. 4, 1661. 


2. John Loring, ist. born Axminster, England, Dec. 22, 1630. 
Came with his parents to Dorchester. ^larried (i) Dec. 16, 1657, 
Mary, daughter of Nathaniel and Sarah (Lane) Baker. She died 
July 13, 1679. ^Ir. Loring married (2) Airs. Rachel Buckley. He 
died Sept. 19, 1714, at Hull. He was the father of eighteen 

3. John Loring, 2d. Born at Hull, Mass., June 28, 1680, the 
son of John and Rachel Loring. ]^Iarried Dec. 2, 1703, Jane, 
daughter of Nicholas and Experience (Collier) Baker. She was 
born in 1687, died Dec. i, 1724. Mr. Loring died Feb. 26, 1720. 

4. Rev. Nicholas Loring. Born at Hull, Sept. i, 171 1. Was 
graduated from Harvard in 1732. Married Mar. 29, 1737, Mary, 
daughter of Col. Sylvester and Elizabeth (Rogers) Richmond. 
She was born Nov. 29, 1713, died Sept. 15, 1803. Mr. Loring was 
ordained Nov. 17, 1736, and preached for 27 years in the First Con- 
gregational Church at North Yarmouth, Maine ; his only pastorate. 
He had an annual salary of one hundred and fifty pounds. He died 
at North Yarmouth, July 31, 1763. 

5. Bezaleel Loring, ist. Born at North Yarmouth, Apr. 13, 
1739. Married Elizabeth, daughter of Jonas and Mary (Chandler) 
^lason, who was born ]\Iar. 13, 1740. She died Oct. 24, 1810, "a 
great lover of History." Mr. Loring died June 29, 1822. 

6. Bezaleel Loring, 2d. Born at Cousin's Island, Elaine, Aug. 
28, 1770. Married Dec. i, 1796, Lydia, daughter of Capt. John 
and Hannah (Parsons) Haskell, of New Gloucester. She was 
born Apr. 29, 1778, and died April 26, 1869. Mr. Loring died 
Jan. 29, 1837, in Guilford, ]\Iaine. 

7. Charles Loring, ist. Born New Gloucester, Feb. 8, 1808, 

died in Guilford, Jan. 27, 1873. He married Nov. 24, 183 1, 

Louisa, daughter of Isaac and Bethula (Haskell) Smith. She 

died Feb. 8, 1879. Mr. Loring was a prosperous and respected 

farmer. He filled various offices of trust in the town of Guilford, 

and served in the State Legislature. His sons, Frank and Charles, 

married sisters, Nellie and Anna Huntington. His daughter Ellen 

married Caleb True ci Guilford: his daughter INIary, married 

Augustus W. Gilman of Foxcroft, Maine. 



All but two of the children of John Loring 2d, settled in No. 
Yarmouth, the present Lorings of Elaine being descended from 

Little's Genealogical History of the State of Maine gives the 
following regarding Rev. Nicholas Loring: 

"During his ministry the Indians frequently attacked the place,. 
once near the meeting-house, June 20, 1748, and one, Ebenezer 
Eaton, was killed. The neighbors, including ^Ir. Loring, seized 
their guns and gave chase. The savages dropped a tomahawk,. 
which their pursuers picked up and gave the minister as a reward 
for his valor. ]\Ir. Loring has been represented as tall and slender 
and of rather delicate physique, but this incident shows that he 
was not lacking in courage." . . 

.... "Mrs. Loring was characterized by good sense, dignified 
deportment, and precise dress, and was called ]\Iadam Loring, 
after the fashion of the day.- There were ten children, all of 
whom live'd to adult vears. These were trained to habits of in- 
dustry and economy that they might be examples to the flock. 
In warm weather they went to meeting bare-footed, that those who' 
could not have shoes mig^ht not stav auav." 

.... "When Mr. Loring died, a special town-meeting was called 
August I, 1763, and the following vote was passed, which throws 
a flood of light on the customs of the times : \'oted, that Colonel 
Jeremiah Powell, Deas. Jonas ^lason and David ^Mitchell, be a 
Committee for providing such things as the town may order for 
the Rev. Mr. Loring's funeral. That Fans, Gloves, Shoes, Rib- 
bons, Buckles, Buttons, \'eils and Hoods for the four daughters ; 
Hatbands, Buckles, and Gloves for the three eldest sens ; and a 
Fan, Gloves, and Handkerchief for Bezaleel Loring's wife be pro- 
vided by the Committee at the expense of the town. \"oted, that 
the widow Loring be put in decent mourning, at the discretion of 
the Committee. \^oted. that the Committee provide four crape- 
gowns for the four daughters of Rev. ^Ir. Loring. Voted that the 
three youns^est sons be clothed in mournins:, at the discretion of 
the Committee. Voted, that Rin'^s and Gloves be provided for 
the six pall-bearers, and Gloves for the porters, or under-bearers. 
\V^ted that the Committee provide what other things are necessar}^ 

for the funeral, at their discretion." 




Jonas IVIason was born at Lexington, IMass., Oct. 21, 170S, and 

died in New Gloucester, Elaine, Alar. 13, 1801. He lived at 

Charlestown, ]\Iass., and later at No. Yarmouth, Alaine. In the 

latter place he was Selectman, Justice of the Peace, Judge of the 

Court of Common Pleas, and Deacon in the First Congregational 

Church for 64 years. He served as a private in the Revolution, 

from January, 1777, to ]\Iarch, 1778, enduring the hardships of 

the winter at Valley Forge, in spite of his seventy years. 


Col. Sylvester Richmiond was born at Little Compton, R. L, 
formerly Dartmouth, Alass., in 1672. He was considered a very 
well-to-do man for those days. He held a number of negro slaves, 
one of whom he gave as a waiting woman to his daughter ]\Iary 
when she married Rev. Nicholas Loring. Others were set free 
at his death and settled on land in Dartmouth. In his will, his 
son is charged to see that "Natt and Cate," probably old house ser- 
vants never came to want. Colonel Richmond died in 1754 at 
Dartmouth. His first wife was Elizabeth Rogers (John y2, 
Thomas i) of ^Mayflower descent. They had eleven children. 
His second wife was Deborah (Cushing) Loring. 



There v.ere three quite distinct branches of the Soule family 
among the "Tories" during the Revolution in the New York 
Colony. Record of the signing of the Oath of Allegiance has 
been procured by the author of this article. Some of these, at 
least, had ser\'ed in the British army and record of that fact has 
been procured. These families had acquired good lands along 
the shores of the Hudson and had established comfortable homes 
for themselves and children ; but when the victory crowned the 
Colonial arms, these farms were confiscated and their occupants 
Hivitcd to "Git up and git." Some of them went on shipboard 
upon vessels provided by the British and sailed for Nova Scotia, 
while others made the voyage across lake Champlain, their objec- 



tive being "Lower Canada.*' After landing and when they had 
opened their clearings and built their log cabins, and when tlie 
somewhat uncertain line had been established, these "good old 
Soules" found themselves three miles south of the Canadian Bor- 
der. However, some of them settled within Isle of Wight County 
and became wealthy farmers. 

Nearly contemporary with this removal of the "Alburg Soules" 
there was another family that appeared upon the scene. Joseph 
Soule, son of Timothy Soule, Esq., removed from Spencertown, 
N. Y., with several grown-up sons and daughters and sat down in 
the town of Fairtield, \'ermont. There was a local tradition 
among the members of this last mentioned family that their head, 
Joseph Soule, had served with honor in the Colonial army and as 
they rubbed elbows v.ith their kindred who represented the Alburg 
branch they sometimes called them "Tories.*' This fling caused 
considerable bitterness on the part of the latter family and cold- 
ness existed between the two branches. However, Time discloses 
much and makes the crooked straight. An examination of the 
official Canadian documents discloses the fact that Joseph Soule 
and his sons were red hot "Tories" during the Revolution and 
after their escape from New York they made haste to "Pray" for 
grants of land in "Lower Canada." There their names appear 
along with testimonials to prove that they were loyal to the King 
during the Revolutionary struggle and were now among the so- 
called "United Empire Loyalists." Excelsior! If these Fairfield 
Soules had been loyal to the Colonial cause during the Revolution, 
pray tell why they made haste to leave the locality and why these 
Colonial families (?) were on their knees praying their enemies 
for grants of land in Canada? And some of their united prayers 
were answered and I have abstracts from the record in Toronto 
showing the very "Lots" and "Concessions*' granted to them; and 
some of them settled there and are now respectably represented in 
families on the Pacific coast. Thi^ disctosure, though at a late 
day proves that it is not good policy to cry "Mad dog" till we 
know the canine, is, afilicted with the rabbies. 

The third branch of the Soule family removed to Nova Scotia, 
soon sold their land grants in Annapolis county Tor some of them) 
and vfemoved to.. "L^pper Canada,"' now Ontario, where they were 



granted extensive lands whose records are duplicated in the writ- 
ers' hands. These families were of the best stock descended from 
the ancient Norman ancestors and were among the best pioneers 
in the Province. Their posterity was analogous to the figurative 
"sands on the seashore" and are now scattered almost Continent- 
wide. They have encouraged education and every institution cal- 
culated to advance the spiritual and commercial interests of the 
Province as well as to throw their influence on the right side since 
they settled, many of them, within the United States. 

The writer has spent much of his time and considerable money 
for the last ten years in his investigation of the Sole-Soule-Soules- 
Sowle families and has assembled an enormous collection of rec- 
ords and reliable information concerning them; his researches 
reaching backward more than i,ooo years, almost to the selvage of 
history. This search has disclosed what he had long believed was 
the fact, viz., that the distinguished family on the Scottish Border 
mentioned by Sir \\'alter Scott and other historians under the 
name of "Soulis" were pure-blooded Soules of the ancient Norman 
blood and the examination of the early charters signed by them 
[)rove that their names were spelled distinctly "Soule." These 
powerful barons who were alHed with the Bruces and Baliols, and 
two of them claimants for the crown of Scotland, had letters of 
safe conduct between Scotland and England to France signed by 
their sovereigns and spent their winters in the sunny valleys of 
Xormandv, where thev owned extensive chateaus. 

G. T. RiDLON, Sr. 

i ) 



This Department is open to con- Conducted by Augustus O. 
tributions from all teachers and Thomas, State Superintendent ol 
pupils ! Schools, Augusta, Me. 


One of the most entertaining and interesting little brochures 
regarding the history of a ]\Iaine town that we have seen for many 
a day has recently appeared upon our table, entitled, ''Facts About 

It is enclosed in tasty paper covers, has 16 pages of text relatini,' 
to its early history, present industries, prosperity and progress, and 
12 pages of local advertisements. It has five authors, three 
males, and two females, as follows : Beulah Storah, Helen 
and Weldon Lowell, Alfred Dolloff, and Robert Burnham. They 
are five bright members of the eighth grade of the Albion Howe 
school of Standish. 

It is also pleasing evidence of the increasing interest in the cause 
of teaching the history of ?vlaine, to Elaine scholars, in ]\Iaine 
schools. From it we take the following poem : 


Let others have their maple trees 

With all their garnered sweets ; 
Let others choose the mysteries 

Of leafy oak retreats. 
I'll give to other men the fruit 

Of cherrv and of vine, 
Their claim to all I'll not dispute 

If I can have the pine. 

I love it for its tapering grace, 

Its uplifts, strong and true; 
I love it for its fairy lace 

It throws against the blue ; 
I love it for its quiet strength 

Its hints of dreamy rest, 
As stretching forth my weary length 

I lie here as its guest. 


No Persian rug for priceless fee 

Was ere so richlv made 
As that the pine has spread for me 

To woo me to its shade. 
No kindly friend hath ever kept 

More faithful vigil by 
A tired comrade as he slept 

Beneath his watchful eye. 

But best of all I love it for 

Its soft eternal green, 
Through all the winters' winds that roar 

It ever blooms serene, 
And strengthens souls oppressed by fear 

And troubles multiform, 
To turn amid the stress of tears _^ 

A smiling face to storm. 


(By Nellie "Woodbury Jordan) 

No teacher in the Pine Tree State need lack material for stimu- 
lating interest in the study of local history. Elaine placed her 
name on the records of the new world several years before the 
MayfloVver touched New England shores. It is reasonably certain 
that Sebastian Cabot and his sailors gazed on the beauty of ^It. 
Desert and Frenchman's Bay in 1498. A stone cross, erected on 
Allen's Island near Thomaston, marks the spot where Weymouth's 
men made their first landing in 1605, and the Popham Colony in 
1607 ^^'as a rival for a time of Jamestown. In 1623, only three 
years after the Pilgrims stepped over the threshold of Plymouth 
Rock, settlements had been made at Saco, Sheepscot, Damariscotta, 
Pemaquid, Monhegan and other places. The Pilgrims established 
a trading-post at Cushnoc (Augusta) in 1628 which lasted for 
thirty-five years, and furnished a source of revenue that enabled 
them to pay their obligation to the London merchants. 

About the middle of the 17th century, Massachusetts, taking 
advantage of the disorder caused by Elaine being under six differ- 
ent governments, saw an opportunity to enlarge her territory and 


annexed the southern part under the name of Yorkshire. From 
this time until 1820 the history of }daine and ^Massachusetts is so 
intertwined that because of the prominence of the latter, events 
which occurred in the former have been recorded as the history 
of ^Massachusetts. 

Every child should become familiar with the story of the earlv 
explorers, Verrazano, Gomez, Thevet, Rut, Ingram, Gosnold, 
Pring, De ^lonts, Champlain and Captain John Smith ; with the 
name and location of the early settlements at ]Monhegan, Pema- 
quid, Pejepscot, Richmond's Island, Falmouth, Scarborough, Saco. 
York, Castine, Alachias. Xo more fascinating stories are to be 
found than those dealing with Indian life and piracy within our bor- 
ders. Probably few know that Samoset, the friend of the Pilo:rims. 
was the sachem of Pemaquid and one of the captives Weymouth 
carried to England, or that Squanto was a native of ]Maine. The 
m}thical Xc^rumbega supposed to be the home of a great Elaine 
Indian chieftain, was searched for on the shores of the Penobscot. 
Simon the "Yankee Killer" was a name that struck terror to the 
hearts of the colonists and the story of Anthony Brackett's family 
is akin to that of the Dustins of Haverhill. Tales of Captain 
Kidd's hidden treasure are still heard along our coast. 

Prominent white settlers who blazed the trails, withstood bloody 
persecution and political intrigue and made the state a safe dwell- 
ing place for their families and posterity should become familiar 
names, among them Sir Ferdinando Gorges, the founder of Alaine; 
James Phips, Christopher Levett, Rev. Robert Jordan ; Dominicus 
Jordan, the "Indian Killer;" Sir \\'illiam Phips, Anthony Brackett, 
Thomas Purchase, Cleeves, Tucker and Baron Castine. 

Sixteen tov»'ns in the State were settled or incorporated in the 
17th century and eighty-one in the i8th which is evidence enougli 
that historical secrets must have become hidden in old diaries, 
books, newspapers, deeds, mortgages, documents, coins, flags, cos- 
tumes, furniture, dishes, cooking utensils, farm implements, 
coaches, pictures, tomb-stones, houses, churches, etc. Such pos- 
sessions in these old towns furnish abundant opportunity for re- 
search within the ability of the children of the upper grammar 
grades and the personal element in this method of development 
makes the study of history one of pleasure rather than one of 

This article simply aims to suggest a few subjects that will 


arouse an interest in local history with the hope that responsive 
chords may be set vibrating in the hearts of our youth and result 
in a deep love and pride for the State, which is a good foundation 
for worthy citizenship. 

Maine's earliest days are linked with those of the Stuart and 
Tudor sovereigns of England, Pring making his explorations dur- 
ing the reign of James I ; Gosnold in Queen Elizabeth's time and 
Charles I granted Gorges his province extending from the Piscata- 
qua to the Kennebec in 1639. Thus it will be seen that the oldest 
towns are on the coast and in the southern part of the State. 

Kittery's history dates from 1647. It is the birthplace of the 
two Sir William Pepperells, and the Pepperell-Sparhawk man- 
sion built in 1GS2 is in truth an ancient landmark. George Wash- 
ington's diary records that at one time he visited Kittery Point. 
South Berwick contains the old Hamilton house which has 
sheltered the illustrious John Paul Jones, the founder of the 
American navy. This section of the State frequently heard the 
war cry of the savage echoing through the forest and in 1675 it 
was ruthlessly ravaged. 

In York, first called Agamenticus and later Gorgeana, may be 
seen the old goal of colonial days, for York was the shire town 
from 1716 to 1735, and before that, Gorgeana was the first incor- 
porated city in America with a mayor and other necessary officers. 
Alfred, the present shire town was settled in 1764 and the court- 
house built in 1806. Here may be seen a tavern of "ye olden 
time" and several dwelhng houses of colonial architecture. A tree 
is still standing which, tradition holds, was once used for a whip- 

From the windows of the train wending its way from Alfred to 
South Waterboro, one catches a glimpse of the buildings in Shaker 
\'illage on the hill above ^lassabesic, better known as Shaker Pond. 
There are two Shaker settlements in Elaine, the other at Sabbath 
Day Lake in Xev/ Gloucester. 

On Sullivan Street in Biddeford is standing the law office of 
James Sullivan. How many people who pass that quaint struc- 
ture know anything about the Sullivan family or that a town in 
Maine is named for one of the brothers? John Adams' diary 
records the fact that he visited James Sullivan in July, 1770. Old 
houses, churches, town halls throughout the county, rubbing elbows 
\\'ith modern structures, attract attention by way of and 


furnish the incentive for discovering historical facts that have 
been hidden long years. 

The library of the ]vlaine Historical Society in Portland is a 
treasure mine, with its books and relics including Father Rasle's 
strong-box, Rev. Robert Jordan's baptismal font, the pot of coins 
of the Tudor period dug from the soil of Richmond's Island, a 
remnant of the ]\Iargaretta and others too numerous to mention 

The First Parish Church in the heart of the business section is 
the oldest church building in the city. Not far distant, peering 
from behind shady elms, is the Wadsvvorth-Longfellow house where 
visitors from all over the world place their names on the register 
during the summer months. Lafayette was once a guest in the 
home of General W'ingate, now the Sweatt ^lemorial Art IMuseum. 
The cemetery on the Eastern Promenade was originally taken 
from the Cleeves farm. Here were laid to rest the bodies of the 
first citizens of Portland. The graves of the captains of the Boxer 
and Enterprise, referred to in Longfellow's poem, "The Sea Fight 
Far Away'' lie here side by side. Across the valley on Bramhall 
Hill is the last resting place of Elijah Kellogg. On the opposite 
side of the harbor on the Cape Shore, Portland Head Light was 
built in W'ashiuiJ^ton's administration and for over a centurv has 
extended its welcome or farewell to mariners homeward or sea- 
ward bound. 

Portland has suffered destruction by Indians in 1676, by the and Indians in 1690, by the British under command of 
Captain ^lowatt in 1775 and by fire in 1866. This beautiful city 
is the birthplace of many of ^^laine's famous men and women. 

Radiating from the city are roads over which stage-coaches in 
the long ago carried passengers to the outside world. A few 
taverns are still to be seen that once were well known hostelries. 
In the Stroudwater section is the Broad Tavern now a dwelling 
house. Here too are the Tate and Patrick houses and the home 
of the late Mrs. L. M. N. Stevens, once National President of the 
W. C. T. U. The old time garrison would never be recognized 
as such in its modern camouflage of an attractive residence. The 
ruin of the Cumberland and Oxford Canal is plainly visible. This 
was once a busy thoroughfare connecting Harrison and Bridgton 
with the sea. 

Scarborough is the birthplace of Maine's first governor and the 



first home of the O'Brien family which made its name remembered 
in our histor}- by the heroic deed the sons performed in the cap- 
ture of the ]\Iargaretta at ^lachias. 

In a short walk from Gorham's "Square" one may see an old 
graveyard with its rows of slate markers inscribed with dates of 
the Revolutionary period, a municipal building of long standing, 
a shaft at the corner of the Congregational Chapel giving a brief 
statement of the town's original name (Narragansett), date of 
settlement, etc. Near by are the Congregational Church, and Gor- 
ham Academy among whose alumni are enrolled the names of 
many of ]\Iaine's foremost citizens; the old McLellan house (one 
of the first brick houses built in the State from brick manufactured 
on the spot) described in such an interesting manner in Elijah 
Kellogg's "Good Old Times." The late Hon. James P. Baxter, a 
native of Gorham, gave the town a beautiful public library and on 
the adjoining lot stands the house in which he was born. Gorham 
children should enjoy the subject of history with such a rich field 
to work in. 

On Orr's Island in Casco Bay may be seen the house in which 
lived the Pearl of Orr's Island, the heroine of Harriet Beecher 
Stowe's story of that name, and in Brunswick, while Professor 
Stowe, her husband, taught in Bowdoin College, she wrote Uncle 
Tom's Cabin, the book that stirred the nation to a bitter struggle. 
Brunswick cannot be mentioned without calling to mind a few of 
Bowdoln's illustrious sons ; Longfellow, Hawthorne, Enoch Lin- 
coln, Elijah Kellogg, Closes Owen, Gen. Chamberlain, Thomas B. 
Reed, Robert E. Peary, Governor Baxter and a long list of men 
whom this State and others delight to honor. 

In Harpswell stands the simple shaft of granite with its appro- 
priate inscription erected to the memory of Elijah Kellogg; the 
beautiful colonial church in which he labored many years; the town 
hall across the road surrounded by the church-yard with It quaint 
epitaphs on the moss-covered stones. 

Freeport contains the old Jameson Tavern, where It Is said the 
Act of Separation was signed, and many an old home that has an 
interesting story waiting to be written. Gardiner offers themes for 
study in its name, Its old Episcopal Church and colonial homes. 

Teachers living In towns near i\ugusta are to be commended 
for accompanying their pupils to the State House, and no doubt 
many a youth has learned a splendid lesson of patriotism as he has 


looked upon the tattered silken folds of the flags that were borne 
in the thick of great battles. The beautiful poem written by Moses 
Owen inscribed on a bronze tablet in the rotunda should be mem- 
orized by our school children and the story told them of how it 
came to be written. Every picture hanging on the walls is a his- 
tory lesson in itself and the library contains a valuable collection 
of material, selections from which will be made to fit the needs of 
rural communities desiring such books where a library is not 
readily accessible. 

The State House and the Blaine ^lansion are situated on land, 
the title to which was derived directly from the Pilgrims. The 
Blaine house was a gift to the State from James G. Blaine's 
daughter, Harriet Blaine Beale, in memory of her son, Lieut. 
Walker Blaine Beale, who gave his life in the \\'orld \\'ar. Gov- 
ernor Baxter has secured pictures of both James G. Blaine and 
Walter Blaine Beale and had them placed near the bronze tablet 
in the mansion. 

Across the Kennebec is Fort \\'estern, at one time one of 
Maine's important strongholds. Here in 1775, came Benedict 
Arnold with Aaron Burr, a member of his staff, and Daniel Mor- 
gan, among his troops, to spend a week in rest before plunging into 
the wilderness to attempt the capture of Quebec. A monument 
erected in 1912 by a military organization of Connecticut in honor 
of Connecticut members of Arnold's expedition, marks the spot 
at which the troops rallied to begin their march north. Hon. Guy 
P. Gannett has given a sum of money for the purpose of restoring 
Fort Western as it was in 1754 as a memorial to his mother, a 
direct descendant of Captain James Howard, first commander of 
the fort. It was dedicated July 4, 1922. 

The famous old Pownalboro House in Dresden is an historical 
shrine well worth a visit. John Adams' voice was frequently 
heard in colonial days pleading causes within its walls and it was 
here that James Sullivan of Biddeford tried his first case. 

At Winslow, one catches a glimpse of the blockhouse, the last 

remnant of Fort Halifax, as the train speeds by and visions of 
fugitives pursued by Indians are easily brought to mind. A block- 
house at Fort Kent on our northern border is a silent reminder 
of the "bloodless Aroostook War." It is the property of the Elaine 
Historical Society. Old Fort William Henry, at Pemaquid Beach, 
has been restored to its original appearance. 



Over in Oxford County in what was formerly the Pequawket 
country is Lovell's Pond where in Alay, 1775, occurred the tight 
that has been celebrated in verse and story. The Fessendens and 
Ex-Gov. Dana were born in Fryeburg and Daniel Webster taught 
school in the Academy. Paris Hill was the home of Hannibal 
Hamlin, Vice President of the L^nited States during Abraham 
Lincoln's administration. 

At Damariscotta is located the oldest Catholic Church building 
in New England. In 1913, the third centenary of the Roman 
Catholic Church in Elaine was celebrated and a beautiful new 
edifice dedicated at Bar Harbor to commemorate the establishment 
of the St. Sauveur mission in 1613. 

The history of Castine is a most fascinating storv^ French, 
Dutch and English have held sway there. It has figured promi- 
nently in the Colonial, Revolutionary and 1812 Wars. Proud citi- 
zens have written histories and stories and placed tablets' at num- 
erous places in the town describing the incident that occurred on 
the particular spot, so that one may read and learn while on 
pleasure bent. 

The capture of the ^largaretta engraved *'^Iachias" on the scroll 
of Maine history. The Burnham Tavern, where plans were made 
for the daring deed is still standing. On St. Croix Island a mem- 
orial has been erected to mark the site of De Mont's Colony, estab- 
lished in 1604. On the summit of the hill in Eastport is a stone 
structure — all that is left of Fort Sullivan, occupied in 1808 by 
United States troops and captured by the British in 1814. A short 
distance from this easternmost city is the reservation where dwell 
the Passamaquoddy tribe of Indians. The Penobscots live on In- 
dian Island in the Penobscot River. During the summer months 
these Indians are seen at the numerous pleasure resorts selling 

Suggestions for historical themes and projects are unlimited. 
There is no town in the State that does not have something to 
offer in the way of worthy achievement which will furnish splendid 
material for study, and this knowledge should be passed on from 
one generation to the next, ''lest we forget" the noble deeds of our 

The pupils in our schools should know something of the work 
of the men and women whose names are inscribed on Maine's roll 
of honor. Thirty-seven of the fifty-two men who have held the 


office of chief-executive have been reared within the borders of the 
State. She has furnished more than a score of governors for 
other states, supphed the Nation with the bravest of officers and 
men for army and navy. The world of hterature, science and art 
is richer for the contributions of many of her sons and daughters. 
There is reason for a thrill of pride when the following names are 
mentioned : General Knox, Henry Dearborn, Commodore Preble, 
Israel Washburn, \\'illiam Pitt Fessenden, Lot AI. ^lorrill, James 
G. Blaine, Nelson Dingley, Jr., Thomas B, Reed, Henry W. Long- 
fellow, John and Jacob x\bbott, Artemus Ward, Benjamin Paul 
Akers, James H. Hanson, Neal Dow, Nathaniel Parker WilHs, 
David Barker, Holman Day, Melville W. Fuller, Wm. P. Frye, Sir 
Hiram ]\Iaxim and his son Hiram P., Seba Smith, Edgar \\'ilson 
Nye, Elijah Kellogg, Noah Brooks, Robert E. Peary, Elijah P. 
Lovejoy, C. A. Stephenson, Cyrus H. K. Curtis, Frank Munsey. 
James Phinney Baxter, Sarah Orne Jewett, "Fanny Fern," Har- 
riet Prescott Spofford, Rebecca Sophie Clark, Kate Douglass Wig- 
gin, Lillian Nordica, Emma Eames, Dorothea Dix, Mrs. L. M. N. 
Stevens, Elizabeth Akers Allen, Gen. Chamberlain, Gen. O. O. 
Howard, Col. Frank ^I. Hume, Major William C. Southard, nor do 
these names exhaust the list. 

In the words of H. M. Sylvester **A famous country indeed! 
A land of pictured skies, of limpid waters, of lovely homes and 
gracious hospitalities. Hapf)y is that person whose charms are 
drawn within the infinite charms of dear old Elaine, — the sough- 
ing song of the wind through her pines; the rhythmic lapping of 
the tides along her picturesque shores; the eternal lesson of her 
restless waters where with the coming of every day and night — 
sun, moon and stars write in liquid glory the mystery of the ages. 
Blessed is the man whose character has been nurtured in the 
cradle of her hills and valleys, whose rugged lines and full round- 
ed contours have found like expression in his native strength and 
grace, his clear integrity and wide-eyed charity; his notable mag- 
nanimity and unflinching courage, his sturdy manhood and his 
great heart, the golden heart of her towering pines." 


The "Maine Book," H. E. Dunnack. 

Maine, Resources, History and Government, Glenn W. Starkey. 

Maine, My State, Research Writers' Club. 


Maine In History and Romance, Lewiston Journal. 

The Trail of the ]Maine Pioneer, Lewiston Journal. 

Histor}' and Government of Elaine, W. W. Stetson. 

History of Maine, John S. C. Abbott. 

Young People's History of Elaine, Varney. 

History of Elaine, \\'illiamson. 

A History^ of Maine, L. C. Hatch. 

Maine Coast Romance, H. ]\L Sylvester. 

Susanna and the Wool ^^'itch, Rev. Geo. S. Delano. 

Forest and Shore, Chas. P. Illsley. 

Collections of the Elaine Historical Society. 

Histor}' of the District of Elaine, Sullivan. 

Twenty Years at Pemaquid, J. Henry Cartland. 

Sprague's Journal of Alaine Histor}'. 

Mt. Desert, Geo. E. Street. 

The Stor}' of Pemaquid, James Otis. .. ■ 

The Country of the Pointed Firs, Sara Ome Jewett. 

Beginnings of Colonial Elaine, H. L. Burrage. 

History of Gorham, ^IcLellan. 

Good Old Times, Elijah Kellogg. 

The Latchstring, Walter Emerson. 

Up in Maine, Holman Day. 

Pine Tree Ballads, Holman Day. 

Kin O'Katahdin, Holman Day. 

Maine in Verse and Story, Geo. A. Cleveland. 

Stories of Maine, Sophie Swett. 

Town and County Histories. 

Sebastian Rale, A Maine Tragedy of the Eighteenth Century, 

John F. Sprague. 
The Northeastern Boundary Controversy and The Aroostook War, 

John F. Sprague. . . - . 

Nellie Woodbury Jordan. 

Letter from Hon. Franklin ]M. Drew, Lewiston, !Maine : 

"I always find the Journal interestiner and instructive. I was particu- 
larly interested in your address advocating- the teaching- of Maine history 
in the public schools. Maine is rich in historical matter. No better way 
to inspire the love of our state and country than the study of their 
history — The love of one's home, state and country is the sure foundation 
^f patriotism. ^Vhat better way to Americanize the children of foreign 
horn parents than to teach them American history. I hope you will be 
able to continue the publication of the biographical sketches of natives 
'~'f Ma:ne, who served in Congress. It will increase the pride of the 




Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover-Foxcroft, 
Maine, by John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, $2.00. Single copies of current and previous 
volumes, 50 cents. Late bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Volumes 1 and 3, not less than $5.00 each. 


Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 



The Saunterer in the Portland Sunday Telegram recalls that 
among his mother's books was one entitled Fern Leaves or Notes 
from Fanny's Portfolio. Although then too young to appreciate 
the merits of those bright essays, the Saunterer found enjoyment 
in reading them. ]Many years later in a publishing house in Bos- 
ton, he had the pleasure of seeing the author, Mrs. Sarah Payson 
Parton, the iiith anniversary of whose birth fell on July 7, of 
this year. She was born in Portland, Elaine, July 7, 181 1, daugh- 
ter of Nathaniel Willis, founder of the Eastern Argus and later 
of the Youth's Companion, and sister of Nathaniel P. Willis, poet 
and prose writer. In 1844 she was left a widow in Boston, with 
two children to support. She was in needy circumstances when 
a lively essay signed Fanny Fern was published in 185 1, and which 


led to a series of essays which speedily gave her a competence. 
She published two novels, Ruth Hall and Rose Clark, both widely 
read. In. 1856 she married James Parton, the historian whom she 
had met in her brother's newspaper office in New York. She 
wrote for the Xew York Ledger for 18 years, her remuneration 
being $100 a column. ^Irs. Parton was a large woman of com- 
manding appearance. She died in Xew York, October 10, 1872. 


A cablegram received in Portland July 8, 1922, from England 
announced the fact that ^liss Esther Cloudman Dunn, daughter 
of Superintendent and ]\Irs. Charles Dunn, Jr., of the State 
School for Boys has been given the first degree of Doctor of Phil- 
osophy. The many friends of ^liss Dunn and her parents will 
all join in sincere congratulations. 

Miss Dunn's degree is awarded following two years of special 
study at the L^niversity of London, and involved a new type of 
examination with which English universities have hitherto been 
* unfamiliar. It not only entitles her to the coveted Ph. D." after 

her name, but also to the right to wear the new academic dress 
just devised for those who attain that degree in English institutions 
of learning. 

This gown is of crimson broadcloth cut in the usual fashion of 
academic gowns, but with sleeves, hood and facings of cerise 
satin. The cap is of what is known as the "beef-eater type," so- 
called after the famous "beef-eater" hats worn by the guards of 
the Tower of London, from which it is copied. It is of crimson 
velvet, with a soft crown, and a flat and slightly drooping brim. 

The degree of doctor of philosophy to which Miss Dunn has 
just attained was established by the Senate of the L'niversity of 
London in the fall of 1919, when ]\Iiss Dunn was arriving in 
London for a course of special study. She was the first to enroll 
for it. She remained abroad for a vear at that time and then 
returned to resume her duties as an instructor at Bryn ^lawr. In 
192 1, Miss Dunn presented to the English club at Bryn Alawr a 
resume of her first year's work in London, and as a result of 
the literary merit of this offering was granted the foreign fellow- 
ship of Bryn ^lawr, which carries with it the sum of $1,500 annu- 
ally for foreign study. 


She again sailed for England in the summer of that year, an J 
has devoted another year to preparation for her doctor's degree. 

The examination to which she submitted as candidate for the 
degree, includes a thesis, submitted to the examiners on the 15th 
of May, which was 270 pages in length, and dealt with Ben 
Johnson and His Circle. It covered the period of English litera- 
ture immediately preceding the Elizabethan period and involved 
a research of London of that social life of London of that day, 
into the dramatic life, the sports and pastimes of the period, and 
even into court life in the reign of James I and the first Charles. 
This research was carried on for 51 months in the British iMuseum 
Library, and in the inner, or locked library, the privilege of ad- 
mission to which is accorded to very few. Two visits to Oxford 
and one to Cambridge also were included. 

Miss Dunn's thesis will form the basis of a book on that period, 
publication of which is assured at a later date. 

Miss Dunn is sailing for this country on the 15th of the month, 
will sever her connection with Bryn Alawr and join the Smith Col- 
lege faculty in the fall as assistant professor of English. 

She is a graduate of Cornell L^niversity, where she took her A. 
B. degree in 191 3, teaching for one year thereafter at Reading 
high school, and then going to Bryn Mawr, where she became a 
reader in English. During the years 1917 and 1918 she was act- 
ing director of first and second year English in the place of Dr. 
Savage, head of the department, who was absent at war. She 
attained her foreign fellowship from Bryn Mawr, in 1921. 

Ethel (^lorrill) McCollister makes the following suggestions in 
a recent number of the Lewiston Journal: 

In the city of Seattle, Washington, with its population of 
350,000, live a large number of ]\Iaine-born people. The public 
library contains 350,000 volumes with a circulation of some 
2,000,000 for the year 192 1, and there is not one volume of Maine 
history ; neither is ^Maine credited with taking any part in the Revo- 
lutionary war by the Sons of the American Revolution. There- 
fore I would respectfully suggest: — 

That the journal conduct a subscription list, or that financially 




responsible person donate to the Seattle Public Library some vol- 
umes of Maine hi:^tory, resources, and attractions. Any of the 
following would be adapted to the purpose: Williamson's "His- 
tory," "]\Iaine, ^ly State." "3klaine in History and Romance," 
"Trail of the ]Maine Pioneers," and similar publications, also the 
Lewiston Journal Saturday ^Magazine and Sprague's Journal of 
Maine History. 


(Justin Henry Shaw in Portsmouth. X. H. Times) 

An interesting and yaluable part of the current number of 
Sprague's Journal of Maine History, and among many other good 
features, is the printed address of the editor, Hon. John Francis 
Sprague, delivered before the Department of History, at the Mame 
Teachers'* Convention in Portland, October 2y, 192 1. 

The subject is "Should Maine History be Taught in the Public 
Schools?*' The answer is made inspiring enough in the affirma- 
tive. Reasons enougli are gi\en. And it is shown also that the 
teaching of Elaine history in the schools has become a fact, and 
that Dr. Thomas, the state superintendent, is making the work 
worth while. 

The Rev. Henry O. Thayer contributes a fine article on "The 
Lithgow Imnn'grants," that involves considerable state history. 

There is a good beginning of "Biograi)hical Sketches of Natives 
of Maine who have Ser\ed in the Congress of the L'nited States," 
by Hon. John C. Stewart of York. There are 37 subjects in this 
first article. This is an excellent compilation of information in 
that respect. 

There are numerous short sketches on interesting matters of 
state history ; and suggestions for historical work, and valuable 
selections from various sources. 

•The current number T quarterly for April, ]May and June, 1922) 
is No. 2 of Yol. X. 


^Trs. Florence Hunt Libby, Newton Highlands, ?^Iass. 

"I enjoy much the Jouinal visits." 


'. I'll 

■ f 




Kenneth \\'. Brown, Old Town, ]\Iaine : 

"In looking over some old newspapers recently I found one called 
The Bangor Journal, dated November 9, 1839. In it was the following 
quaint epitaph taken from an English paper: 

" 'Epitaph on a Tomb-stone erected over the Marquis of Anglesea's 
leg which was lost at the battle of Waterloo. 

He rests — and let no saucy knave 

Presume to sneer and laugh. 
To learn that moulding- in the grave 

Is laid a British (call.) 

For he who writes these lines is sure 

That those who read the whole. 
Will find such a laugh is premature, 

For here too lies a (sole.) 

A leg- and foot to speak more plain. 

Rest here of one commanding, 
"Who, though his wits he might retain. 

Lost half his understanding." " 

Eugene Edwards, Lisbon Centre, ]\Iaine : 

"Apropos to the Adams prophecy at the time of the 'set off' that 'Maine 
probably would become a region of mediocrity' the following- incident may 
serve to please. 

"It was on the steamer Frank Jones, during a trip down east, some 
/ears ago. It wasn't exactly a cheerful kind of a day, not the sort one 
would select to exhibit the beauties of tlie Maine coast. In the cabin an 
elderly gentleinan, a young man, and apparently his 'best girl' were 
peering through tlie mist in a discouraging effort to sight land. Now and 
then the cottage of a fisherman looined out of the fog; the landings weie 
deserted except by a few tarpaulined roustabouts, and worst of all 
the young fellow with the girl had a grouch. It began with the weather 
and continued until it included all Elaine and the inhabitants thereof. 
'Say,' he said, turning to the elderly gentleman, "Don't you think the 
people of Massachusetts are superior to the people of Maine?' For the 
first time the sunshiny face of the girl was clouded. 'Possibly,' replied 
the stranger, surprised yet modestly, and without the suggestion of a 
smile. 'You see Massachusetts is benefitted by transplantation. Her best 
brains come back to her from Maine and New Hampshire.' The little g'irl 
jumped up and down and clapping her hands cried: 'Goody! Goody! 
Goody I' Put 'her fellow' had no farther comparisons to offer, no ques- 
tions to ask. He was beautifully and appropriately dumb." 

J. W. Elms, Wilmington, Del. : 

"I note on page 239 of the Journal (Vol. 7) reference is made to an 
extract from a Brunswick telee-ram of 1869, regarding Prof. Packard of 
Bo"v\doin College. I'rof. Packard's great grandson is a member of our 
State of Maine Society, and he was natuially very much interested in 
seeing this reference to his g-reat grandfather. 

"Since starting to read the Journal, I have begun to learn something 
of my own state, which part of my education has been sadly neglected." 

Hon. Charles E. Gurnev, Portland, !Me. : 

"By the way, that is a remarkable thing that a recent number of the 
Journal contained about the Statement of Archie Lee Talbot, that Pilgrims 
formerly' owned the land on which our Maine State House sits. If that is 
so, it has wonderful possibilities in it." 

Hon. Bertram L. Smith, Justice Penobscot Superior Court : 

"May the Journal live long and prosper." 

Mrs. Nellie C. Thornton, Houlton, Maine : 

"I am enclosing check for ?2.00 to renew the Journal. You are doing a 
valuable work for posterity and the Journal will grow more indispensable 
than ever, with the passage of time. I look for its arrival with keen 
interest and cannot afford to miss a number." 


if* \- . . 

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..»j« ?' 

* ■^ « .j*?^ 






Father Pierre Biard. Superior of the. ^fount Desert Jesuit Mission 

of Saint Sauveur 170 

Hon. Horace Mitchell 192 

Biographical Sketches of Natives of Maine Who Have Served in 

the Congress of the United States 106 

Pamoi'a 215 

Maine Archaeologry 220 

Melody in IMaine 221 

Daughters of Cincinnati 222 

Captain William Edward Dennison 224 

Maine History in the Schools 220 

Editorials 237 


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Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Voiv. X October, Xovember, December No. 4 


(By AVilliam Otis Sawtelle) 

^ Among the men whose names are associated with the early 
history of the Elaine Coast, the Jesuit Father Pierre Biard has 
received but scant recognition. The reason for this neglect is not 
far to seek. As has been well said by an eminent English his- 
torian, Mr. W. L. Grant, writing of Samuel de Champlain,* 
*'Thc exclusive attention paid to the English colonists has glori- 
tied ^lassachusetts at the expense of [Maine.'' Or, in other words, 
while the exploits of the early English have been extolled and 
magnified, those of the French, within our limits during the same 
period, have been minimized or passed over in silence. Today, 
Pierre Biard should be honored as the historian of the first 


settlement on Mount Desert Island. 

Born at Grenoble, France, in 1567, Biardf entered the Society 
of Jesus on June 3, 1583. In 1608, he was called from the chair 
of Scholastic theology and Hebrew at the University of Lyons by 
Father Cotton, confessor of King Henry IV, to take charge of the 
Jesuit Mission about to be established in Acadia. That he was 
selected from a large number of candidates, goes to show the high 
estimation placed u[)on his abilities by those in authority. 

Though Biard has had many detractors who would make much 
of his personal quarrels at Port Royal with the commander, 
Biencourt, a headstrong youth of nineteen, there seems little reason 
for believing that the learned and accomplished professor of He- 
brew and Theology was any less the gentleman in the wilds of 
Acadia, than within the walls of the University of Lyons. 

• "Vovas-es of SamiK-l de Champlain." Scribner. 1907, W.L.Grant ed. p. 9. 
t Thwaito.s. "J -.suit Ilel.." 71:1J2: 1:1!)7-201. See aUo art. by Kev. T. J. 
Campbell. S. J., Catholic bncycl. 2:541. 


At the hands of some American historians Biard has, to say ihe 
least, received unkind treatment ; and the fact that Argall on his 
second trip north, forcing Biard to accompany him, was told by 
a Frenchman at Port Royal that the Jesuit was a Spanish spy. a 
statement for which no real evidence has ever been forthcoming, 
but persisting to this day, has characterized* as "one who turned 
traitor to his former associates." 

Since De ]\Ionts, the grantee c;f Acadia, together with many of 
his colonists were Calvinists, the appointment of Biard and ]\Iasse 
as missionaries to that country was violently opposed by them, 
while Bicncourt the commander at Port Royal and Lescarbot, the 
jovial historian of the St. Croix settlement good CathoHcs though 
they were said to have been, resented the presence of tlie Jesuits 
among them. "Two years at Port Royal convinced our Fathers" 
reads the old record, "that it was impossible to make this the center 
of their mission, partly because of the difficulty to draw to that 
place a great concourse of Savages, partly because of the trouble 
caused by those in command. They transferred the seat of their 
mission to another part of the same Coast under the 45th degree, 
30 minutes of Latitude and this upon command of the King. 
This establishment took the name of Saint Sauveur." 

Thus did Pierre Biard and his companions leave Port Royal for 
Mount Desert where their names will forever be associated with 
that beautiful slope now known as Fernald's Point. ^^loreover, 
in that monumental work, "The Jesuit Relations," the writings of 
Father Biard comprise the greater part of the first four volumes. 
Aside from being a record of the activities of the Society of Jesus, 
during the period covered, Biard's work must be recognized as the 
most important first hand information relating to Eastern ]\Iaine 
that is in existence. It is true that the Jesuit occupation of ]\Iount 
Desert was but an incident, and very brief at that ; even so, there 
is good reason for according to Biard, the honor that is his due. 
An estimation of a man's character, based upon his own corre- 
spondence shows him more as he really was. Conclusions drawn 
from expressions of individual opinion are not always to be trusted, 
especially when those opinions arc biased, partisan and hostile. 

• James Tru3lo\v Adam.s, *The Founding of New England," Atlantic 
Monthly Press, 1921. p. 56. 


In Biard's Relation of 1616, much of general interest is to be 
found, and though writing at Port Royal, many statements apply 
equally well to Eastern ]^Iaine. His descriptions of the country 
are minute, his meteorological studies and conclusions derived from 
them well indicate the scientitic character of his mind, while some 
of his observations upon things in general are too good to be passed 
over. For example, after writing at length on the manners and 
customs of the Indians, he adds : 

"I have nearly forgotten the most beautiful part of all; it is 
that they bury with the dead man all that he owns, such as his 
bag, his arrows. Ins skins and all his other articles and baggage, 
even his dogs if they have not been eaten. ^tloreovcr, the sur- 
vivors add to these a number of other such offerings as tokens 
of friendship. Judge from this whether these good people are 
not far removed from this cursed avarice which we see among 
us; who, to become possessed of the riches of the dead, desire 
and seek eagerly for the loss and departure of the living.' 

Writing of the desirability of living m dwellings that have been 
built sometime, occupying cleared places where there was "a good 
circulation of air," Biard comments upon the custom of the eleven 
men of De Clout's St. Croix company, the only ones wliom disease 
did not attack during that winter of privation and suffering, adding : 
"These were a jolly company of hunters who preferred rabbit 
hunting, to the air of the fireside; skating on the ponds, to turning 
over lazily in bed; making snow balls to bring down the grjme. to 
sitting around the fire talking about Paris and its good cooks." 
To this argument for a healthy outdoor life, Biard adds his own 
testimony, prompted by his two years' experience at Port Royal. 
"Our poverty," said he, "certainly relieved us of two great evils, 
that of excessive eating and drinking and laziness. For we always 
liad good exercise of some kind, and on the other hand, our 
stomachs were not overloaded. I certainly believe that this medi- 
cine was of great benefit to us." 

His interest in this new country to Vvhich he had come seems to 
have been great. Often he too, refers to the wonderful possi- 
bilities, under proper development of this wilderness of forest and 
savage. "We are all created by and dependent upon the same prin- 
ciples," he muses. "We breathe under the same sky; the same 


constellations intlucnce us; and I do not believe that tlie laud, 
which produces trees as tall and beautiful as ours, will not pro- 
duce as fine harvests, if it be cultivated." Once in a while a per- 
sonal touch is given and vivid descriptions of hardship and pri- 
vation appear in his pages. The early snow fall, the bitter gales, 
the heavv rains and the Januarv thaw, the Northwest winds which 
bring the "insufferable cold," ail are carefully recorded. He then 
continues : 

"But whatever I saw here was extreme poverty. Some wretched 
cabins, open in many places ; our food, peas and beans, rather 
scarce in quantity ; our drink, pure water ; the clothes of our 
people all in rags ; our supplies found in the woods from day to 
day; our medicine, a glass of wine on great holidays; our restor- 
atives, perchance a trifle from the chase of a little feathered game; 
the place uninhabited, no footprints upon the paths, our shoes only 
fit for the fireside. After this, go and say there is no winter in 
Canada. But at least do not say that the water there is not ex- 
cellent, and the air not healthful; for it is certainly wonderful 
that, notwithstanding all these discomforts, we always kept our 
health. . . ." 

An occasional flash of quiet humor here and there, not unmixed 
with philosophy, enlivens his narrative. Good advice is offered to 
those who contemplate coming to America and the following para- 
graph contains a moral not without a m.odern significance. 

"I say this . because prudence is of great importance to those 
who go to clear new lands, as we Frenchmen are so willing to 
go there with our eyes shut and our heads down ; believing, for 
example, that in Canada, when one is hungry, all we have to do 
is to go to an Island, and there by the skillful use of a club, 
right and left, we can bring down birds each as big as a duck, 
with every blow. This is well said, as our people have done this 
more than once and in more than one place. It is all very well, 
if you are ne\er hungry except when these birds are on the Islands, 
and if even then you hap[)en to be near them. But if you are 
fifty or sixty leagues away, what are you going to do?" 

After describing somewhat in detail, certain Indian customs of 
dress, or more properly speaking, the lack of it, Biard alludes to 
the fact that the Indian women were ornamented with "chains, 


gew gaws and such finery after their fashion/' adding paren- 
thetically, "by which you may know that such is the nature of 
the sex everywhere, fond of adornment." But this last state- 
ment of Biard is offset by another, which, out of justice to the 
author, should also be quoted. Commenting upon the well known 
propensity of the Indian to feast as long as there was anything 
in sight to eat, and upon his lack of thought for the morrow, 
Biard says : "To speak of restraint when they are not at war, 
is equal to proposing a riot. If you tell them that they will be 
hungry in the winter — they will answer you, 'It is all the same 
to us, we shall stand it well enough ; we spend seven and eight 
days, even ten sometimes, without eating anything, yet we do 
not die.' Nevertheless, if they are by themselves and where 
they may safely listen to their wives (for women are every- 
where better managers), they will sometimes make some store- 
house for the winter. . . ." 

Of Biard's attempts to learn the Indian language an amusing 
account is given. He refers to his instructors as "our gentlemen 
Savages," who, to pass away the time, made abundant sport of 
their pupils, always telling them a lot of nonsense. "And yet 
if you wanted to take advantage of this fun, if you had your 
paper and pencil ready to write, you had to set before them a 
full plate and a napkin underneath. For to such tripods do the 
oracles yield, without this incentive, both x\pollo and Alercury 
would fail them ; as it was, they even became angry and went 
awav, if we wished to detain them a little. \\'hat would you 
have done under the circumstances?" If Father Biard's Superior 
ever replied to this c^uestion, the answer is not on record. 

The foregoing extracts from Biard's writings, taken at ran- 
dom, go to show the type of man that he was, well educated, 
keen, observing and above all, human. ]\Iany such might be 
given, but these few must suffice. If a more lengthy quotation 
from his correspondence is desired, reference may be made to an 
important communication, still preserved in the Jesuit archives at 
Rome, written in Latin to the Very Reverend Father Claude 
Acquaviva, General of the Jesuits, often referred to as the second 
founder of the Order. As a report of the happenings which fol- 
lowed the destruction of the ^vlount Desert mission, it is valuable; 



as an example of the literary ability of Father Biard, it is con- 

"Amiens, !May 16-26, 16 14. 
"^ly Very Reverend Father, 
"Pax Christi, 

"Since, thanks to a special blessing of God and to the prayers 
of your Fatherhood, we have quite recently escaped from various 
most serious dangers, both gratitude and duty compel me this 
day to throw myself, as fully as I can at the feet of your 
F'atherhood, filled with most lively thankfulness and most earn- 
estly, in order to present to you my regard and to prove to you 
my affection. I must, in fact, look upon myself as chosen by 
the Lord Himself, both to repent and to show the triumph of 
Grace, so very great are the dangers from which I now see 
myself delivered, to my great joy and surprise — but this is scarcely 
the time to mention all the events in detail ; and I think your 
Fatherhood must have heard many things already from Father 
Ennemond Masse ; leaving other things aside, I shall be content 
to tell you today, how, after our capture by the English in New 
France, t we were dragged from place to place and finally restored 
to our Countrv. 

"During the last year, 161 3, we were in all, as your Fatherhood 
knows, four (Fathers Biard, ^lasse, Ouentin and Brother du Thet) 
members of the Society in Xew France. At that time, we laid at 
last at a suitable place, the foundations for a new establishment, 
and for a new Colony. "Just then, all of a sudden. I know not 
by what fortuitous chance (for certainly it was not a premedi- 
tated plan) the English of Virginia throw themselves upon our 
coast, take possession, with great fury, of our ship, whilst almost 
all our defenders were busy on shore. After some resistance, 
we were compelled to surrender ; two Frenchmen were killed in 
the fight and four wounded, without counting our brother du Thet, 
who was mortally wounded. He died piously in my arms the next 

* Thwailes. "Jesuit Rel.." 3:5, ffive.s Latin oriyrinal. See also. Tyler, 
"Narratives of Early Viri-'inia." p. 227 and Brown. "Genesis of the U. S..' 
2:700. An account of the difficulties at Port Royal, differing: from Biard's, 
is found in Lescarbot, ed. of l^;l8. Le.scarbot, to put it mildly, was most 
unfriendly to Biard. 

t At Fernald's Point, the Saint Sauveur of the Jesuits, entrance of 
Somes Sound, Mount Desert. 




"When the vessel was taken and everything else stolen, they did 
us priests and Jesuits a great favor, by not taking our lives ! How- 
ever under such circumstances, life is something more cruel even 
than any kind of death. Stripped of everything and in want of 
everything what could we have done at this place so completely 
deserted and uncultivated ? The Savages,* to be sure, came to 
us secretly at night. They grieved over our misfortune, and 
promised most heartily and sincerely, that they would do for 
us all they could do, but such was the state of things and the 
nature of the place that we saw notliing but Death around vis 
or a wretchedness worse even than death. We were thirty people 
suffering the same anguish. What made our Englishmen less 
cruel was that one of our boats, evading their vigilance, had 
escaped. They saw themselves compelled to spare us, because 
thev knew verv well, that there were witnesses now abroad who 
could testify to the violence they had done. They feared the lex 
talionis and the vengeance that our King might take. They told 
us at last (a noble favor indeed!) that for us thirty who re- 
mained, they would leave at our disposal a boat, in which we might 
sail along the coast and try to meet some French vessel, that could 
take us back to our own countrv. Thev were shown that this 
boat could not hold more than 15 persons, but they would not 
grant us any more, not even one of our own vessels. 

"There was no time to lose. In this perplexity, each one did 
what he could for his safety. Father Ennemond ]\Iasse got with 
14 others into the boat, of which we have spoken, and God has 
protected him, as your Fatherhood has already learned. 

"I went to see the English Commander, and obtained for myself 
and Father Jacques Quentin, my companion, as well as for Jean 
Dixon, who had been admitted into the Society, and for one 
servant, that we should be carried to some island near by, where 
the English are in the habit of fishing, and that we should be 
recommended to these fishermen in order that they might carry 
us to England, from whence we could easily return to France. 
I obtained this, I say, as a promise, but they did not keep their 

* Asticou's .subject.^. Thoir summer encampment was at Manchester's 
Point. Northeast Harbor. Evirl»-nces of Indian, occupation are still to be 
lound on t'-rnald's Point. I am indebted to Mr. Francis Young- of South- 
west Harbor for pointing: out the location of several "fire holes" in that 
vicinity. "SV^ O. S. 


word. In fact, we and the other. Frenchmen who remained, 
fiteen in number, were taken straight to Virginia, nearly 250 post- 
leagues from where we had been taken prisoners. There new 
dangers ! The Governor of this fort wanted to hang us all, but 
especially the Jesuits. The Captain, who had taken us prisoners, 
opposed this, pleading the promise he had given. This pledge or 
the fear of the King finally prevailed. 

"This Captain was afterward ordered to return to that part of 
New France where he had plundered us, to destroy all French 
vessels that he might find there, and to burn all forts and all houses. 

**In fact, the French had there still two settlements, that of Saint 
Croix, and that of Port Royal, where I had lived two years. 
They fitted out three ships* for this expedition, tvro of them had 
been taken from us ; the third, larger and fitted for war, 
was that which had made us prisoners. They allowed only eight 
Frenchmen to get on board these vessels; with the intention of 
availing themselves of the first opportunity to send us back to our 
native land. These ships sailed first to the place where we had 
been made prisoners, and the English destroyed the crosses which 
we had erected, but the punishment was not long delayed ; before 
we left one of them, convicted I know not of what crime, was 
hanged at the very same place. A Cross avenged the Crosses ! 
We found here also new dangers. The English, as I have said 
above, wanted to sail to the settlement of Sainte-Croix, altho' there 
was nobody there; but they had left there a supply of salt. I was 
the only one who knew the way, and the English knew that I had 
lived there formerlv. Thev asked me to show them the wav. I 
do all I can to invent pretexts and to escape from their demands. 
But I achieved nothing. Seeing clearly that I would not conduct 
them there, the Captain broke out into great wrath, and the danger 
became more imminent for me, when they unexpectedly discovered 
the place without me. They plundered it and reduced everything 
to ashes. Besides, they succeeded on this occasion in catching a 
Savage who led them to Port Royal. If this accident relieved 
me of a great danger, it exposed me likewise to another, that was 
still greater. In fact, after they had plundered and burnt Port 

* The Jonas. "Mayflower of the Jesuits," Her Pinnace and the Treas- 
urer, Arg-all's ship. 


Royal, which thev found, I do not know whv, abandoned bv the 
French, one of the very men who had left this post brought a 
charge against me. He said I was a true and pure Spaniard and 
did not dare to return to France, because of certain crimes which 
I had committed there. The Captain, already inimical, seized this 
new pretext to rage, and asked his companions what they thought 
of it. Did it not seem just to them, that I should be cast on shore 
and there abandoned? The opinion of the majority prevailed: 
They wanted me to be carried back to ^'irginia, and that there, 
in due form, and according to law, I should be restored to the 
gallows from which I had escaped. Thus was I saved for the 
time at least ; we at once resumed our voyage to A'irginia ; but 
two days later we were assailed by such a tempest that our ships 
were dispersed. We do not know what has become of the others. 

"x\fter having battled with the storm for three weeks, the Cap- 
tain of our ship seeing how many things were wanting, especially 
water, and that there was no hope of reaching Mrginia soon, 
determined to take refuge at the Portuguese islands called the 
Azores. This decision once formed, I, who thought I had escaped 
the rope that was prepared for me, fell once more into still greater 
and very much greater peril, since now I had companions who 
shared it with me. In fact, the English as they came near these 
islands, began to reflect that they were lost, if we were discovered, 
we priests and Jesuits ; that we would be set free by the Catholic 
Portuguese and that they, on the contrary, would be punished as 
pirates and persecutors of priests. This anxiety troubled us much. 
A\'hat were we going to do ? Would they throw us into the water ? 
Would it be enough to hide us? In the midst of this anguish and 
r these hesitations the Captain sent for me and explained the matter 
to me. I replied, that for myself the greatest misfortune in my 
death was that I should become the occasion of a crime for others. 
I promised him, that, if he wished to conceal us, I would further 
his wishes in all sincerity. 

"What thoughts did the Lord instill in his mind, that he should 
trust my words? I really do not know, but what I do know, is 
that if he had forseen the dangers which he had to face thereafter, 
he would not have listened to me. 

"He conceals us therefore in the depth of the hold. For three 


weeks we did not see daylight ; but in the harbor of the island 
of Fayal there arose so many difficulties and the ship was so often 
examined, that it is astonishing we should not have been discovered; 
the Lord permitted it for the greater Glory of our Society. The 
English themselves saw clearly, that if we had desired to show 
ourselves and to denounce them, we had frequent opportunities to 
do so. They subsequently, in England and even in the presence of 
their ministers, praised our loyalty in keepmg our word, to the 
great surprise of the enemies of the Faith. 

**The English, after their escape from this danger, decided to 
sail for England rather than for Virginia, which was much farther 
off. They were in want of all that was most necessary for such 
a voyage. 

"We steer therefore in the direction of England. The voyage 
was long and unpleasant. Fogs and darkness made us lose the 
right way, and we were driven to Wales, not far from Ireland. 
Our Captain had gone on shore in the little town of Pembroke, 
in order to procure provisions, when certain appearances made 
him to be looked upon as a pirate and he was thrown into prison : 
in order to clear himself he protested that he was no pirate, and 
in support of his innocence, he appealed to the two Jesuits who 
were on board his ship, saying that if they were questioned, they 
would know the truth. What goodness of Divine Providence I 
We were in the middle of winter and everything was wanting on 
board! If we had not received some assistance we should have 
perished from cold and suffering. What happened? They im- 
mediately sent for the Jesuits and brought them into town, to the 
great astonishment of everybody. They questioned us as wit- 
nesses ; we depose that we knew, that is to say, that the Captain 
was a King's officer and not a pirate, and that his conduct towards 
us was an act of obedience and not the result of his own will. 

"Our Captain was thus restored to liberty, and we with him. 
They kept us in town with great consideration, until an answer 
should come from London. We had long to wait. During this 
time we had frequent controversies with the ministers, but more 
frequently still with simple Protestants. Everybody was at liberty 
to call on us, altho' we were not allowed to leave the house. In 
everything else we were well treated, as I have said before. 


"At last we receive order to embark for London. It was a long 
voyage, and there occurred several very provoking delays. Not 
to enumerate all these details, let it suffice to say that the King of 
England sent us to the town of Dover and made us cross from 
there to Calais, in France. The Governor of the town of Calais 
and the ]Mayor received us very kindly and kept us three days, 
to recover from our fatigues. We reached afterwards Amiens 
where we now are. 

*AVe have thus been prisoners for nine and a half months,* 
always on board ship, with the exception, as I said, of the days 
we spent at Pembroke. For three months we received daily only 
two ounces of bread and a small piece of salt fish, and water which 
was almost always brackish. Hence we were surprised not to be 
taken sick, wliile the majority of the English were sick and some 
of them even succumbed. Surely the Lord has kept us, thanks 
to the prayers of your Fatherhood and those of our Society. ^lay 
Heaven in His goodness turn all this to His greater glory, to the 
improvement of my life, and to my salvation. I hope for that, 
assisted by the prayers and the blessings of your Fatherhood, which 
I implore most humbly and on my knees, and with all the fervor 
of which I am capable. 

*'May the Lord Jesus always protect Your Fatherhood and deign 
to grant you His ^lercy, my \'ery Reverend and very kind Father ! 

"Your Fatherhood's obedient son and unworthy servant, 

"Amiens, ]\Iay 26th, 1614." 

L'pon Biard's return to France, he was obliged to face a terrific 
storm of vituperative abuse. It was said that he and Masse had 
become so incensed at Biencourt, because of his abusive treatment 
to them, that they out of malice, had piloted Argall to Port Royal, 
that he might destroy it. Poutrincourt and Lescarbot, whose 
dislike of the Jesuits was well known, believed these charges,! and 
Poutrincourt took it upon himself to address the French admiralty 

* This is an impoitan^ stat.-ment. From it an approximate date of 
Arsrall's attack upon Saint iSiuveur may be deduced. Eiard'.s letter -was 
written about the middle of .May. 1614. Hi.- enforced stay at ppmbroke 
wa.s about four wt'cks. Hence it must have br-en early in July, lhl3, that 
the Ene:lish broke up the French settlement at ^Mount Desert. 

t This "complaint" presented to the Judf^e of thr- Admiralty of "Guyenne 
au sie«-e de la Kochtlle" is dated July 18, H'jU. The text in full is given 
by Brown, "Genesis of the U. S.." 2:726. 


courts, in July of 1614, upon the subject. But the Jesuit Fathers 
had a defender in Samuel de Chaniplain,* who discredited the 
slander and showed that Argall had compelled an Indian to pilot 
him to Port Royal, thus vindicating the Fathers. 

Quietly resuming his teaching at Lyons, after six years of event- 
ful interruption, the missionary spirit would not yield to the pro- 
saic routine of a professorial calling, and Biard bade farewell to 
academic surroundings to devote the remainder of his life to wel- 
fare work among his fellow men. In Christian service to the last. 
he died in harness, a chaplain in the King's army at Avignon. 
November 17, 1622. 

Father Biard's associate at Port Royal and at Blount Desert, 
Father Enemond IMasse, was born at Lyons in 1574 and entered 
the Society of Jesus at the age of twenty-two. AMien chosen 
with Biard for service in America, he was secretary to Father 
Coton. After escaping from Argall he returned to France and 
labored hard to restore the mission in Canada. His vivid and 
glowing descriptions of the vast held which New France ottered 
for active service, so inspired many of the younger Jesuits that 
they begged to be sent there to work among the Indians. 

So when the gray gowned Recollects, after ten years of arduous 
labor in the missionary fields of Quebec, realizing that the harvest 
was plenty but the laborers few, sent an invitation to the Jesuits 
to come over and help, a ready response was received, and in 
1625 three priests of the Black Gown, Fathers ^lasse, Brebeuf and 
Lalemant,t sailed up the St. Lawrence, the first Jesuits in that 
region. Father ^lasse's enthusiastic eulogies had sown the seed, 
which in full harvest was to }ield the most remarkable examples 
of self denial, personal sacrifice and martyrdom, to be found in 
the annals of history. 

]Masse and his companions labored unceasingly among the In- 
dians until the capture of Quebec by Sir David Kirke in 1629, 
when they were taken prisoners and obliged to return to France. 

*Th\vaites. 'Meruit Relations," 1:318 note. 

•^ Father Charles Lalemant. In the preface to one of hi? published 
letters. Paris. ir,32 (Th\vaiLe = . "Jpsuit Relations." 4:233) Lalemant is men- 
tion»'d as having- been at "Pentai^ouet" with La Saus.saye. This is an error, 
since Biard makes no nnention of Lalemant in his Relations. "The O'Cal- 
lag^han Ii»-print," Alban\-, IST*"', contains this mistake which has been copied 
by m.any wiit< rs. For an intf-restin^r account of th'^ first Jesuits at Quebec, 
see George H. Locke, "When Canada Was New France," p. 98. 



At the restoration of Canada to the French, by the terms of the 
treaty of Saint Germain-en Laye, for the third and last time Masse 
set out for the shores of America. Grown old in the service, he 
could now no longer labor among the Savages so he lived at Sillery, 
a suburb of Quebec which he built as a reservation for Indian: 
who had become converted. His kindly oversight of the details 
of the mission and his eager willingness to be of service, won for 
him the affectionate title of "Father Useful." 

On May 12, 1646, while on his way to confess the garrison of 
Fort Richelieu, in preparation for the celebration of a feast day, 
this w^orthy man who had seen service at Port Royal and at Mount 
Desert, died by the wayside. A monument to his memory stands 
on the site of the chapel built by the Commander de Sillery as a 
memorial to him and the brief inscription bears testimony that 
Pierre Ennemond Masse, S. J., the first missionary in Canada, was 
buried in 1646 in the church of St. Alichell on the domain of Saint 
Joseph of Sillery. 

Of Father Jacques Quentin, who was held a prisoner with Father 
Biard, on board the Jonas during the long cruise to the Azores and 
to Milford Haven, but httle is on record. He was born in Abbe- 
ville, February 1572 and entered the Jesuit order on June 30, 1604. 
He reached France with Biard in May of 1614 and never returned 
to America. He died April 18, 1647. Of Brother Jean Dixon, 
Biard's servant, even less is known. He entered the order of 
Jesuits in 1613, just prior to the sriling of the Jonas and after 
his return to France, is lost to sight. 

Brother Gilbert du Thet, the fightinc: Jesuit who gave his life 
in the fut:le defense of Saint Sauveur, found his last resting place 
on the Inland of the Desert Mountains somewhere on Femald's 
Point ; forerunner of that black gowned army, fearless messen- 
gers of the faith, explorers and scientists as well as priests, whose 
chronicles are numbered amon'^ the most remarkable historical 
narratives that America possesses. 

I I 


■■i I ' 






Born March 13. 1857 

Died October 9, 1922 

(Bv Justin Henry Shaw) 

Hon. Horace Mitchell of Kittery, whose name has been promi- 
nently identified with the business and politics and the many affairs 
of his town for more than thirty years, and who was widely known 
in the coimtry as a summer-hotel man, a promoter of corporations, 
a former representative in the legislature and state senator, and 
a leading farmer, and standing high in many fraternal circles, 
died at his home, the historic Sparhawk Mansion on the Pep- 
perrell Road, Kittery Point, early Monday morning, October 9, 
1922, at the age of 65 years, 6 months and 27 days. The passing 
of Mr. ^litchell was the result of a cerebral hemorrhage with 
which he was stricken Friday night, October 6, and from which 
he never rallied in any respect. 

Mr. Mitchell suffered a serious breakdown in health in October 
1919 and for a while was regarded as being in a serious condition, 
but gradually he seemed to improve and becyme active again in the 



many matters in which he was interested, and he even managed 
L second strenuous attempt to secure the nommation for Congress 
from the First !Maine District in the summer of 1920. The death 
of Mr. jMitchell removed, as might be expected, a man who was 
able to accomphsh for Kittery's material welfare and progress 
more than any person m its history. 

The funeral was held at tlie Sparhawk ^Mansion on Thursday 
afternoon, October 12, at two o'clock. The religious service was 
conducted by the Rev. John Graham, minister of the First Congre- 
gational Church of Kittery Point, a close personal friend to Mr. 
Mitchell, and a fellow-^Mason, and there was also elaborate ^Masonic 
ser\^ices, both at the home and at the grave in the Free Baptist 
cemetery in Kittery Point. ^lore than 400 representative men of 
tlie state and surrounding communities were present at the services. 

Horace Mitchell was born on the Haley Road in Kittery Point 
on the date above stated, the son of the late Reuben and Hannah 
(Sayward) Mitchell, and his ancestors on both sides were among 
the earliest settlers in Kittery and the southern parts of Elaine, and 
the name of Mitchell is very often mentioned in the records of 
the town and in its history. 

He received his education in the schools of Kittery, including 
the Kittery High school, and in the New Hampton (N. H.) Lit- 
erary- Institute and Business College, and later he fitted himself 
for teaching. He was master of grammar schools in Kittery^ for 
thirty-three terms, and he also taught one term in York. start in business life was as a clerk in the ^Marshall House 
at York Harbor, and he was later so employed in the Hotel 
Wentwortii at Xew Castle, N. H. For five summers he was a 
successful manager of the Hotel Pocahontas at Gerrish Island, and 
finding this business to his liking in 1890 he erected the Hotel 
Champernowne at Warehouse Point, so called at that time, but 
since then its identity has been mostly lost by the more important 
name of the hotel. 

Mr. Mitchell's first vote was for a republican president. He 
represented Kittery in the Elaine House in 1891, and then Kittery 
and EHot as class tov/ns in 1893, 191 1» 19^3 ^rid I9i9- He was 
nominated for state senator by acclamation in 1895 ^^^ ^^'^s elected, 
serving two years. In 1896 the governor of Maine appointed him 


to the commission to examine the state treasurer's accounts, and 
in 1897 he served as chairman of the same commission. He was 
postmaster at Kittery Point during President Harrison's adminis- 
tration and held the office for a number of years thereafter. He 
was always republican. 

Mr. Mitchell since 1901 conducted the corporation business estab- 
h'shed by the late Frank E. Rowell, Esq., and it became the leading 
headquarters of promoters in the state. Since his retirement from 
the hotel business, which was taken over by the necessities of the 
United States Housing Corporation in the development of the Navy 
Yard, during the war, he has been mostly engaged as a farmer, 
on two or more laige farms at East Kiltery. In this work he 
took a great pride, and he had a handsome stock and valuable 
fowl. Under his management the farms have been productive ar ^ 

His first wife was Miss Lucy A. Frost, daughter of the late 
Mr. and Mrs. iVaron Frost of Pembroke and Eliot, Me. By this 
marriage there was one daughter, now Mrs. Ethel May Hale of 
Haverhill, Mass. His first wife died a number of years ago. 

December 25, 1901, he was married to Miss Mnry Gertrude 
Chase, a talented daughter of the late Mr. and Mrs. James Edward 
Chase of Kittery. She was well known before her marriage as 
an elocutionist and reader, and is a graduate of the Emerson 
School of Oratory of Boston. By this marriage there was one 
son, Horace ^Mitchell, Jr., who is a student in Bowdoin College. 

Mr, Mitchell was a promoter of the Portsmouth, Kittery & York 
Street Railway, built in 1897; ^"^ ^^'^^ active in the organization 
of the Agamenticus Water Company, which later was absorbed 
by the Kittery Water District, and which system is known as one 
of the best water supplies in New England. 

The people of Kittery gave him the unusual honor of naming 
a central school house at Kittery Point for him, while he was yet 
living. He was a trustee of Traip Academy and had repeatedly 
been a superintendent of schools and was a member of the school 

His last great service to the town were his efforts in the Legis- 
lature to bring about the erection of the great Memorial Bridge over 
the Piscataqua River between Kittery and Portsmouth, N. H., in 

4 ; 

M I 

'I j 


which the United States and New Hampshire have joined with 
Maine in now building. In this matter he ably assisted Governor 
^lilHken of Maine and Governor Bartlett of New Hampshire, and 
with Hon. Aaron B. Cole, then state senator from Kittery, was 
active in the progress of the case before the Elaine and New 
Hampshire delegations in Washington. It is regretted that he died 
before he was able to see the construction completed. 

The Kittery Navy Yard was one of his hobbies, and he was a 
constant and consistent friend to the entire naval establishment, 
and had many friends among its officers and its workmen. 

His first attempt to secure the nomination for Congress was in 
1918, when he was defeated by Hon. Louis B. Goodall of Sanford. 
His second campaign for the nomination in 1920 has already been 
mentioned. He also tried for the nomination for councilor in 1906 
and failed. He would have creditably filled either of the positions 
he sought and his failure to go to Congress was doubtless a great 
disappointment to him. 

Mr. Mitchell was a generous and cordial entertainer during the 
years of his ownership of the Hotel Champernowne and later at 
the Sparhawk Mansion, which was a few hundred yards north 
from the hotel. The Sparhawk Mansion was the headquarters of 
President Taft and the presidential party of distinguished men to 
Kittery, October 23, 1912. President Taft wrote his name on the 
Vv'all paper at the head of the Colonial stairs. ]\Ir. \\'illiam Dean 
Howells, whose summer home for years was close by, was fre- 
quently a guest of the Mitchell home. 'Sir. ]\Iitchell was an excel- 
lent speaker, a tireless worker in whatever he engaged, a friend 
to education, simple and frank, genial in his manners, and a loyal 
friend. He did all that his time permitted to encourage the study 
of history. It is impossible to relate in any personal sketch his 
many acts in that respect, or more than outline his work in other 

The organizations of which he was a member and in many an 
officer, were: Past blaster of Naval Lodge, F. & A. M., Kittery; 
P. H. P., Royal Arch Chapter of South Berwick ; Maine Council, 
R. & S. Masters of Saco ; ]\Iaine Commandery, No. 4, Knights 
Templars of Biddeford; New Hampshire Consistory, S. P. R. S., 
32nd degree; Kora Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. of Lewiston; 


Piscataqua Chapter^ O. E. S.; Past Grand of Riverside Lodge, 
No. 72, I. O. O. F. ; P. C. P. of Dirigo Encampment, I. O. O. F. ; 
Canton Hayes Xo. 7, P. M., I. O. O. F. ; P. C. C, Constitution 
Lodge, Knights of Pythias of Kittery ; a member of Rising Star 
Commandery, L'^. O. G. C. of Kittery and Grand Keeper of Records 
of the Golden Cross of Elaine for 37 years; Kittery Grange, 
P. of H. ; York Pomona; State of Maine Grange; and a member 
of St. Aspinquid Tribe, I. O. R. M. of Kittery. 

Upon the date of his death the Portsmouth, N. H., newspapers 
paid him unusual and sincere tributes in editorials. The Ports- 
mouth Times well said : "For more than thirty years he gave the 
best in him for Kittery, and his passing takes away a citizen whose 
place cannot be filled and Greater Portsmouth has lost a true 
friend." TJie Portsinouth Herald fittingly said also: "He led 
a life so full of business activities that he had no time to criticise 
others. He was an inspiration to the community in which he 
lived." ' . - 


(By John C. Stewart) 
(Continued from Vol. 10, Xo. 3, p. 154) 

Kendall, Charles West, a Representative from Nevada ; born in 
Searsmont April 22, 1828 ; attended Phillips academy, Andover, 
Massachusetts and Yale college ; studied law, was admitted to the 
bar and began practice in Sacramento, California; member of the 
state house of representatives 1861-1862; moved to Hamilton, 
Nevada ; elected as a Democrat to the Forty-second and Forty- 
third Congresses (^larch 4, 1871 to ]vlarch 3, 1875). 

Kidder, David, a Representative from Maine ; born in Dresden 
December 8, 1787; pursued classical studies with private tutors, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in 
Bloomfield; removed to Skowhegan in 1817, and to Norridgewock 
in 1821 ; county attorney of Somerset county 1811-1823; elected as 
c*. Whig to the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Congresses (March 4, 


1823 to March 3, 1827); returned to Skowhegan in 1827; state 
representative in 1829; died in Skowhegan November i, i860. 

Kimball, Alanson M., a Representative from Wisconsin; bom 
in Buxton ^larch 12, 1827 ; pursued academic studies ; moved to 
Wisconsin in 1852 and engaged in farming and mercantile pur- 
suits; elected to the state senate 1863-1864; elected as a Republican 
to the Forty- fourth Congress (March 4, 1875 ^o March 3, 1877) ; 
defeated as a Republican candidate for the Forty-fifth Congress. 

King, Cyrus, a Representative from ]^Iaine while a part of ^lassa- 
chusetts; born in Scarborough, September 16, 1772; pursued clas- 
sical studies in Phillips academy, Andover, Massachusetts and 
graduated from Columbia college in 1704; studied law in New 
York City with Rufus King and served as his private secretary 
while minister to England in 1796; completed his law studies in 
Biddeford, was admitted to the bar in 1797 and began practice 
in Saco ; elected as a Federalist to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
Congresses (March 4, 1813 to Alarch 3, 1817), died in Saco, April 
25, 1817. 

King, Rufus, a Delegate from Alassachusetts and a Senator from 
New York; born in Scarborough, March 24, 1755; pursued clas- 
sical studies and graduated from Harvard college in 1777; studied 
law in Newburyport, ^lassachusetts ; served in the Revolutionary 
war;. was admitted to the bar and began practice in 1780; state 
representative in 1782; Delegate from ^lassachusetts in the Conti- 
nental Congress 1784- 1787; delegate to the state constitutional con- 
vention in 1787; delegate to the Federal constitutional convention 
in 1787; moved to New York City in 1788; member of the state 
houhc of representatives in 1789-1790; elected as a F'edcralist to 
the United States Senate in 1789; reelected in 1795 and served from 
July 16, 1789 until May 18, 1796 when he resigned; minister to 
Great Britain May 20, 1796 to ]May 18, 1803; Federahst candidate 
for vice-president in 1804 and defeated; again elected to the United 
States Senate in 1813; reelected in 1819 and served from ]\Iarch 4, 
1813 to March 3, 1825; defeated as the Federalist candidate for 
governor of New York in 181 5 and for President of the United 


States in 1816; cgain minister to Great Britain May 5, 1825 to 
June 16, 1826; died in Jamaica, New York, April 29, 1827. 

Knowlton, Ebenezer, a Representative from iMaine; born in Pitts - 
field, New Hampshire, December 6, 1815; moved with his parents 
to IMontville, Maine in 1825; completed preparatory studies ; studied 
theology; member of the state house of representatives 1844-1850; 
speaker of the house in 1846; elected as a Republican to the Thirty- 
fourth Congress (March 4, 1855 to March 3, 1857) ; died in Mont- 
ville, September 10, 1874. 

Knowles, Freeman, a Representative from South Dakota; born 
in Harmony, October 10, 1846; attended Bloomfield academy, 
Skowhegan ; enlisted in the sixteenth ]\Iaine regiment June 16. 
1862; served three years and nineteen days in the army of the 
Potomac; captured at the battle of Reams Station August 18, 1864 
and kept a prisoner in Libby, Belle Island and Salisbury, N. C, 
until the war closed ; moved to Denison, Iowa ; admitted to the 
bar in 1869; moved to Nebraska and began the publication of the 
Ccresco Times; moved to the Black Hills in 1888 and began the 
publication of the Meade County Tiiues in Tilford; moved to 
Deadwood and began the publication of the Evening Independent; 
elected as a Populist to the Fifty-fifth Congress (March 4, 1897 
to March 3, 1899) ; resumed newspaper work in Deadwood, South 
Dakota and died there June i, 1916. 


The following pages were inadvertently omitted by the publisher 
from' Mr. Stewart's Biographical Sketches as follows: 

Allen, Elisha Hunt, a Re{)resentative from Maine; born in New 
Salem, Massachusetts, January 2S, 1804; graduated from Williams 
college in 1823 ; studied law ; was admitted to the bar and began 
practice in Brattleboro, \^ermont in 1825 ; removed to Bangor and 
was a member of the state house of representatives 1836-1841, and 
,m 1838 was speaker; elected as a Whig to the Twenty-seventh 
Congress (March 4, 1841 to IMarch 3, 1843); defeated for re- 



election; member of the state house of representatives in 1846; 
moved to Boston in 1847 ^^^ resumed the practice of law ; elected 
to the state house of representatives in 1849; appointed consul for 
Honolalj, and was prominently connected with the government 
of the Hawaiian Islands as chief justice, as regent, and as envoy 
to the United States in 1856, 18O4, 1870 and 1875 ; died in the 
White House in \\'a5hington, D. C, January i, 1883. 

Appleton, John, a Representative from Maine ; born in Beverly, 
I^Iassachusetts, February 11, 1815; graduated from Bowdoin col- 
lege in 1834; studied law, was admitted to the bar and began 
practice in Portland in 1837; engaged in editorial work on Eastern 
Argus; chief clerk of the Navy Department and also of the State 
Department ; United States minister to Bolivia from March 30, 
1848 to May 4, 1849; elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-second 
Congress (March 4, 185 1 to March 3, 1853) ; secretary of lega- 
tion in London from February 19, 1855 ^^ November 16, 1855 and 
served in October as charge d'affaires ; Assistant Secretary of State 
from April 4, 1857 to June 8, i860; minister to Russia from June, 
i860 to June 7, 1 86 1 ; died in Portland, August 22, 1864. 

Bailey, Jeremiah, a Representative from Maine ; born in Little 
Compton, Rhode Island, ]\Iay i, 1773; graduated from Brown 
university; studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began prac- 
tice in Wiscasset ; member of the state house of representatives 
1811-1814; Judge of probate 1814-1835; eleced as a Whig to the 
Twenty- fourth Congress (^larch 4, 1835 to March 3, 1837) ; col- 
lector of customs of Wiscasset 1849-1853; died in Wiscasset, July 

6. 1853- 

Blaine, James Gillespie, a Representative and a Senator from 
Maine; born in West Brownsville, Washington county, Pennsyl- 
vania, January 31, 1830; graduated from W'ashington college, 
Pennsylvania in 1847; taught for a time in Western military insti- 
tute, Blue Lick Springs, Kentucky ; returned to Pennsylvania ; 
studied law and in 1852- 1854 taught higher branches in Pennsyl- 
vania institute for the blind in Philadelphia ; went to Maine in 
1854; edited the Portland Advertiser and the Kennebec Journal', 


member of the ]\Iaine house of repres.entatives from Augusta 1859- 
1862; speaker 1861-1862; elected as a Republican to the Thirty- 
eighth, Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, Forty-first, Forty-second, Forty- 
third, Forty- fourth Congresses and served from March 4, 1863 to 
July 10, 1876 when he resigned ; was speaker of the Forty-first, 
Forty-second and Forty-third Congresses ; appointed and subse- 
quently elected to the United States Senate, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the resignation of Lot M. Morrill, and served from 
July 10, 1876 to ^larch 5, 1881, when he resigned to become 
Secretary of State in President Garfield's Cabinet, which position 
he held until he resigned December 12, 1881 ; in 1884 he was 
nominated for the Presidency by the national Republican con- 
vention but was defeated by Grover Cleveland of New York; 
Secretary of State under Harrison from March 7, 1889 to June 
4, 1892 when he resigned ; died in Washington, D. C, January 23, 

Bronson, David, a Representative from Maine ; born in Suffield. 
Connecticut, February 8, 1800; graduated from Dartmouth college 
in 1819; studied law, was admitted to the bar and began practice 
in Anson, iVIaine; member of the state house of representatives 
in 1832 and 1834 and of the state senate in 1846; elected as a Whig 
to the Twentv-seventh Cons^ress to fill the vacancv caused bv the 
resignation of George Evans and served from !May 31, 1841 to 
March 3, 1843; collector of customs at Bath, Elaine, 1850-1853; 
judge of probate for Sagadahoc county 1854-1857; died in Talbot 
county, Maryland, November 20, 1863. 

Brown, Benjamin, a Representative from the District of Elaine 
before its separation from Massachusetts; born in Swansea, Rhode 
Island, September 23, 1756; pursued academic studies; studied 
medicine and practised; member of Massachusetts house of repre- 
sentatives in 1809, 181 1, 1812 and 1819; elected to the Fourteenth 
Congress (^larch 4, 181 5 to IMarch 3, 181 7) ; died in Waldoboro. 
Maine, September 17, 1831. 

Burleigh, \\'illiam, a Representative from Maine ; born in Rock- 
ingham county, New Hampshire, October 24, 1785; studied law; 




was admitted to the bar and practiced in South Berwick, Maine; 
elected to the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Congresses (^larch 4, 
1823 to March 3, 1827) ; died in South Berwick, July 2, 1827. 

Carr, Francis, a Representative from Elaine; born in Newbury, 
Massachusetts, December 6, 175 1; attended the public schools; 
member of ^lassachusetts house of representatives from Haverhill, 
1791-1795, 1801-1803 and from Orrington, Maine District, 1806- 
1808; state senator 1809-1811 ; elected as a Democrat to the Twelfth 
Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Barzillai 
Gannett and served from June 3, 1812 to IMarch 3, 1819; died in 
Bangor, Maine, October 7, 182 1. 

Cary, Shepard, a Representative from Elaine; born in New 
Salem, ^lassachusetts, July 3, 1805 ; attended the public schools ' 
engaged in agricultural and mercantile pursuits; member of the 
Maine house of representatives in 1832, 1833, 1S39, 1840, 1841, 
1842 and 1843; presidential elector on the \'an Buren and John- 
son ticket in 1836; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth 
Congress (^larch 4, 1843 ^^ ]\Iarch 3, 1845) J ^^^<^ "^ Houlton. 
Maine, August 9, 1866. 

Chandler, John, a Representative from the District of Elaine 
and a Senator from the state of Maine; born in Epping, New 
Hampshire, February i. 17O2; took part in the revolutionary war; 
commissioned brigadier-general July 8, 1812; honorably discharged 
June 15, 1815 ; moved to Maine and settled on a farm at ]\ronmouth ; 
member of the state senate 1803-1805 ; elected to the Ninth and 
Tenth Congresses (March 4, 1805 to ^larch 3, 1809) ; member of 
the Maine constitutional convention, 1819-1820; elected United 
States Senator from r^Iaine on the admission of the state; re- 
elected and served from June 14, 1820 to ]\Iarch 3, 1829; col- 
lector of customs at Portland 1829-1837; died at Augusta, Maine, 
September 25, 184 1. 

Cilley, Jonathan, a Representative from Maine ; born in Notting- 
ham, New Hampshire, February 2, 1802 ; graduated from Bowdoin 
college in 1825; studied law; was admitted to the bar and begar 


practice in Tiiomaston in 1829; editor of Thomaston Register 
1829-1831 ; member of the state iiouse of representatives 1832-1837; 
served as speaker two years ; elected as a Van Buren Democrat to 
the Twenty- fifth Congress and served from ]March 4, 1837 ^o Feb- 
ruary 24, 1838 when he was killed in a duel at Blandensburg, Alary- 
land by William Graves, a Representative from Kentucky. 

Clifford, Nathan, a Representative from Elaine ; born in Rumney, 
New Hampshire, August 18, 1803 ; attended Haverhill academy and 
New Hampton Literaiy Institute, New Hampton, New Hampshire; 
studied law, was admitted to the bar and began practice in New- 
field, Maine, in 1827 ; member of the state house of representa- 
tives 1830-1834; speaker 1833-1834; attorney general 1834-1838; 
elected as a Democrat to the Twentv-sixth and Twentv-seventh 
Congresses (^^larch 4, 1839 to March 3, 1843) J served as Attorney 
General of the United States from October 17, 1846 to March 17, 
1848; commissioner to ^^lexico with the rank of envoy extraordi- 
nary and minister plenipotentiary from Alarch 18, 1848 to Sep- 
tember 6, 1849; resumed the practice of law in Portland; appointed 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Janu- 
ary 28, 1858 and served until his death in Cornish, Maine, July 25, 

Conner, Samuel Shepard, a Representative from the District of 
Maine; born in New Hampshire about 1785; attended Phillips 
Exeter academy in 1794; graduated from Yale college in 1806; 
studied law ; was admitted to the bar and practiced in W'aterville, 
Maine; served in the war of 1812 as major of the twenty-first 
infantry and as lieutenant colonel of the thirteenth infantry; re- 
signed July 14, 1814; resumed the practice of law in Waterville; 
elected to the Fourteenth Congress (March 4, 18 15 to March 3, 
1817; appointed surveyor general of the Ohio land district in 1819; 
died in Covington, Kentucky, December 25, 1819. 

Cook, Orchard, a Representative from the District of Maine; 
born in Salem, ^^lassachusetts, March 24, 1763; attended the pub- 
lic schools and engaged in mercantile pursuits ; assessor of Pownal- 
borough, Maine in 1786; town clerk of New Milford, Maine, I795" 




1797; justice of the peace; judge of the court of common pleas 
for Lincohi county 1799-1810; appointed assessor of the twenty- 
fifth district in November, 1798; overseer of Bowdoin college, 1800- 
1805; elected to tlie Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Congresses (March 
4, 1805 to ^larch 3, 181 1 ) ; sheriff of Lincoln county 1811-1819; 
postmaster of Wiscasset until his death there August 12, 1819. 

Cushman, Joshua, a Representative from the District and from 
the State of Maine; born in Plymouth, IMassachusetts in 1759; 
entered the Revolutionary Army, April i, 1777 and served until 
March, 17S0; graduated from Harvard college in 1787; studied 
theology an;l vvas licensed to preach; settled in Winslow, Maine 
and preached there nearly twenty years, first as pastor of a Con- 
gregational church and then of a Unitarian church ; member of the 
slate house of representatives in 1811-1812; state senator in 1809, 
1810, 1819 and 1820; elected a Representative from the District 
of Maine to the Sixteenth Congress (^larch 4, 1819 to March 3, 
1821); elected a Representative from the State of Maine to the 
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Congresses (March 4, 1821 to March 
3, 1825) ; again a membei of the state legislature in 1834; died in 
Winslow, January 27, 1834; interment in Augusta, IMaine. 

Dana, Judah, a Senator from Maine ; born in Pomfret, Con- 
necticut, April 25, 1772; graduated from Dartmouth college in 
^795i studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1798 and began 
practice in Fryeburg, Alaine; county attorney of Oxford county 
1805-1811; judge of probate 181 1-1822; judge of the court of 
common pleas 1811-1823; judge of circuit court also; delegate to 
the Maine state constitutional convention 1819; member of the 
executive council in 1834; appointed as a Democrat to the United 
States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Ether Shepley and served from December 7, 1836 to February 22, 
1837; clied in Fryeburg, Maine, December 27, 1845. 

Dane, Joseph, a Representative from Maine; born in Beverly, 
Massachusetts, October 25, 1778; attended Phillips Exeter academy 
snd graduated from Harvard collee^e in 1799; studied law, was 
admitted to the bar in July, 1802 and began practice in Kenne- 





bunk, Alaine; delegate to the state constitutional conventions in 
1816 and 1819; elected as a Federalist to the Sixteenth Congress 
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Holmes; 
re-elected to the Seventeenth Congress and served from December 
II, 1820 to ^larch 3, 1823; member of the state house of repre- 
sentatives in 1824, 1825, 1832, 1833, 1S39 and 1840, and of the 
state senate in 1829; declined to serve as an executive councillor 
of Maine in 1841 ; died in Kennebunk, ^lay i, 1858. 

Dearborn, Henry, a Representative from the District of Elaine; 
born in North Hampton, New Hampshire, February 23, 1751 ; 
received a public school training; studied medicine and began 
practice in 1772 in Nottingham Square, New Hampshire; cap- 
tain in General Stark's regiment in the Revolutionary war and ,< 
participated in the battle of Bunker Hill, where he covered the \\ 
retreat of the American forces; accompanied Arnold's expedition ;[ 
la Canada and took part in the storming of Quebec; was taken 
prisoner but was released on parole in May, 1776; fought in the 
battles of Stillwater, Saratoga, 2^Ionmouth and Newton; joined 
Washington's staff in 1781 as deputy quarterm^aster general with 
the rank of colonel and served at the seige of Yorktown; moved 
to ]Monmouth, Elaine in June, 1784; elected brigadier general of 
militia in 1787 and made major general in 1789; appointed United 
States marshal for the district of Elaine in 1789; elected as a 
Democrat to the Third and Fourth Congresses (March 4, 1793 to 
March 3, 1797) ; appointed Secretary of War by President Jeffer- 
son, and served from rvlarch, 1801 to Alarch 7, 1809; appointed 
by President ^Madison collector of the port of Boston in 1S09, 
which position he held until January 2y, 18 12, when he was ap- 
pointed senior major general in the United States army; in com- 
m.and at the capture of York (now Toronto) April 27, 18 14 and 
Fort George May 2y, 1813; recalled from the frontier July 6, 1813, 
and placed in command of the city of New York; appointed minis- 
ter plenipotentiaiy to Portugal by President ^lonroe and served 
from May 7, 1822 to June 30, 1824 when, by his own request, he 
was recalled; he returned to Roxbury, Massachusetts, where he 
died June 6, 1829. 

Fessenden, William Pitt, a Representative and a Senator from 


Maine; born in Boscawen, New Hampshire, October 16, 1806; 
graduated from Bowdoin college in 1723; studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1827 and practiced in Bridgton, Bangor and 
Portland; member of the state house of representatives in 1832 
iind 1840; elected as a \\ hig to the Twenty-seventh Congress 
(March 4, 1841 to ^larch 3, 1S43) »' declined to be a candidate for 
re-election; again a member of the state legislature 1845-1846; 
defeated as a ^^ hig for the Thirty-second Congress; again a mem- 
ber of the state legislature 1853-1854; elected as a Whig to the 
United States Senate and re-elected as a Republican, serving from 
March 4, 1853 until July i, 1864 when he resigned, having been 
appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Lincoln ; Secre- 
tary of the Treasury from July i, 1864 to March 3, 1865; again 
elected to the United States Senate and served from ^March 4, 1865 
until his death in Portland, September 8, 1869. 

French, Ezra Bartlett, a Representative from iMaine; born in 
Landaff, New Hampshire, September 23, 1810; pursued an ac- 
ademic course; moved to Damariscotta, T^Iaine; Secretary of state; 
elected to the Thirty-sixth Congress (]March 4, 1859 to ^larch 3, 
1861) ; appointed Second Auditor of the Treasury August 3, 1861 
and held the ofhce until his death in Washington, D. C, April 24, 

Fuller, Thomas James Duncan, a Representative from Elaine ; 
born in Hardwick, Vermont, March 17, 1808; attended the public 
schools ; studied law, was admitted to the bar and began practice 
in Calais, Maine ; elected to the Thirty-first, Thirty-second, Thirty- 
third and Thirty-fourth Congresses (March 4, 1849 to March 3, 
^^57) 'y appointed by President Buchanan, Second Auditor of the 
Treasury and served from April 15, 1857 until August 3, 1861 ; 
practiced law in Washington, D. C; died in Fauquier county, 
Virginia, February 13, 1876. 

Gage, Joshua, a Representative from the District of Maine; born 
in Massachusetts in 1763; completed preparatory studies; moved 
to Augusta, Maine in 1795 ; member of the state house of represen- 
tatives 1805 and 1807: member of the state senate in 1813 and 



1815; treasurer of Kennebec county twenty-one years; elected as 
a Democrat to the Fifteenth Congress (March 4, 181 7 to March 3, 
1819) ; member of the executive council 1822-1823 ; died in Augusta 
January 24, 183 1. 

Gannett, Barzillai, a Representative from the District of Maine; 
born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, June 17, 1764; graduated from 
Harvard college in 1785 ; studied law and was admitted to the bar 
but became an Episcopal minister and settled in Gardiner, ]\Iaine ; 
member of the state house of representatives 1805-1806; served in 
the state senate in 1807 and 1808; elected to the Eleventh Congress 
(March 4, 1809 to ^larch 3, 1811) ; re-elected to the Twelfth Con- 
gress but failed to qualify; died in New York in 1S32. 

Gilman, Charles Jervis, a Representative from Maine; born in 
Exeter, New Hampshire, February 26, 1824; pursued classical |j 

studies; member of the legislature of New Hampshire in 1850; 
studied law; was admitted to the bar and began practice in Bruns- | 

Vv^ick, Maine; member of Maine legislature in 1854; elected as a 1 

Republican to the Thirty-fifth Congress (March 4, 1857 to March 
3, 1859) ; delegate to the Republican national convention in i860; | 

died in Brunswick, Maine, February 5, 1901. ' ^ 

G^odenow, Robert, a Representative from Maine; born in Farm- I 

ington, New Hampshire, June 10, 1800; completed preparatory ^ 

studies ; studied law, was admitted to the bar and began practice i'^ 

in Farmington in 1821 ; county attorney 1828-1834; also again in j; 

1841 ; moved to Maine and resumed practice m Paris; elected as a 
Whig to the Thirty-second Congress (March 4, 185 1 to ^larch 3, 
1^53) » appointed state bank commissioner in 1857. 

Goodenow, Rufus K., a Representative from Maine; born in 
Henniker, New Hampshire, April 24, 17^0; moved to Maine and 
located in Brownfield ; received a limited education ; engaged in 
farming; captain in the war of 1812; moved to Paris, Maine; clerk 
of Oxford county courts 1821-1837; member of the state house of 
representatives; presidential elector on the Harrison ticket in 1840; 
elected as a Whig to the Thirty-first Congress (March 4, 1849 to 
March 3, 1851); died in Paris, Maine, March 24, 1863. 




Hall, Joseph, a Representative from ^Maliie ; Born in Methuen, 
Massachusetts, June 26, 1793; attended PhilHps Andover academy; 
moved to Camden, Maine in 1809; engaged in mercantile pursuits; 
held local offices and was sheriff of his county; postmaster four 
years ; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-third and Twenty- 
fourth Congresses (^larch 4. 1833 to ^larch 3, 1837) ; naval agent 
at Boston, ^Massachusetts, 1849-1853; clerk in the Boston custom 
house; died in Boston, ^lassachusetts, December 31, 1850. 

Harris, ^lark, a Representative from Elaine ; born in Ipswich, 
^lassachusetts, January 27, 1779; moved to Portland, !Maine in 
1800; held several local offices; served in both branches of the 
state legislature ; elected to the Seventeenth Congress to fill the \ 
vacancv caused bv the resiiniation of Ezekiel Whitman and served I 
from December 22, 1822 to ^larch 3, 1823; died in Xew York City, j 
March 2, 1843. 

Herrick, Joshua, a Representative from Elaine ; born in Beverly, 
Massachusetts, March 18, 1793; attended the public schools; moved 
to Maine in 181 1 and engaged m the lumber business; served in 
the war of 1812; moved to Brunswick and was connected with 
the first cotton factory in ]\Iaine; deputy sheriff of Cumberland 
county many years; deputy collector and inspector of customs at 
Kennebunkport 1829- 184 1 ; county commissioner of York county 
1842-1843; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth Congress 
(March 4, 1843 to ^larch 3, 1845) '> again deputy collector at 
Kenriebunkport 1847-1849; register of probate for York county 
1849-1855; died in Alfred, August 30, 1874. 

Holmes, John, a Representative from the District of ]\raine and 
a Senator from the state of r^Iaine ; born in Kingston, Massachu- 
setts, IMarch 14, 1773; graduated from Brov/n university in 1796; 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1799 and began practice 
in Alfred, Maine ; served in both branches of the r^Iassachusetts 
legislature; elected as a Democrat to the Fifteenth and Sixteenth 
Congresses, and served from ^larch 4, 1817 to IMarch 15, 1820, 
when he resigned ; delegate to the ]Maine constitutional convention ; 
elected to the United States Senate from Maine and served from 


June 13, 1820 to March 3, 1827; again elected to the United States 
Senate to fill the vacancy caused bv the resisrnation of Albion K. 
Parris, and served from January 15, 1829 to ]March 3, 1833; mem- 
ber of the state house of representatives 1835-1838; appointed 
United States District attorney in 1841 and served until his death 
in Portland, July 7, 1843. 

Hubbard, Levi, a Representative from the District of Maine ; 
born in Worcester, ^lassachusetts, December 19, 1762 ; attended 
common schools ; engaged in farming ; prominent in state military 
organizations; member of the state house of representatives in 
1804, 1805 and 1812 and a state senator 1806-1S11; elected as a 
Democrat to the Thirteenth Congress (March 4, 1813 to March 
3, 1815) ; state senator in 1816; executive councillor in 1829; died 
in Paris, Maine, February 18, 1836. 

Jarvis, Leonard, a Representative from Alaine ; born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, October 19, 1781 ; graduated from Harvard col- 
lege in 1800; located in Surry, Maine; Sheriff of Hancock county 
1821-1829; collector of customs for the Penobscot district 1829- | 

183 1 ; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-first, and to the three 
succeeding Congresses (^larch 4, 1829 to March 3, 1837) ; naval 
agent at Boston, ^lassachusetts, 1838-1841 ; returned to Surry 
where he died September 18, 1854. 


(By Fred K. Owen) 

A little more than one hundred years ago at the Maine State 
Election for the year 1822 there was elected to Congress from the \ 

Portland district an. attorney of the City by name of Stephen 
Longfellow. The election was the second ever to have been held 
in the then new State of ]\Iaine, and Mr. Longfellow was chosen 
to succeed one ]Mark Harris who was filling out the unexpired 
term of Ezekiel \\'hitman, who had resigned. 

Mr. Longfellow was a distinguished citizen of Portland and one 
of the town's most successful attorneys, but his chief claim to 
fame lies not in his abilities as a lawver or in his service in 


Congress, but is derived from the fact that he was the father of 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, the poet. 

The youth, who later made the name of Longfellow immortal, 
was at that time a youngster of 15 years and a sophomore in 
Bowdoin College. The family then resided in the brick mansion 
on Congress street, now known all over the world as the Long- 
fellow house, and it does not require a wide stretch of the imagi- 
nation to conceive that, whether college was in session or not the 
future poet was at home on this election day when his father 
was running for Congress and that possibly he spent much of his 
time about the polling place and talked politics with his youthful 

We may also be quite sure that when the returns came in he 
shared with the other members of his family and his father's 
friends and political allies the delight that was theirs because of 
the honor that had come to his sire. It is not unlikely also that 
when Henry went back to Bowdoin, his college mates looked upon 
him with more than ordinary regard, for even in those early 
days, it was something of a distinction to be the son of a member 
of Congress. 

Was Federalist 

Stephen Longfellow was a Federalist and Portland was the chief 
town of a Federalist district, but his party was in a minority in 
the State, for Congressman Whitman, who had resigned his seat 
in Congress the previous year to run for Governor, was defeated 
for that office by Albion K. Parris, the Republican candidate, by 
a vote of 12,887 to 6,811. What was the Republican Party at this 
time later became the Democratic Party, as is commonly known. 

Mr. Longfellow himself had no easy fight of it in his own dis- 
trict. Among the archives at the State House is the report of the 
Governor and council of this election of 1822 and by it, it appears 
that Stephen Longfellow. Federalist, received 2157 votes and that 
John Anderson, Republican (Democrat), had 2036. This gave 
Longfellow a plurality of 121, but a majority elected in those days 
and scattering votes were more common than they are at this time. 
The old time voters did not feel held down to party nominees 
and frequently made their own choice of candidate when they went 
to the polls. 


On this occasion 79 scattering votes were thrown which brought 
the total up to 4272, 2147 being necessary for a choice. Stephen 
Longfellow had 2157 and was therefore elected, but he had only 
20 votes to come and go on. 

The time that Steve Longfellow ran for Congress — we may be 
sure that his friends and political associates addressed him thus 
familiarly — Portland was a thriving town, but was later to assume 
the dignity of a City. Its population was then 8,500, but it had 
begun to grov\' so rapidly that ten years later it had increased in 
size to a place of 12,000 people. 

In 1822 there v/as but one polling place in town, a school house | 

on the lower end of Congress street, the upper part of which had 
been fitted up for a town hall. It was to this hall that the voters 
of the town directed their footsteps on this election day of a hun- 
dred years ago, and it was about it that we have allowed our imagi- 
nation to picture the future poet to have been loitering. 

Already the school house was regarded as too small a place for 
the chief municipal building of the prosperous young town and the 
agitation for a regular town hall had begun, which later resulted \ 

in the erection of a larger structure devoted exclusivelv to munic- 
ipal purposes. i 

When Stephen Longfellow arrived in Washington to take his 
seat in Congress he found several among his associates who either 
at that time or later loomed large in his Country's history. 

Henry Clay was speaker and one of the new members from 
Massachusetts was a man by the name of Daniel Webster. 

Another one of the IMaine man's colleagues whose name is 
familiar to present-day students of American history, was a mem- 
ber from Pennsylvania, James Buchanan by name, who was sub- 
sequently the President of the United States. 

The senators whom the ]\Iaine member must have met during 
his sojourn in Washington include some names that are familiar. 
The New York pair were Martin Van Buren, who was afterwards 
president, and Rufus King, who would have been president had 
he belonged to the right party. 

Thomas H. Benton was a senator from Missouri and Horatio 
Seymour from Vermont. The junior senator from South Carolina 
was Robert Y. Hayne, who would perhaps be forgotten, but for 


the reply made to him later by Daniel Webster, the then new 
member from ^lassachusetts. 

The most distinguished of Stephen Longfellow's colleagues of 
Maine in the House was Enoch Lincoln, who, after his service 
there, became Governor of ]\Iaine. IMr. Lincoln had been twice 
?. member of Confjress from Massachusetts and served three terms 
after Maine became a State. He resigned to become Governor 
of ]\Iaine in 1826. The Lewiston district sent Ebeneazer Hcrrick, 
who served three terms and declined re-election. Mr. Herrick 
was the father of Anson Herrick who removed to New York City 
and served one term in Congress as a representative of that State. 

From the Kennebec district came Joseph Cushman, a clergyman, 
and like Longfellow and Lincoln, a graduate of Harvard. ]Mr. 
Cushman had served as a representative of ^lassachusetts before 
coming to r^Iaine. 

The York county district sent \VilIiam Burleigh of South Ber- 
wick who served two terms. William Burleigh was the father of 
John H. Burleigh, who was a member of the 43rd and 4Jih Con- 
gresses and who was succeeded in that body by B. Reed. 

The Somerset representative was David Kidder of Skowhegan, 
a lawyer and a W hig and twice a member of the House. 

From the extreme east came Jeremiah O'Brien of ^Vlachias, 
a merchant and farmer, and of the family of the Jeremiah O'Brien 
who was the hero of the capture of the British sloop ]\Iargaretta. 
one of the most thrilling incidents of the Revolutionary War. 

Link ix Hale Chain 
I One of the Elaine senators was John Chandler of Monmouth, 

a brother of Thomas Chandler who was later a member of Con- 
gress from Massachusetts, and an uncle of the more famous 
Zachariah Cliandler of ^Michigan, senator from that state, and 
secretarv of the interior under President Grant. 

Zachariah Chandler was the grandfather of the present senator, 
Frederick Hale, who therefore has not only a father and a grand- 
father who were L'nited States senators, but a great-uncle as well. 

The other Maine senator was John Holmes of Alfred, one of 
the foremost statesmen of his time. John Holmes was a delegate 
to the Maine constitutional convention and one of the two first 
Senators of the State. 



Portland of That Day 

But what of Portland when Steve Longfellow was elected to 
Congress? We have told something of it, noting that it was but | 

an overgrown village and having described the schoolhouse hall | 

where the voters assembled a hundred years ago. I 

It was a seaport town and already enjoying a big trade in | 

lumber for which rum and molasses were received from the West I 

Indies. The long black wharves extended out into the harbor j 

and about them were the low lying wooden buildings. There I 

were no great public or mercantile buildings and but few fine resi- ? 

dences. The Preble mansion which stood next to the Longfellow , 

House was the best. Perhaps a description of this neighborhood, | 

written by the late Nathan Goold, one of the foremost of Port- | 

land's historical authorities will give a good idea of the rest of the 
town. Wrote Mr. Goold in one of his articles : 

"The yellow, two-story house and barn above and the Preble 
Mansion on the other side of his father's house. In the front 
of the house on Congress street two wooden planks sufficed 
for a sidewalk in muddy weather. On the opposite side of the 
street were two blacksmith shops and two or three wooden 
houses, perhaps four, between Center and Brown^ streets. 
Brown street was laid out to Cumberland in 1817, and Preble 
street not until 1831. W^here the Morton block now stands, 
was a two-story house and barn where Reuben Morton lived 
from about 1810 to 1820. After he moved away, the house 
was occupied by Samuel Haines, who lived there until the re- 
moval of the house." 

The Reuben Morton who lived in the neighborhood was one 
of the leading merchants of the town. 

The Longfellow children slept on the third floor of the house 
and from the windows the poet and his brothers and sisters had 
an unobstructed view to White Head, Fort Preble and Portland 
lighthouse on the front and to Back Cove, and the fields and forests 
stretching away towards the White Mountains from the rear. 

Class distinctions prevailed to a far greater degree in the Port- 
land of that day than they do now and the Longfcllows were aris- 
tocrats of the aristocrats. Stephen was a graduate of Harvard 
as his father had been before him and both were gentlemen of 
what we would now call the old School. 



There were several churches in town, but the Longfellow family 
in common with most of the "quality," were L^nitarians and attend- 
ants upon the First Parish, under Dr. Deane and Rev. Ichabod 

Of Stephen Longfellow himself only the most complimentary 
things have been written by the historians of the olden days. It is 
said of him that he was tall and slight and of aristocratic bearing. 
He was polished and gentle in his manners and honored and re- 
spected by all for his upright character. 

Perhaps no better insight into his character can be afforded than 
i.s afforded by a letter he wrote to his son, Henry, w^hile the latter 
was in college. In this letter, he said : 

"I am happy to observe that my ambition never has been to 
accumulate wealth for my children, but to cultivate their minds 
in the best possible manner, and to imbue them with correct 
moral, political and religious principles, believing that a person 
thus educated will, with proper diligence, be certain of attain- 
ing all the wealth which is necessary to happiness." 

William Willis said of him : "No man more surely gained the 
confidence of all who approached him, or held it firmly; and 
those who knew him best loved him most. In the management 
of his cases he went with zeal and directness of purpose to 
every point which could sustain it. There Vv-as no traveling 
out of the record with him, nor of wandering away from the 
line of his argument after figures of speech or fine rhetoric. 
But he was plain, straight forward and eft'ective in his appeals 
to the jury, and by his frank and cordial manner won them to 
his cause." 

At the time that he was elected to Congress Stephen Longfellow 
was one of the leading citizens of Portland and perhaps the town*s 
foremost lawyer. 

He was born in Gorham and spent his early days on his father's 
farm in that town. He entered Harvard in 1794 at the age of 18. 
He was one of the first scholars of his class and was popular with 
the students by reason of his lovable disposition and his frank and 
gentlemanly demeanor. It is said of him that he was bright and 
cheerful and engaged freely in the social pleasures of friendly meet- 
ings and literary associations. After leaving college he entered 


upon the study of law with Sahnon Cha^e, then Portland's most 
distinguished lawyer. He was admitted to the bar in 1801. At 
that time Portland had a population of rising 3,000 and boasted 
seven lawyers. One of them was Isaac Parker, afterwards chief 
justice of the Supreme court of Massachusetts, and another was 
Ezekiel Whitman, who became chief justice of ]\Iaine. 

The Salmon Chase with whom Stephen Longfellow studied law 
Avas the foremost lawyer of Portland when the young graduate of 
Harvard came back to ]\Iaine to tit himself for his contemplated 
profession. ■Mr. Chase was a native of New Hampshire and was 
the uncle of Salmon Portland Chase, one of the most distinguished 
of American statesmen and Lincoln's first secretary of the treasury. 

The war secretary was named after his Portland uncle and it is 
said that he was given the middle name of Portland after this City 
and in order to distins^uish from his uncle. Salmon P. Chase Vvas 
never a resident of Portland, at least not for any great length of 
time, but he was a frequent visitor here in his younger days. 

Longfell'jw opened an office in a room v.hich he set apart in his 
liome, but afterwards moved to ^sliddle street, then the chief busi- 
ness street of the City. 

While building up a large law practice, Longfellow at the same 
lime took great interest in public affairs. He was sent to the Legis- 
lature in 181 4, one of the most critical years in the historv of the 
State, and while a member of that body was chosen as a delegate 
to the famous Hartford convention which was a gathering of New 
England Federalists to discuss measures for securing New England 
interests against the South and West, especially in relation to the 
War of 1812. 

In 18 16 Lawyer Longfellow was chosen a presidential elector 
-and cast his ballot for Rufus King of New York, with whom he 
afterwards served in Congress, and who was himself a native of 
Maine. Six years later came Longfellow's election to Congress. 

One term sufficed him in Congress and he devoted the remainder 
of his life, so far as his health would permit, to his profession, 
except for one term in the Legislature. In 1825, when Lafayette 
visited P(jrtland, the former Congressman was the man chosen to 
extend the welcome of the City to the distinguished visitor. Al- 
though a graduate of Harvard, Longfellow became interested in 


Bowdoin College and served for several years on its board of 
trustees. He was elected President of the Elaine Historical Society 
in 1834, having previously served as recording secretary. 

Congressman Longfellow was married in 1S04 to Zilpah Wads- 
worth, daughter of Gen. Peleg Wads worth. To them were born 
eight children, four sons and four daughters, which fact perhaps 
makes it plain why the father had to build a third story to his 
Congress street home. 

A portrait of Stephen Longfellow hangs in the Longfellow house 
and also are shown there a number of mementoes of him, including 
many legal documents, books and papers. 

He died August 3, 1849, ^" ^^^^ 74^1"^ year of his age, having been 
a confirmed invalid during the later years of his life. 


(By the Editor) 

Probably more has been written about ^Maine's majestic moun- 
tain, Katahdin, during the past decade than ever before. 

This has been the result, largely, of the efforts of such publicists 
as former Corgressman Frank E. Guernsey, Arthur G. Staples, 
editor of the Lca-nston Journal and one of the most fascinating as 
well as forceful writers of essays in Xew England; Sam E. Conner, 
Governor Baxter, Charles P. Barnes, Willis E. Parsons, Elaine's 
energetic Commissioner of Inland Fisheries and Game; the late 
Burt W. Howe of Patten, Maine; the Federation of Women's 
Clubs of Elaine, and many others of her distinguished and cultured 

This newly awakened interest in this subject has recently been 
accentuated by the able and highly entertaining sketch by George 
C. W^ing, Jr., entitled ''Mount Ktaadn Sometimes ^^lount Katahdin," 
published in the last quarterly issue of the Journal, This has at- 
tracted wide attention in Maine and other parts. 

^Ir. Wing makes several references to the ancient Indian tradi- 
tion concerning Pamola, handed down to us ever since the white 
man had knowledge of the tribes of the Abenaquis, or Abenikis 


Hence the following "Tradition of Pamela"* may be of interest 
at the present time. 

Considerable has been written relative to this tradition by various 
authors. This version is from "The Abnakis and Their Histor\'" 
by Rev. Eugene \'etromile, written by him and published by James 


B. Kirker, New York, 1866. This author devoted much time to 
careful study of the Indians of eastern Elaine, mingled with them. 
and secured their respect and confidence, thus acquiring quite a 
profound knowledge of their habits of life, their mental processes, 
their language, the meanings of numerous place-names and their 
traditions : ^ 

"The Penobscot Indians believed that an evil spirit, called Pamela 
(he curses on the mountain) — resided, during the summer season. 
en the top of Mount Katahdin — (the greatest of mountains). 
They offered sacrifices to him to appease him, so that he could not 
curse them, or otherwise injure them. Although they hunted and 
fished in the woods and lakes around Blount Katahdin, yet they 
never attempted to go on top of that mountain, in the assurance 
that they would never be able to return from that place, but be 
either killed or devoured by the evil spirit, Pamola. They pre- 
tended to have seen this spirit on the top of the mountain on 

• "The Abnakis and Their History or Hi.^torical Notices on the Abor- 
Igrine? of Acadia," by Euf?ene Vetromile. New York, 18^;^). See pp. fJ2-fj7. 
chapter on "The Indians of :MKine," in Seba.'-tian Hale, by John P'rancis 
Sprauue. Heintzeniann I'rfss, Tloston. 19ftH. p. 'J'.i. 




several occasions while hunting or fishing around it. It was but 
till lately that they have attempted to ascend that mountain. It 
is not long since that a party of white people desired to go on 
top of ]Mount Katahdin and took some Indians to accompany them 
as guides. The Indians escorted them to the foot of the moun- 
tains, but they refused to go further, fearing to be either killed or 
devoured by Pamela. No persuasion from the party could induce 
them to proceed further; on the contrary, the Indians tried to dis- 
suade the party from ascend- 
ing the mountain, speaking to 
them of this evil spirit, and 
how many Indians had been 
killed or devoured by him, and 
that no man ever returned, who 
dared to go on Mount Katah- 
din. The Indians, however, 
were prevailed upon to wait 
for the descent of the party, 
who, in spite of the remon- 
strance of the Indians, ascend- 
ed the mountain by themselves, 
without guides. They were 
quite surprised to see the party 
back, as they entertained no 
hope of their return, believing 
with certainty that they had 
been killed or devoured by 

"It would not be improper to 
give here a brief episode of the 
Indian tradition concerning this 
evil spirit, Pamola, resting upon 
Mount Katahdin — a mountain famous amongst the Indians of 
Maine — a tradition, which is behcved by the Indians unto this very 
day. They relate that several hundred years ago, while a Penob- 
scot Indian was encamped eastward of Mount Katahdin in the 
autumn hunting season, a severe and unexpected fall of snow cov- 
ered the whole land to the depth of several feet. Being unpro- 
vided with snow shoes, he found himself unable to return home. 




After remaining several days in the camp, blocked up with drifts j 

of snow, and seeing no means of escape, he thought he was doomed | 

to perish; hence, as it were through despair, he called with loud | 

voice on Pamola for several times. Finally, Pamola made his | 

appearance on the top of the mountain. The Indian took courage I 

and offered to him a sacrifice of oil and fat, which he poured and . I 

consumed upon burning coals out of the camp. As the smoke v\'as I 

ascending, Pam(Ma was descending. The sacrifice was consumed j 

when this spirit got only half way down the mountain. Here the 
Indian took more oil and fat and repeated the sacrifice, till Pamola 
arrived at the camp and the Indian welcomed him, saying: "You 
are welcome, partner." Pamola replied: "You have done well to 
call me partner ; because you have called me by that name you are 
saved, otherwise you would have been killed by me. No Indian 
has ever called on me and lived, having always been devoured by 
me. Nov\' I will take you on the mountain and you shall be happy I 

with me." Pamola put the Indian on his shoulders, bid him close j 

the eyes and in a few moments, with a noise like the whistling i 

of a powerful wind, they were inside of the mountain. The Indian ! 

describes the interior of Mount Katahdiii as containmg a good, 
comfortable wigv\am, furnished Vvith abundance of venison and 
with all the luxuries of life, and that Pamola had wife and chil- 
dren living in the mountain. PamiMa gave him his daughter to 
wife and told him that after one vear he could return to his friends 
on the Penobscot, and that he might go back to the mountain to 
see his wife any time he pleased and remain as long as he wished.. 
He was warned that he could not marry again, but if he should 
marry- again he would be at once transported to ]Mount Katahdin 
with no hope of ever more going out of it. After one year the 
Indian returned to Oldtown and related all that had happened to 
him in ]\Iount Katahdin, and the circumstances through which he 
got into it. The Indians persuaded him to marry again, which he 
at first refused, but they at last prevailed on him to marry, but the 
morning after his marriage he disappeared and nothing more was 
heard of him; they felt sure that he had been taken by Pamola 
into Mount Katahdin, as he had told them." 

''This fact filled the Indians with consternation and thev con- 
ceived a great fear of this evil spirit, yet a young Indian woman 
constantly persisted in refusing to believe even in the existence of 


Pamela, unless she saw him with lier own eyes. It happened one 
day, that while she was on the shores of the lake, Amboctictus, 
Pamela appeared to her and reproached her with her incredulity. 
He took her by force, put her on his shoulders and after a few 
moments' flight, vrith a great whistling of wind, they were in the 
interior of the mountain. There she remained for one year and 
was well treated, but was got with child by Pamela. A few months 
before her confinement Pamela told her to go back to her relations, 
saying that the child that was to be born of her would be great, 
and would perform such wonders as to amaze the nation. He 
would have the power to kill any person or animal by simply 
pointing out at the object with the fore finger of his right hand. 
Hence, that the child was to be watched vei*}' closely till the age 
of manhood, because many evils might follow from that power. 
But when \\\q child grew up he would save his own nation from 
the hands of its enemies and v.ould confer mariy benefits to the 
people. If she should be in need of any assistance, she had nothing 
to do but to call on Parnola in any place she might be, and he 
would appear to her. He warned her not to marry again ; because 
if she should marrv asrain, both she and the child would be at 
once transported into Mount Katahdin forever. He then put 
her on his shoulders in the same manner as he had done in 
taking her up to the mountain, and left her on the shore of the 
lake, Amboctictus. She returned to Oldtown, where she related 
all that had happened to her, and also that she had seen in the 
mountain, that Indian of whom I have made mention above." 

The child was born and she took great care of him. She called 
several times on Pamela who always made his appearance to her. 
When she wanted any venison, either in the woods or in the river, 
she had but to take the child, and holding his right hand, she 
stretched out his fore finger and made it point out to a deer or 
moose, and it at once fell dead. So, also, in a flock of ducks she 
made the child's first finger single one out of the flock, which 
likewise fell dead. The child grew and he was the admiration 
and pride of all." 

"It happened one day, that while he was standing at the door 
of the wigwam, he saw a friend of his mother coming. He an- 
nounced it to her, and at the same time, v.ith the first finger of 
his right hand, he pointed at jiim and the man immediately dropped 


dead. This fact caused great consternation, not only in the mother 
of the child but also in the entire tribe who looked on him as 
a very dangerous subject among them. Everybody fled from his 
company and even from his sight. The mother called on Pamola 
and related to him what had happened, and also the fear and 
consternation in which she and the entire tribe were. Pamola told 
her that he had alreadv warned her to watch the child, because the 
power conferred on the child might produce serious evils. He now 
advised her to keep the child altogether apart from society till the 
age of manhood, as he might be fatal with many others. The 
Indians wanted her to marry but she refused, on the ground of it 
being forbidden by Pamola, who was her husband, and in case of 
marriage, she and her child both would be taken up Mount Katah- 
din. Plowever, the Indians prevailed upon her and she married, 
but in the evening of the marriage-day, while all the Indians were 
gathered together in dancing and feasting for the celebration of 
the marriage, both she and the child disappeared forever.*' 


(By the Editor) 

A report on the Archaeology- of Maine. Being a narrative of 
explorations in that state 1912-1920, together with work at Lake 
Champlain 191 7. By Warren K. Moorehead, Field Director, 
Archaeology survey of Xew England. 

Professor ]\Ioorehead's report printed by the Andover Press 
and issued from the Department of Archaeology, Phillips Academy, 
Andover, Alassachusetts, is a book of 2^2 pages, excellently bound 
and finely illustrated. He is one of the leading and most promi- 
nent scientists in Archaeological work in this country. Many of 
the citizens of ]\Iaine have met him during the eight years of his 
work in eastern ^Maine, and have been deeply interested in it. It 
is the most valuable contribution of this kind that has ever become 
a part of the history of our State. It will be welcomed by all 
students of the subject and all others concerned in pre-histonc 
facts regarding ]\Iaine. 

His son, Mr. L. K. Moorehead of New York City, has also made 
a special study of the Katahdin region. As a boy, many years ago, 
he went with his father, W. K. Moorehead, down various Maine 
rivers. Two or three years ago he and Ernest Mayo, as guide, 
visited the wild part of Katahdin which is known as the Klondike. 


It was with great difficulty they forced their way through the heavy 
growth of stunted spruce and reached the shores of a small lake. 
This water had been observed from the Katahdin plateau by others, 
but according to ]\Iayo, who has guided in the region for many 
years, had not been named. It was called ^layo pond. 

The north and northeast extensions of the Katahdin range are 
the wildest parts, and are seldom visited. 


(Caroline W. Stevens of Portland) 

The words of this song were set to music by Prof. William R. 
Chapman, and the chorus and orchestra at the ]\Iaine ]\Iusic Festi- 
val, in Bangor, Oct. 6, gave it a hue rendition. 

It was received with great favor by the audience. The authors 
of both the words and music received a great ovation. 

The staunch old hills are listening, listening ! 

For the strains that float afar, 

And the rippling rills are hastening 

Where the tuneful measures are. 

Where the pine trees shed their fragrance 

Where the breakers chant refrain, 

Happy days are nearer bringing 

Sounds of melody in Elaine. 

The leaflets soft are rustling, rustling, 
In the fair old Pine Tree State, 
And the waves are ever breaking. 
Where her grateful children wait, 
Wait with longing, wait with rapture, 
For the thrills of song again, 
I'^or the chorals grand that bring us 
Sounds of melody in ^Laine. 

The Festival is calling, calling. 
Music's realm is o'er the land. 
The mighty hosts are tramping, 
Where its lovers join in hand. 
May our jubilee to Heaven 
Lift our souls and banish pain ; 
. May the people through the ages. 
Hear sweet melodv in Maine. 



(By Mrs. E. C. Carll) 

In the state of New York there is a large number of descend- 
ants of original members of the Society of Cincinnati. There the 
Society of Daughters of Cincinnati was formed and incorporated 
Dec. 27, 1894. The Society was formed out of admiration and 
respect for the Order of Cincinnati and its founders. The quali- 
fications for Alembership are : 

Descendant from an original member of the Society of the 
Cincinnati, or from an officer who died in the service and 
whose descendant was eligible to original membership in the 
Society according to the Constitution adopted ]May 13, 1783 at 
the headquarters of General Baron de Steuben at Fish-Hill- 
Object of the Society: To encourage study of history of the Revo- 
lution, causes and results, and to instill into the minds of the 
rising generation a knovrledge of and reverence for the intelligent 
wisdom \\hich planned and successfully carried on the struggle 
for liberty against overwhelming force and old world prejudice: 
To commemorate b}' celebrations and tablets the achievements of 
our ancestors in the Revolution, and to preserve documents and 
relics of that period. 

They have an army and navy scholarship in the Teachers' Col- 
lege of Columbia University for the daughter of an officer in the 
regular Army or Navy of the U. S., preferably one of Cincinnati 

A few words of explanation about the Order of Cincinnati : The 
officers who had served together in the Revolution wanted to per- 
petuate the remembrance, achievements and friendship formed 
under common danc^er. Gen. Knox said : "I wish for some ribbon 
to wear in my hat or button hole to be transmitted to my descend- 
ants as a badge or proof that I have fought in defence of their 
liberties." The Society v.'as formed in 1783 with Washington as 
President General. The Society was named Cincinnati in honor 
of the illustrious Roman Quintus Cincinnatus. The Society met 
with some opposition as some feared it would create a race of 
hereditary nobility, and the country be composed of two ranks: 
The Nobles and the Rabble. They feared the Cincinnati would 


have exclusive rights to offices, honors and authorities. These 
predictions were never reaUzed. The Society flourished and con- 
tinues to exist. The membership is handed down from oldest son 
to oldest son. In my possession is a post card of the building in 
which the Xew Hampshire branch of Cincinnati \vas formed. 
Gen. Knox, Gen. W^ashington and my ancestor, Capt. Daniel 
Gookin, breakfasted together at this Inn and formed the Xew 
Hampshire branch : Capt. Gookin being made its first secretary. 

The Ladd-Gilman house in Exeter by purchase in 1902 became 
the Cincinnati ^Memorial Hall, a memorial to the Continental Army, 
particularly the X'^ew Hampshire contingent and officers of the 
regular line. During the Revohition this building was the State 
Treasury : The town of Exeter being the seat of Government. 
The guest chamber over this main room contains a mahogany 
canojw topped bedstead used by Daniel \\'ebster during his visit 
to Exeter. In the main room is an impressive portrait of Gen. 
Washington wearing the Order of the Cincinnati. In this room 
are original certificates of membership and an autograph letter of 
Gen. Washington to ?^Irs. X'ancy Washington. 


"Be it known that Daniel Gookin, Esq. Lieut, (he was Capt.) 
in the late army of the U. S., is a member of the Society of Cin- 
cinnati, instituted by the Officers of the American Army at the 
Period of its Dissolution, as well as to commemorate the great 
event which gave independence to X'orth America as for the 
laudal)le purpose of enculcating the Duty of laying down in Peace 
arms assumed for pubHc defense and of uniting in Acts of 
i>rotherly Affection and Bonds of perpetual Friendship, the mem- 
bers constituting the same. 

In Testimony W'hereof, I, the President of the said Society have 
hereunto set my Hand at the City of X'ev/ York in the State of 
Xew York this Fourth dav of Tulv, in the vear of our Lord one 
thousand seven hundred and ninetv; and in the fifteenth vear of 
the Independence of the L'nited States. 
By order : ' 

G. W'a>hington, 

Knox, Secretary. President." 

The Insignia of the Daughters of Cincinnati is an eagle grasping 
in its dexter claw a branch of laurel and in its sinister claw a 


bundle of 13 arrows; upon its breast a star of 13 points, argent 
charged with the bust of Washington in bas rehef: The whole 
suspended from a ribbon of watered silk i^ in. wide, centre white 
f in. wide, each edge of light blue. The Insignia should never 
be worn as an ornament at social functions of a private or per- 
sonal character: It shall not be embellished with gems; always 
worn on left breast. 

The Board of ^lanagement hold monthly meetings from Novem- 
ber to IMay. The annual meeting of the Society is held in New 
York City Jan. 29th unless that date falls on Sunday; then, on 
next secular day. In addition there are two meetings a year, social 
or historical in character, commemorate of events in the life of 
Washington who was first President General of the Order of Cin- 
cinnati. One of these meetings is held Apr. 30th, anniversary of 
the inauguration of Washington as President; the other on Dec. 
4th, anniversary of Washington's farewell to his officers and com- 
rades in the Cincinnati at Fraunces Tavern in the citv of New 
York. ' - 


(Sarah ^Vatorman Dennison) 

It may not be out of place at the present time when !\Iaine has 
given the flower of her manhood and her sons their life's blood 
for the honor of their country, to give a short account of one of 
Maine's old sea fighters, Captain William Edward Dennison, who 
was born in Freeport, Elaine and died Sept.. 1896, aged 64 years. 
His father and his grandfather were also captains in the Maritime 

He was no braggart but a quiet and unassuming hero and gentle- 
man. From cruising the globe he made his home within sight of 
his birthplace on the Eastern Promenade overlooking the sea in 

In historical accounts of the bombardment of Fort Fisher we 
find : "Among the Federal War vessels who poured the incessant 
stream of shot and shell into that famous stronghold of the Con- 
federacy w^as the United States gunboat 'Cherokee', commanded 
by Captain Dennison." 


22 = 

When there came the call for volunteers for an assault on the 
works, Dennison was soon ashore at the head of his forces from 
the Cherokee. 

He was one of the first officers of the transport which carried 
British troops through the Black Sea to Sebastopol at the time 
of the Crimean war. 


• ^-"n, i,^*" 




J^ ;; ■ 

:^-<" y^r-i^^^ 

^- ^^ 


In later years with his x\merican gunboat, Cherokee, he cap- 
tured with others, the blockade-running steamers "Circassian" and 
"Emma Henly", rated the largest prizes ever taken by the Amer- 
ican navy. 

Captain Dennison sailed in 39 different ships, before the mast 
as a boy, through the grades of junior seaman-ship and in com- 
mand. He was an indigo planter in Central America, owned and 
sailed a trading schooner on Lake X'icaragua until driven thence 
by one of the periodical Central America revolutions. The tran- 


sition from captain of a merchantman to the command of one of 
Uncle Sam's war vessels was for Captain Dennison, the result of 
a stroke of luck in taking advantage of the situation. To state 
the case briefly, Captain Dennison with his vessel, the American 
schooner Adrianna, saved the U. S. S. \\'yoming, which had been 
run ashore by her rebel-sympathizing crew in the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, July 31, 1 86 1. The Wyoming was a notable ship. She 
it was that taught the Japanese to respect the valor of American 
sailors, when she entered the Straits of Siomnosieki from whence 
warships of three nations of Europe had been driven, and singly 
fought the combined Japanese forts and fleet to a most audacious 
victory. From the log book of the Adrianna, the time history of 
the event which appears belov\- was taken : "On the evening of 
July 31, 1861, the American schooner Adrianna, A\'m. E. Dennison, 
Commander, was pursuing her regular voyage from the port of 
Guamas, Mexico, to San Francisco, California. About 9.30 p. m., 
being near to Point Lorenzo, which is oflf the Port of Paz, on the 
eastern shore of the Gulf of California, a light was discovered 
by the master of the schooner, evidently on board a vessel, and 
from its bearings it is probable that the vessel was ashore. The 
Master determined to anchor and wait until daylight, for if it was 
a vessel, he was not disposed to risk the Adrianna by making a 
night approach to the stranger, upon so dangerous a part of the 
lower California coast. Daylight of the following morning dis- 
closed a large steamship stranded upon the coral reefs. The Adri- 
anna got under way and stood in for the stranger under the belief 
that the S. S. owing to the heavy weather just preceding, was in 
peril. While on the way a boat from the S. S. having on board 
a native local pilot, came along board and demanded assistance, 
for the six heavy-gun U. S. steamer Wyoming was a member of 
the U. S. squadron then in the Pacific Ocean. Lieutenant ]Mur- 
ray requested the ^Master, Captain Dennison, to go on board the 
Wyoming and leave the Adrianna for the time being. 

Lieutenant ^lurray asked Dennison what he, Dennison, could 
do to save the Wyoming, for if she was lost it would ruin him 

Dennison replied that he would do all he could to save the ship. 
As she was in a very critical position, to this ^lurray replied : 
"Then go ahead and save her." From that time Dennison took 


the management of affairs. Dcnnisou called for the pilot who 
was in charge when the \\ yoming grounded, for the moral cir- 
cmnstances of the movement assured him that the Wyoming had 
been purposely run ashore. The discipline of the vessel was ex- 
ceedingly lax. Her late Captain and other officers, honored with 
commissions by the United States Government, had deserted the 
Wyoming and gone to join the rebels — and of those who remained 
behind, many were affected with sentiments hostile to the govern- 
ment and were in sympathy witii the rebels. The pilot was per- 
sonally known to Dennison, who was an outspoken unionist, but 
while Dennison and ]\Iurrav were holdino: the interview above 
related, the pilot without official authority had been set ashore on 
the sea beach. He immediately "made oft"' and was seen no more. 
The condition of the A\'voming was critical. She was ashore at 
high water, under full steam, vsith the power of her engines fully 
developed. Her keel lay parallel to the coast. She v\-as far from 
the nearest habitation. After running her ashore the rebellious 
crew had taken the steam anchor out over the starboard bow, and 
planted it farther upon the reef. The cable of this anchor had been 
interfered with by the captain, and the ship thus moved farther 
ashore and into danger. The Wyoming had in the month of ]»*Iay 
preceding, been thoroughly overhauled and repaired at the ]\Iare 
Island X'avy Yard, and had got on board all her stoves, coal equip- 
ment, arms, etc. The tides of California are scarcely perceptible, 
and a steamer ashore anywhere in the Gulf increased her danger 
by delay. As soon as possible after ^Murray had given Dennison 
charge of affairs, the Adrianna hauled along side and commenced 
to take aboard her bow anchors, shot, shell, etc., and having light- 
ened the ship thus, took out astern, her bow anchors of the Wyo- 
ming, and at six p. m., August 2, got this gunboat afloat and towed 
lier into Petaluna Bay, a snug harbor where the transfer of stoves, 
shot and shell was made. On the evening of August 4, both ves- 
sels went to sea, the Adrianna in tow of the Wyoming. ^lurray 
chose to retain the Adrianna for he was apprehensive of distress 
from leaks in the Wyoming's bottom, and this he did until 9 a. m., 
August 7, when the Wyoming discharged the Adrianna. Thus 
from July 31 to August 7, did the Adrianna, interrupting her voy- 
age stand by the ^\'yoming and save her from a very imminent 


,-J> y 

'{■>•: :': ..,. 



After such an eventful life of crulsirg the globe, he entered the 
employ of Portland, ^It. Desert & Alachias S. S. Co., running from 
Portland to Bar Harbor and down the coast where on board his 
steamers, Frank Jones and City of Riclimond, he entertained many 
notables during the summer season among them being General 
Sherman, who made the never forgotten remark, — "War Is Hell" ; 
also the late Bishop Doane of Albany, N. Y., and many others. 

Captain Dennison's son, Captain Alexander Crossman Dcnnison, 
who died in 1916, was equally as well known, and as successful a 
sea captain as his distinguished father. As it was through his good 
judgment that the Steamship Bay State of the E. S. S. Corp., 
remained afloat many years after the S. S. Portland of the same 
line was lost. The result is now a matter of Marine historv as the 
Portland was lost with every soul on board. 

If he had lived he would have left as brave a record as his father 
did at Fort Fisher. He would have g^iven his life for his countrv 
as in February 1916 he was offered a commission in the U. S. navy 
but was too ill to accept. A family of four generations in the 
Maritime service — and a father and son who never met any serious 
accident in their whole career, whose brave lives will be sacred 
memories to the coming generation of seafaring men of Maine. 


This Department is open to con- Conducted by Augustus O. 
tributions from all teachers and Thomas, State Superintendent of 
pupils. Schools, Augusta, Me. 


(Bertram E. Packard) 

In all the great field of human history there is no part more 
fascinating or more interesting than a study of local history. And 
in these days, when we are placing so much emphasis upon the 
correct teaching of our history as a nation and are striving to our 
utmost to engender in the minds of our pupils a feeling of civic 
pride and patriotism, it is of especial importance that we emphasize 
the teaching of local history in our schools. For in no surer way 
can we inculcate those principles of patriotism than by such teach- 
ing. Love and knowledge of the locality of one's birth goes far 
toward love of state and nation, which must be the foundation for 
a patriotism that will in any way be permanent and enduring. The 
teaching of local history may also be made the means of develop- 
ing in the minds of our pupils what may be termed as a "historical 
sense" ; that is, by teaching a pupil to go to the original sources 
for his information, and to distinguish in his study between the 
true and the false, that he may learn not to accept hearsay evidence 
and come to understand that history, to be of real value, must be 
the truth, absolute and impartial. 

In our study of history we have far too much taken for granted 
historical facts as set forth by the writers of history, without an 
understanding or an application of the background of those facts, 
and without viewing them in the proper perspective; for example, 
for many years the facts covering the American Revolution were 
not properly set forth in the textbooks of history. For two or 
three generations we were taught to believe that it was practically 
the unanimous desire of England to harass and oppress her Amer- 
ican Colonies. We find, upon investigation, that this was untrue; 
that it rather was the policy of a small group of statesmen under 
the leadership of a tyrannical king. A large number of liberal and 
constructive statesmen did not sympathize with this policy, and the 


simple facts of the case are, that finally England wearied of the 
war and really allowed the Colonies to win their independence. 
As a result of this teaching many of our people grew to dislike 
England, instead of realizing that we were really one people of 
the same blood, the same traditions and the same ideals. Much 
the same condition existed in regard to the Civil War, and it is 
only at the present time that we are beginning to understand clearly 
and without prejudice the real facts leading up to that fratricidal 
struggle. Fifty years hence we can possibly comprehend more 
clearly the mass of facts and details covering the great World War. 

We should most certainly place due emphasis upon the facts of 
history as such, but we should go further and secure as far as 
possible an tmderstanding of the related circumstances and view 
the entire field with clear and impartial perspective. 

The field for the study of our local Elaine history is unlimited 
in its scope. A study of our growth and development from colonial 
times is most valuable and interesting, and much authentic material 
is available for this study. While excellent work has been accom- 
plished in some localities, yet I feel sure that on the whole this 
study has been sadly neglected. Xot to any measurable extent is 
this necessarily the fault of the teacher. It is simply for the rea- 
son that the subject has not been sufficiently brought to her atten- 
tion and because, in the busy round of her everyday duties, she 
has not gotten around to it and has not really understood how to 
go about such a study. 

W^e will suppose, however, that as a regular part of our history 
work, we are making a more or less formal study of the history 
of Maine as a state, and that for this purpose we are using the 
various books and compilations which have been prepared by reli- 
able writers from authentic sources. As particularly valuable for 
material, I might suggest the following: Wilhamson's "History of 
Maine" (nothing is better down to the year 1820), Dunnack's 
"The :\Iaine Book," Starkey's "History of Maine," Hatch's "His- 
tory of Maine," "Maine, :\Iy State," the collection of the Maine 
Historical Society, and Sprague's "Journal of Elaine History " 

I wish also to mention a particularly valuable and timely little 
pamphlet prepared by Dr. Augustus O. Thomas, State Superin- 
tendent of Schools, during our centennial year, entitled "One Hun- 
dred Years of Statehood." This pamphlet is filled with valuable 


suggestions and outlines for the teaching of local history and should 
be in the hands of every teacher in our schools. 

But what I wish to especially emphasize at this time is a closer 
study of the town or community in which we may live. While 
the history of many ^^laine towns has been written, yet for the 
majority of them very little is known concerning their history. 
Of course, those living in towns having a published history will 
make a careful study of that work and they are nearly all very 
reliable and authentic. In the main, the writers have gone to the 
sources for their information and we have some exceptionally val- 
uable town histories. But whether there is a published history or 
not, it is a most interesting and valuable project, both from the 
civic and historical standpoints and from the standpoint of the study 
of English itself as well, to have your pupils prepare and write a 
history of the town. It js not a difficult or impossible task. Under 
the proper guidance and direction of the teacher, they can do it 
well. An inexpensive notebook will serve the purpose, or the 
pupils may make their own books, designing and illustrating them 
according to their ov.n original ideas. Be sure, however, to have 
a sufticienl number of pages. In some instances, these histories 
ha\e been considered sufficiently valuable to be published. 

Have the pupils first make a map of the town, marking the 
boundaries, lakes, rivers, streams, hills, mountains and other physi- 
cal characteristics. Have them locate and make the principal set- 
tlements, make a careful study of the soil, minerals and natural 
resources of the town. A study should be made of the sources 
from which the first settlers secured their title to the land. Find 
out if it was included in some of the larger grants of colonial days; 
e. g., the Kennebec Purchase, the Waldo Patent, the Temple Grant, 
"The Twenty Associates" or other well known grants. 

Ascertain the causes actuating the settlement and from where 
the early settlers came, their nationality, occupation, etc. ]\Iake 
a thorough study of these early settlers and find out if any of their 
descendants are still living in the town. If so, go to see them. There 
may be valuable sources of material in the form of old letters, 
deeds, books, newspapers, pictures, etc. They will be more than 
glad to assist in every way possible. Visit and interview old inhab- 
itants and find out all that has come down by tradition. Have the 
pupils carefully study the industries of the town and their develop- 


ment, also the stores, banks, etc. Study thoroughly the develop- 
ment of schools and churches, and also trace the history of various 
local organizations as the Grange, ]\Iasons, G. A. R., Odd Fellows, 
etc. Write biographical sketches of well known people of the town, 
both of an earlier day and the present. Every town has its famous 
persons. A most fascinating part of this study is the old houses 
of the town. Find out when thev were built arid bv whom. Studv 
their style of architecture and any old furniture they may contain. 
Illustrate all this work of local history by photographs and snap- 
shots. Especially secure pictures of the old houses. Fire takes 
each year its toll of these old colonial wooden houses ; for example, 
the Mustard Tavern, a building replete with historical material, 
located on the old Post Road from Gardiner to Brunswick, was 
destroyed by lire a year ago. I doubt if it was ever used as such, 
but to the pupils of that locality it would have furnished a wealth 
of valuable source material. Have the pupils arrange their ma- 
terial in an attractive and svstematic manner. Thev should have 
chapters and an index. 

The field for this work is unlimited. Everyone will be inter- 
ested to help. The local newspapers will be glad to make use of 
such material when carefully prepared and edited. Sprague's Jour- 
nal has a section set apart for this very purpose. Send me any 
material you can gather and I will use all that it is possible to use. 

The teachers should see to it that the pupils learn to discriminate 
and distinguish between that historical information which is accu- 
rate and authentic and that which is unreliable and consequently 
cannot be considered as good history-. Herein is a most valuable 
study for the pupil to distinguish between the false and the true. 

And the study of local history from the sources! Here it is, at 
first hand, much of it new and unused. Every town is rich in 
sources and all the foregoing suggestions are put forth with the 
underlying idea of studying from the sources — old deeds, old rec- 
ords, old letters, old books, old pictures, old furniture, old houses, 
and old inhabitants, the town records and reports, that are simply 
suggestions of where to go for original and valuable information. 

The securing of material from the sources may be well illustrated 
in this manner. The early records and local authorities had always 
stated that Dr. Silvester Gardiner had erected a gristmill and a 
sawmill prior to 1760 in old Pownalborough, now known as Dres- 


den. A small stream is located there and ruins of an old dam ma}' 
be seen. For all practical purposes this had been accepted as 
historical fact. Last summer, however, the writer discovered pho- 
tographs of these old mills, taken prior to i860. Here, then, was 
the source information, the actual proof that those mills at one 
time existed. If a pupil is taught to substantiate his facts by this 
kind of source material, he will have learned a valuable lesson in 
his studv of historv. 

From this rather rambling discussion of the study of local his- 
tor\', I hope some teachers may gain the desire to take up such a 
study in their schools. I wish that the subject might be studied 
in every school in Elaine. For, believe me. such a study is valuable 
and its results are far reaching. Teach a child to know and love 
the place of his birth and you have gone far toward laying the 
foundation that will result in making him a loyal, patriotic, Amer- 
ican citizen. 

\\'e are publishing in this issue of the ''^onrndX' a history of 
AIcKinley and Town of Tremont on Blount Desert Island, written 
by two pupils of the ^^IcKinley grammar school. It well illustrates 
what may be done by a study of our local history in the schools. 

From time to time we hope to publish such material as this in 
this magazine. It will be appreciated by the "Joi-^rnal" if all such 
material be forwarded to the State Educational Department. 



James, Stephen and lliomas Richardson, together with their 
wives, all three sisters by the name of Gott, came to Mount Desert 
Island in the year 1762. 

James Richardson settled at Somesville and his son, George 
Richardson, was the first white child born on :^Iount Desert Island 
in the year of 1763, August i6th. 

Stephen Richardson, a brother of James, one of the earliest set- 
tlers on Blount Desert Island, was of Scottish descent. His father 
came from Londonbury, Ireland, to Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 

the vear of 1738. 

Stephen settled at what is now Crockett's Point on the western 
side of Bass Harbor. It was in his house that the first plantation 

••* ■ 


meeting was held. He represented the plantation in ^lassachusetts 
General Court, and as a member of the first board of selectmen 
of Blount Desert. 

Daniel Gott, a brother-in-law of Stephen Richardson, settled near 
Stephen and lived there until 1789, when he obtained a deed of 
two islands which lay off Bass Harbor Head. He moved to the 
larger island which was afterward named for him, Gott's Island, 
and lived there until his death, June 7th, 18 16. His descendants 
are still living on the island. 

Thomas Richardson and family settled on the eastern side of 
Bass Harbor, now ]\IcKinlev. Thev lived in a little \o^ cabin 
which was located near what is now H. P. Richardson's store. 
In November their cabin was burned and they went to live with 
their brother-in-law, Daniel Gott, on Gott's Island that winter. In 
]\Iay, with the help of Daniel Gott, Thomas Richardson built an- 
other log cabin near the site of the first. 

The first school house in ]\IcKinley was built near the store that 
was burned, formerly owned by Lewis Gott. The second school 
house was built where now stands the house owned by Hollis Reed. 
The third school house was built on the site of the present. The 
first town hall was built over the school house. 

Thomas Richardson owned the first store in ^NIcKinley, located 
opposite H. P. Richardson's store of today. The next store was 
owned bv Moses Richardson. This store was burned and he built 
another near the site of the first. The fourth Richardson store 
was owned bv P. \V. Richardson. ^Nlr. Richardson taking an active 
part in politics named the post office McKinley for President ^Ic- 

The town of Tremont was incorporated June 4, 1848. The pres- 
ent town of Southwest Harbor was once a part of Tremont but 
was separated in 1905. It was also once known by the name of 

. Manset. 

Thomas Richardson, Jr., built a log cabin where Mrs. P. W. 
Richardson now lives. Closes Richardson also lived there. Closes 
Richardson built on the same site and although the house still 
stands it has been remodelled. 

The first sheriff was William Heath. George Butler, the Flies. 
the Nutters and the Wentworths were the first to settle at West 

■ . • . I 


The Christian Endeavor Society was formed at Tremont in 1903. 
The William Underwood factory was built in 1889. I^ ^91 5 the 
greater part of the old factory was torn down and a larger and 
more modern building was erected on the same site. The Cold 
Storage was built in 1912. The first telephone was installed in 
P. W. Richardson's store. The first electric lights were in the 
Underwood factory. 

Although ]\IcKinley has not grown from a log cabin settlement 
to a rushing commercial town, our ancestors would be rather sur- 
prised could they see their descendants moving about in their nice 
homes equipped with many of the modern conveniences, enjoying 
the benefit of electrically lighted streets and the privileges of auto- 
mobile service, leading busy, happy lives. The natural scenery of 
the town appeals to all visitors and the restful quietude beckons 
them to come again. 

Written by Clara Gott and Harriet Black, ^IcKinley grammar 


(By Maud Moore) 

The School-Teacher is the 

nly tax-supported person in the 

U nited States, whose whole business it is to 
R ender improbable 

A narchy, 

M isery of poverty, 

E ducational degeneracy, 

R iots, 

1 lliteracy, immigration difficulties and all other 
C ivic 

A nd social diseases. 

N o laborer 

Is more worthy of his hire! ! 

S ocial conflagrations prevented by 


— Journal of Education. 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover-Foxcroft, 
Maine, by John Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

- Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index 
and all special issues, $2.00. Single copies of current and previous 
volumes, 50 cents. Late bound volumes, $2.50 each. 

Volumes 1 and 3, not less than $5.00 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 



The Official Bulletin of the National Society of the Sons of the 
American Revolution in its October (1922) number, reporting the 
Maine Society says : 

"The Maine Society secured general recognition of Constitution 
Day and was particularly fortunate in securing the co-operation of 
the superintendent of schools and the newspapers of Portland. The 
latter gave excellent space and the former sent out a general letter 
to the schools requesting recognition and special instruction relative 
to the day and the document. ^Liny special exercises were held. ' 



It has always seemed regrettable to us that writers of American 
history have seemed, in a degree, to overlook the importance of 
emphasizing the fact that the red man and his weird and sad 
story is the actual foundation of all American history. 

Once, when Theodore Roosevelt was President, some western 
statesmen called upon him to confer with them relative to matters 
in their section of the country, which, in some vray, involved the 
rights -of the Indians. The first words of the President's reply 
to them were : "It should ever be remembered that the Indian was 
the first American." 

And English reviewers and men of letters have frequently con- 
tended that Hiawatha, written by Longfellow, one of the world's 
sweetest singers, and one of Maine's most famous sons, was the 
only pure American poem ever penned; basing their thesis upon 
the fact that it contains not a word, not a line or a thought that 
emanated from any vision or ideal of the old world's conception 
of philosophy, of romance or of poetry. 

Therefore the Journal heartily endorses the editorial remarks 
recently appearing in the Bangor Daily News, as follows : "A plea 
to have Indian folk lore and philosophy incorporated in American 
history has been made by Ralph Hubbard, son of the famous '*Fra." 

"Mr. Hubbard complains that everything else is copied from 
other lands and holds that 'the only truly characteristic feature 
of this country's history is treated with comparative indifference.* 

"There is much reason in what he says. The story of America 
is too generally considered to have begim with its occupation by 
European races and as written is too exclusively concerned with 
the activities of their descendants. Xot enough attention has been 
paid to the history of its native people. 

"The American Indian has been as shabbily treated in the records 
of this country as he has been in most other ways. Yet he is the 
I'eal American. The annals of his people, with their distinctive 
ideas and customs of intelligent tribal life, are full of beauty, 
dignity and interest. Their inclusion in American history will 
enrich it." 

Our esteemed friend and able contributor to the Journal, Nellie 
Woodbury Jordan, in her exceedingly \aluable and interesting 



article, "Suggestions for Teaching Local History," in our last issue. 
remarked that "Freeport contains the old Jameson Tavern, where 
it is said the Act of Separation was signed." 

Some years ago a newspaper story went the rounds of the press 
of Elaine, stating that members of a joint committee from both 
Maine and ^^lassachusetts met at sometime between 1818 and 1820 
at this old tavern, and there placed their signature to some docu- 
ments which finally made ]^Iaine a state. It is said that it came 
from a tradition in the family who lived there and kept the tavern 
at that time. 

About 1919 this matter was thoroughly investigated by some 
of the best research workers in Maine, among them were Judge 
Edgar Crossby Smith, ^Ir. Dunnack, State Librarian, Sam E. 
Conner and others. 

Mr. Conner in the Lczviston Journal magazine of July 17, 1920, 
in a very able review^ of the whole question, citing all of the public 
acts by both states that were passed concerning the separation 
of IMaine from ^Massachusetts, concluded that the storv was onlv 
a m}th. This ended the discussion and closed the contention so 
far as we are aware of. 



This valuable historical brochure is a reprint from Vol. XXI\ . 
of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts. The Grant to Sir 
Francis was made by King George III about 1765, and was not 
finally confirmed until 1769. The talented author of this makes 
an exceedingly entertaining and instructive story of the difficulties 
which the grantee encountered before his title became entirely 

William Otis Sawtelle is a fascinating writer of history as well 
as a most careful and diligent research Vvorker. The Journal ho- 
frequently published contributions from him, and our leading article 
in this issue is from his pen, and we hope the Journal and its readers 
will be fortunate enough to enjoy many more of his productions m 
the near future. 



It is only justice to ^Ir. Sawtelle to say that he is doing a most 
wonderful work in developing the early history of eastern Elaine, 
and especially of the ^It. Desert region, and the people of Elaine 
and all students of Xew England history owe him much for this 


The World \\'ar may be in a degree overshadowing the history 
of the Civil \\'ar. To all of us who had personal knowledge of 
that war, the fact that the brave old veterans who took part in 
it are rapidly disappearing is saddening, but their deeds constitute 
a great and important chaptei* in the history of civilization, which 
will last as long as it shall exist. 

Of the many regimental histories which have been written, none 
is of more value than that of the iQth Regiment and published 
in 1919. Its author is Judge John Day Smith of ^linneapolis, 

Judge Smith is a son of Maine but the west adopted him and 
he has remained there for many years. Judge Smith is a man 
of ability and culture and a well known historical writer. 

The Journal was recently delighted to receive from him a copy 
of this valuable book. It contains 365 pages with illustrations, 
and we extend the donor our heartv thanks. 

\ ''The Saunterer" in the Portland Telegram s?y5 : — 

The 73d birthday anniversary of a distinguished daughter of 
Maine, Sarah Orne Jewett, fell on Sunday, September 3. She 
was born in South Berwick, Sept. 3, 1849, the daughter of Mr. 
Theodore H. Jewett, a leading physician of that time. Her early 
education was obtained at home and at South Berwick Academy. 
She began her career as an author when a mere girl by con- 
I tributing to Our Young Folks and the Riverside ^lagazine. At 

the age of 19 she sent a story to the Atlantic ^lonthly, which 
was published and brought her a letter of conjjratulation from 
the editor. From that time hardly a year passed without bring- 

■•:?-■■ .!■ 

I. ■ . 


ing from the press a volume from her pen. The monetary re- 
turns from her writings became large and enabled her to travel 
extensively in this Country and in Europe. After the death of 
her father she passed the winters in Boston and the summers in 
South Berwick. ^Miss Jewett's stories are noted for their vivid 
local coloring and their accurate delineation of various phases of 
New England life. When she began to write she adopted the 
pen name of Alice Eliot, but after the publication of ''Country 
Byways" in 1881 her own name appeared on the title pages of her 
books. Some of her principal works are "Deephaven", "A Country 
Doctor", "A IMarsh Island", ''Tales of New England", and "The 
Country of the Pointed Firs". In 1901 Bowdoin College conferred 
upon her the degree of Doctor of Letters, she being the first 
woman thus honored by the college. Since then this degree has 
been conferred by Bowdoin upon Mrs. Kate Douglas Wiggin. 
Miss Jewett had an attractive face and a pleasing personality. 
She died at South Berwick, June 24, 1909, in her 60th year. 


-William Penn Whitehouse, former chief justice of the Maine 
supreme court, died at his home in Augusta, Oct. 10, 1922, aged 
80 years. He. had been ill for a short time only. 

He was born in Vassalboro, Maine, April 9, 1842, the son of 
John Roberts and Hannah (Percival) Whitehouse. At Waterville 
college (now Colby), he received the A. B. degree in 1863 and the 
A. M. in 1866. In 1896 he received the LL.D. degree at Colby and 
at Bowdoin college in 1912. He married Evelyn M., daughter of 
Colonel Robert Treat of Frankfort, Maine, June 24, 1869, who 
with one son, Robert Treat Whitehouse, survives. 

Judge Whitehouse was admitted to the bar in 1865 ; was city 
solicitor, Augusta, four years ; county attorney 1869 to 1876 ; judge 
of the Kennebec superior court 1878 to 1890; associate justice of 
the supreme judicial court of Maine 1890 to 191 1, chief justice, 
July 26, 191 1 to April 9, 1913, retired under age limit law. 

He was elected president of the Maine league for national de- 
fense, Oct. I, 1915. In 191 7 he was named head of the Maine 
conference of Unitarian churches. 






(From the Portsmouth (N. H.) Times. Oct. 23. 1922) 

Faithfully Gathering ^Maine History 

Spragiies Journal Grows in Value With Each Number 

The leading article in the current number of Sprague's Journal 
of Maine History (Vol. X, No. 3) is by George C. Wing. Jr., of 
Auburn, Me., entitled "Mount Ktaadn, Sometimes Mount Katah- 
din,'' which is a splendid story of an excursion to that frightfully 
ragged peak in August, 192 1. The article is more than a sketch, 
it has the essentials of the history of the mountain, and is excel- 
lently illustrated. 

Hon. John C. Stewart of York continues his valuable biographical 
sketches of natives of Maine who have served in Congress. Forty- 
five names are added in this number, reacliing K in the alphabet. 

Everyone in Maine ought to read Nellie Woodbury Jordan's 
article on "Suggestions for Teaching Local History." It is espe- 
cially for teachers, but must be an inspiration to residents of Maine 

There are several shorter articles and sketches, and poems, one, 
"The Crowning Jewel," by W. S. McKee of Augusta, and another, 
"O Men of Maine !" by Justin Henry Shaw of Kittery. 

There is nothing published on Maine historical matters that can 
just take the place of Sprague's Journal of Maine History. 

The January number will have a special article on the late Hon. 
Horace Mitchell of Kittery Point. 


(From the Camden (Maine) Herald) 

We hardly know what Maine would do should anything happen 
to remove from these earthly scenes our old friend, Hon. John 
Francis Sprague of Dover- Foxcro ft, publisher of Sprague's Journal 
of Maine History, of which No. 3 of Vol. 10, has recently come 
to our desk. As a purveyor of historical facts about Maine it is 



a most valuable instrument. It is also a teacher of patriotism to 
the vouth of ]Maine, all of whom should read it. Its various issues 
are both interesting and entertaining, as literary productions and 
it does not deteriorate with age, but, like wine (an article now 
obsolete) grows richer with passing time. Someone else might, 
perhaps, carry it along as well as Brother Sprague, but it was his 
idea and is a child of his brain. ]^Iay he live long to keep it going. 


Hon. \\'m. V. Phillips, Orrington, ^Nlaine : " 'Sprague's Journal of 
Maine History' is a fine publication and I enjoy every word of it.*' 

^linnie Atkinson, 97 State St., Newburyport, Mass., author of 
"History of Grand Lake Stream Plantation" : "I have read with 
C^reat interest the Katahdin number, and have also read of two other 
interesting ascents of the mountain that were not mentioned by ]Mr. 
Wing. Possibly they are well known and were purposely omitted, 
but lest thev were overlooked I am £:oin2^ to remind vou of them. 
The first was an ascent made by a party, led by the minister, from 
the first church of Portsmouth. When a few vears asro the church 
records were overhauled this record came to light. x\s near as I 
can remeniber it took place in the latter part of the iSth century. 
An article in some paper which I read described the finding of the 
record .and also gave an account of the ascent which, it was claimed. 
was the first ever made. I regret that I did not save the article 
so I could give you accurate information, but I suppose the matter 
could be easily looked up if it seemed important." 

**In reading something about Thomas Wentworth Higginson I 
noticed that he had conducted a party from his Worcester parish 
up Mount Katahdin in 1855, and that the account was published 
in Putnam's Magazine. Last spring happening to have an hour or 
two of time to kill in Boston, I went out to the public library and 
looked up this article. It is very interesting, unsigned and pur- 
ports to have been written by one of the ladies of the party. I 
think it appears in the July, 1856, number. We happen to have 
an old register of the ^lolunkus House. I was interested to look 


back to this date and there I found under the date of Wednesday, 
Sept. 5, 1855, the names of the party, with T. W. Higginson 
last on the Hst, bracketted together and marked 'for Katahdin.' 
Should it be of any interest I could send a copy of these names. 
Save in two instances the last names only are given." 

''The ^lolunkus House, as you doubtless recall was visited by 
Thoreau when he made his memorable trip to Katahdin." 

K. A. Smalley, Superintendent of Public Schools, Vinalhaven, 
jMaine : "I was very much interested in the article Vv'ritten by 
Nellie Woodbury Jordan entitled "Suggestions for Teaching Local 
History" and published in Xo. 3 of A'olume 10 of the Journal. 

"We have already several of the books mentioned in her bibli- 
ography and there are several others we would like to add to our 
collectioTi I am sending a list of the titles in which I am inter- 
ested and asking if you will inform me where they are published." 
"History of 3.1aine (John S. C. Abbott) 
History. of Alaine (Williamson) 
A History of Elaine (L. C. Hatch) 
History of the District of Elaine (Sullivan) 
Twenty Years at Pemaquid (J. Henry Cartland) 
The Story of Pemaquid (James Otis) 
Beginnings of Colonial JMaine (H. L. Burrage) 
Good Old Times (Elijah Kellogg) 
Town and County Histories." 

The above named books can probably aU be obtained at the book 
establishment of A. J. Huston. 192 Exchcln^■c St., Portland. (Editor.) 

Rev. Anson Titus, lo Raymond Ave., West Somerville, Mass., 
Sept. 20, 1922 : "Dear Mr. Sprague : I have been reading your 
article regarding the new town of Dover-Foxcroft in the Lczviston 
Journal ^lagazine of last Saturday, and enjoyed the same very 
much. Am glad the name Foxcroft was not cut out, nor cast to 
> the void, in the discussions of recent vears. I have further notes 

concerning Colonel Foxcroft, which I have not published. It was 
my long ago ambition to prepare a history of New Gloucester, but 
the citizens of the town never manifested the needful interest, and 
while I have written many chapters of interest, there is much more 
to do, and I am too old to undertake it." 



"As you may know I possess the diary of Colonel Foxcroft when 
he took his first jaunt into your region. I mean I have same diary 
during his journey of August and until Sept. 6, 1801, when it 
breaks off. I infer from one of your paragraphs that you had 
access to a diarv in 1800. I did not know but this was an error 
by one year, and that possibly might be the conclusion of the jour- 
ney, which I possess. It was evidently his personal diary." 

"I have an autograph letter, a general report of the surveyors m 
1800, before the grant was given. I have also the Colonel's per- 
sonal map, Osgood Carton's, and I think it the first edition, 1795 
or 96." 

"I send under another cover two copies of Portland Argus ] one 
with my copy of the Hallowell will, in Boston; and early marriages 
in Andover, Maine. It might be well to publish same in your 

"My old friend Col. Porter* prepared and published for a long 
time the Historical Department of the Bangor Commercial. I have 
been told that the only extant copy was burned with the Public 
Library of Bangor, a few years since, which I am loth to believe. 
I wish a copy of this entire set could be in some library in Boston. 
I have often wished to consult the same. Mr. Porter as you may 
know was a Braintree-Weymouth, ^lass., man, and was frequently 
at his old home there. I was pastor in Weymouth, 1878 and on- 
ward for several years, and one of the organizers of the Weymouth 
Historical Societv." 

In the last issue of the Journal, page 149, Frank E. Guernsey's 
service in Congress was through inadvertence inaccurately stated. 
He was first elected to the Sixtieth Congress and was successively 
re-elected to the Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, and Sixty- 
fourth Congresses of the United States, serving from December, 
1908, to March 4, 1917. 

• Reff^rs to tho late Col. Joseph W. Porter, editor and publisher of the ! 

Bangor Historical Magazine. f 




Abalajackomegus River 120 

AbbLville 191 

Abbott. Jacob 170 

John 170 

John S. C. 171 

Nehemiah, biography of 85 

Thomas 24 

Abenakis 16 

Aben^Quis or Abenikis, 
Ti ibes of Indians 


Abuol jokoniogassic 


A Canadian Lig'htning 
The 'Tory" S^ u!es 

*'A Country Doctor" 

Acquaviva, Very Keverenvl Father 
Claude, Genejal of the Jesuits 183 

Act of ►Separation, the 238 

Adams, James Truslow 180 

Adams 65 

John 165-168 

Addendum, to Biogrraphical Sketches 
of Natives of Maine Who Have 
Served in the Congress of the 


8, 9. 179. 180 


United States 
Adrianna, the American 

Advent doctrine 

Advents admitted that mediums 

were controlled by spirits 
Ag"amenticus Water Co. 
Aix-la-Chapelle, treaty of 
Akers. Benjamin Paul 

Albion Howe School of Standish 
Alexander, the Alva Stanwood. 

biogrraphy of 
Alfred, Maine 
Allan, Col. John 
Allen, Amos Lawrence, biog. of 

Elizabeth Akers 

Elisha Hunt moved to Boston 

Charles D. 


I. G. 




Lorenzo W. 

Osborne T. 

Elisha Hunt, a 
from Maine 
"A Marsh Island" 
Amboctictus lake 

French and Eng-lish 

Human slavery in 

Scotch-Irish settlers 
American citizen 



226, 227 























182. 190, 191 

in 8 


in 70 


15. 59. 229. 230 

Historical Association at 

Chicago 61 
Historians 180 
History 237 
History in the Schools 43 
Indian, the 237 
Nation 60 
Text Books 43 
Traditions 62 
Americanism 62 
Americanization 42 
America, North and South, impor- 
tance of its history 69 
American Navy, prizes taken by 225 
lievolution 229 
American Revolution, 

Daughters of 156 
Sons of 156 
the only real son of 154 
Ames, Adelbert, biography of 86 
Amiens 184 
Anasagunticook Indians 16 
Sagainores 7 
Anderson, Hugh Johnston, biog- 
raphy of 87 
John, biography of 87 
John, Republican (Democrat) 209 
Samuel J. 48 
Andover, Maine 243 
Press 220 
Andrews, Charles, biography of 87 
Leonard 48 
Androscoggin river 7 
Androscoggins 8 
wont to kill captives 7 
Andros. Governor Edmond. of 

New York . 7 
Anglo-Saxon, Contest in North 

America 59 

Anson, Maine 200 

Antrim 30 

Apollo 183 
Appleton, John, a Representative 

from Maine 199 
A Real Son of the American Rev- 

olution in Maine 
Argall's attack on 

Army of the Potomac 
Army or Navy of the U. S. 

ter of an officer of 
Arnold, Benedict 

Expedition to Canada 

Arruawickuabruit, a captive 

ridgewock sachem 
Ascen.«ion robes 
Assistant Secretary of State 

Appleton, John 

Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, 1858 

Asticoris subjects 

Atkinson, Minnie, of Newburyport, 
Town of 


180, 189. 190 

Saint Sauveur 189 






68, 204